Kōrero: Winter, Frank David

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Winter, Frank David

1906–1976

Nō Ngāi Tahu; he kaiārahi, he kaimahi kāwanatanga, he tangata whakahaere uniana, he kaituwhena tōrangapū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Janet Winter,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 2000.

I whānau a Frank David Winter ki Waipukurau i te 5 o Hānuere o te tau 1906 (i rēhitatia kētia tōna īngoa ko Francis David Charles), ko ia nei te tamaiti mātāmua a Caroline Blanche Thomas rāua ko tana tāne, ko David Horatio Winter, he kaiwhakairi aho kawe waea tana mahi. I noho tōna tāua, a Raiha Tāmati (ko Eliza Thomas tōna īngoa Pākehā) ki Rakiura (Stewart Island), ā, he uri ia nō Ngāti Irakehu, he hapū nō Ngāi Tahu (Kāi Tahu rānei). I whānau mai ngā mātua o Frank ki Ōtākou, ā, i mua tata o tōna whānautanga mai ka hūnuku atu rāua ki Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke’s Bay). Nō te ekenga o tōna pakeke ki te tekau mā toru, ka mate tōna pāpā, ka haere tōna māmā ki te mahi, noho ai hei tumuaki poutāpeta i Mōhaka, ā, i muri iho i Awapuni (Clive). I ngā tau o muri mai i noho ia i te kāinga o Frank me tana whānau i Tūranga (Gisborne), ā, i Pōneke (Wellington) hoki.

I kuraina a Frank Winter ki te Kāreti o Te Aute, ā, ko ia te tauira mātau ake o ngā tauira katoa o te tau 1922. I tīmata ia ki te whai i te mātauranga ture i te kāreti o te whare wānanga o Wikitōria (Victoria University College), ēngari i wehe kē atu ia i mua i te otinga o tana tohu mātauranga. Nō te tau 1924, i uru atu ia ki te Tari Māori (Native Department) hei kaimahi tauira, ka noho e iwa tau ia e mahi ana i te tari ā-takiwā i Pōneke e pā ana ki te rohe o Ikaroa me Te Wai Pounamu. I ēnei tau nei, ka tīmata tana tiro haere i ngā kōrero mō Ngāi Tahu me ā rātau kerēme, ā, mau tonu tana tiro ā pau noa ōna rā. Kāti, e hia kē hoki ngā hāora takakau i pau i a ia ki te rangahau i ngā pūranga kōrero a te kāwanatanga. I a rāua ko Hōne (John) Te Herekiekie Grace e karaka pūhou tonu ana i te Tari Māori, i taiāwhio rāua i Te Wai Pounamu me tētahi rōpū he tirotiro nei tā rātau i te kerēme a Ngāi Tahu.

Nō te 10 o Hune i te tau 1931 i Pōneke, i moe a Frank Winter i a Perle Hera Rakapa Taiaroa. Ko tēnei wahine tētahi o ngā Māori tuatahi i puta i ngā whakamātautau hei nēhi mahi niho. I whānau mai a Perle i Ōtākou, ā, nō Ngāi Tahu mai anō hoki ia. Nō mua atu i noho ngātahi ōna pōua, a H. K. Taiaroa rāua ko Tame Parata, hei mema mō te Whare Pāremata me Te Kaunihera Ture (Legislative Council). Nā te mea i herea ia ki āna mahi tiaki niho, i mahi ia ki Nū Pāremata (New Plymouth) i ngā tau atu i 1928 ki 1931, ā, kātahi anō ia ka āhei ki te moe i a Frank e rima tau kē nei rāua e whakaipoipo ana. Ka roa, ka whānau mai ā rāua tamariki, tokotoru ngā tamāhine, tokotoru ngā tama tāne (ēngari i mate kōhungahunga tonu tētahi o ngā mea tāne). Tino kaha te whakapono o Perle rāua ko Frank, ko te mātauranga te huarahi ā muri atu nei, ā, i tino ngākau nui anō hoki rāua tahi ki ngā take me ngā kōrero tuku iho a Ngāi Tahu. I a ia e tamariki tonu ana i whakaakona a Perle ki te whakapapa, ā, e hia tau kē hoki ia e āwhina ana i a Frank ki te hopu me te tuhi hoki i ngā kōrero a Ngāi Tahu. I ngā tau o muri mai, i eke a Perle ki te tūranga o te tumuaki tuarua mō te pekanga i Pōneke o te rōpū wāhine mō Te Moananui-a-Kiwa me Āhia Paeroa (Pan-Pacific and South-East Asian Women’s Association). He mea whakatū anō hoki a ia hei tumuaki mō te pekanga ki Pōneke o te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora (Māori Women’s Welfare League), ā, hei tumuaki tuarua, kaitiaki pūtea atu hoki mō te kaunihera ā-rohe o te rōpū nei ki Pōneke.

Nō te tau 1933, i whakawhiti atu a Frank Winter ki te tari ā-rohe o te Tari Māori i Tūranga, hei karaka matua rā i te Kōti Whenua Māori mō te rima tau, ā, i muri mai, ka noho hei āpiha whakatōpū whenua Māori. I ngā tau o te Pakanga Tuarua, e toru kē āna whakamātautau ki te uru atu ki roto i te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion), ā, tino kino kē tōna pāpōuri he kore e taea e ia te uru atu, he mate tinana te take. Kāti noho kē ana ia hei kaiwhakaako i te puni Māori a te taua tautiaki i te toi whenua (Home Guard) i Wharekahika (Hicks Bay).

Ā pau noa ōna rā, i ngākaunuitia e Frank Winter te tika o te noho pāpori me ngā tikanga a ngā kaimahi. Ko ia tētahi o ngā tāngata hihiri i uru wawe atu ki te Rōpū Reipa o Aotearoa, ā, taihoa ake i kaha tana hāpai i te rōpū nei. Nō te tau 1926 i whakatūria a ia hei māngai ā-tari mō te komiti ā-rohe o Pōneke o te rōpū mō ngā kaimahi kāwanatanga o Aotearoa (New Zealand Public Service Association), arā, te PSA. Nō tana whakawhitinga atu ki Tūranga, i noho anō ia hei māngai ā-tari, ā, nō muri mai, hei hēkeretari mā te pekanga ki Tūranga o te rōpū nei. Nō te tau 1947 i whakahokia ake e ia tōna whānau (me tōna māmā) ki Pōneke, ka noho mai nei ia hei hēkeretari whānui tuarua mā te PSA. Otirā, nō te tau 1961, i eke ia ki te tūranga o te hēkeretari kaiāwhina whānui, tae noa ki te tau 1964 tana roa i taua mahi. He tangata kaha ia ki te hāpai i ngā take e pā ana ki te penihana a te kāwanatanga, ki te tuku utu ki ngā wāhine whānau tamariki, me te whakapai ake i ngā āhua o te mahi. Nō muri tonu i tana whakatānga mai i te rōpū mō ngā kaimahi kāwanatanga, ka noho ia hei hēkeretari matua mā te pūtahi o ngā kaiwhakahoahoa o Aotearoa (New Zealand Institute of Architects).

Heoi anō, ko te tino mahi tūmatanui āna, ko tana noho hei heamana mō te Poari Kaitiaki Māori o Ngāi Tahu (Ngāi Tahu Māori Trust Board) mō te rua tekau tau, arā, atu i te tau 1956 ki 1976. I te pōtitanga i a ia hei tiamana, ko ia nei te kanohi mō Ngāi Tahu i te rohe o Te Ika-a-Māui, kitea ake ana te tino mate o te poari i te hē o ngā whakahaere o mua. I te mutunga o te tirotirohanga ake, ka rihaina te hēkeretari a te poari; nō muri iho i whakaritea he kaikaute tohunga kē hei hēkeretari mā te poari. Noho ana ko ia me te poari hei tirotiro i te katoa ake o ngā tono koha mai, ā, mārō ana te whakatakoto i te kaupapa e kī nei, ko ngā kaiwhai pānga anake o te rōpū tautiaki te hunga ka whakawhiwhia ki ngā hua moni a te poari. Whakamārōtia ake anō hoki e ia ngā ture e pā ana ki te pūtea tārewa me te mōkete mā te tangata. Noho tonu ana ko ia hei whakahaere i ngā whakangao ā-pūtea, pēnei i te hoko whenua me te hoko whare, ā, ka roa, ka whakawhitia e ia ētahi whenua ki tētahi rōpū tautiaki, rōpū aroha (kāore nei e utu tāke) hei whakaū i te mātauranga. He mea akiaki hoki e ia te āta whakaiti haere atu i te whai wāhi mai o te kāwanatanga ki ngā mahi a te poari, ka riro nei i a ia te whakahaere o te mahi nei. E hia kē āna kōkiritanga i ngā take a Ngāi Tahu ki ngā tari kāwanatanga, me ngā rōpū aha atu hoki.

I te takiwā o te tekau tau atu i 1960, i ara ake anō te nanunanu o Ngāi Tahu ki te whakataunga o tā rātau kerēme i te tau 1944. Tērā anō ētahi atu poari kaitiaki Māori e whakawhiwhia ana ki tētahi moni kāpeneheihana – ia tau, ia tau kē, mō ake tonu atu – ēngari anō a Ngāi Tahu, kua oti kē te whakarite ka eke atu nei ki te tau 1973 ka mutu ai te utu o te moni kāpeneheihana ki a rātou. Nō te tau 1966 me te tau 1969, i tukua atu e Frank Winter āna pitihana ki te Whare Pāremata e tono ana kia mahia mai he ture hei whakarerekē, hei whakanui hoki i te āhua o te Kaitiaki Māori o Ngāi Tahu (Ngāi Tahu Māori Trust). Nō te marama o Hune o te tau 1972, i hui ai te poari me ngā mema Māori tokowhā o te Whare Pāremata ki te mea i a rātou ki te tautoko i te kaupapa nei, ā, nā runga i te āwhina a Matiu Rata rāua ko Philip Amos, ka whakaurua atu ō rātou whakaaro ki roto i te kaupapa pōti a te Rōpū Reipa. Ā, nō taihoa ake anō i taua tau ka noho ko Reipa hei kāwanatanga, i whakaurua atu ai te kaupapa a Frank Winter ki roto i te Ture mō ngā Mea Māori (Māori Purposes Act) o te tau 1973. I te wā ko ia te heamana o te poari, i āwhinatia e Winter te hanganga mai o tētahi whakahaere tino rawe kē nei hei poutoko i ngā whakataunga ā mua ake nei mō te taha ki ngā kerēme a Ngāi Tahu.

Hei mema anō a Winter mō te Poari Kaitiaki o Waitangi mō te Motu (Waitangi National Trust Board), hei heamana hoki mō te Kaporeihana o Akapātiki (Poraka A) (he pāmu Māori nei i te kūiti o Ōtākou); hei mema anō hoki ia mō te Kaporeihana o te Tāone o Mangakino (Mangakino Township Incorporation). E hia tau atu anō hoki ia i te poari kaitiaki o Te Aute, ā, i noho whakaruruhau hoki ia mō te karapu kapa haka o te Whare Wānanga o Te Ūpoko o te Ika (Victoria University), he āwhina, he manaaki nei tana mahi i te tokomaha o ngā tauira Māori i Pōneke.

I te wā i haere ai te tīma toa o Niu Tīreni ki te purei whutupaoro i Āwherika ki te Tonga i te tau 1960, ko Frank Winter tētahi o ngā tino mema (kaitiakimoni ā-motu anō hoki) o te rōpū tangata whenua mō ngā hāereere o te tīma toa o Aotearoa (Citizens’ All Black Tour Association). Koinei te hunga he mea tohe e rātou kia aukatia te haere a te tīma toa, ā, ko tā rātou peha kē nei, ‘Me ka kore he Māori, kua kore e haere’. Ahakoa i neke atu i te 150,000 te nui o ngā tāngata i haina i te pitihana e whakahē ana i te haere, i haere tonu te tīma toa ki Āwherika ki te Tonga. I tipu ngātahi a Winter me ētahi o ngā tino toa purei whutupaoro kāore i whakaarotia mō ngā tīma i haere nei ki Āwherika ki te Tonga, ahakoa te tohunga ki te tākaro, pērā i a Hōri (George) Nēpia. Nō muri mai i tūwiri a Winter ki te īngoa ‘Pākehā hōnore’, he mea tapa nei ngā Māori i haere ki Āwherika ki te Tonga, purei whutupaoro ai mō te tīma toa o Aotearoa i te tau 1970.

He mea whakahī ki a Frank Winter ōna kāwai Pākehā me ōna kāwai Māori, ā, i ngākau nui anō hoki tana taupua ake i tana whenua, i Aotearoa. Pūmau tonu tana kore e whakaae kia whakawhiwhia ia ki tētahi tohu a te Kuini, ēngari e tiro kē ana ki te wā, nōna ake nō Aotearoa tonu ōna momo hōnore. Ko tāna i whakaaroaro ai, kia pakari te tipu o Aotearoa, me whānui te atawhai i te tino rangatiratanga o te Māori. He tangata i tino pūtohe tonu tana kaha mō te iwi Māori me te mana pāpori, ka mutu mai te tangata hiringa, ngahau nui, aroha nui ko ia nei. Ahakoa tāna pāngia e te mate kāore e ora mai, i haere tonu āna mahi mai i tana moenga, tae noa atu ki ngā hāora whakamutunga i mua tonu i tōna matenga atu i tōna kāinga i Pōneke. Nō te 28 o Maehe o te tau 1976 i wehe atu ia, ā, mahue mai ana ko tana wahine, ko Perle (nō te tau 1982 i mate ai), me ā rāua tamariki, tokorua ngā tamāhine, tokorua hoki ngā tama.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Janet Winter. 'Winter, Frank David', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2000. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5w43/winter-frank-david (accessed 14 November 2019)