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Society

by  John Wilson

He tini ngā tāngata o Aotearoa i whānau ki tāwāhi. Nā whai anō he whenua takenga maha a Aotearoa i tēnei te rau tau 2000. I ahu mai ngā manene i Āhia, Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, Ūropi, me kī, ngā pito katoa o te ao. Kua rerekē tēnei whenua mai i te wā ko te Māori me te Pākehā anake ngā tāngata. Heoi, he wāhi nui tonu kei ngā tikanga a te Māori me te Pākehā ki Aotearoa.


The people of New Zealand

Pēhea te rahi o te taupori o Aotearoa?

I te marama o Āperira o te tau 2003, ka eke te taupori o Aotearoa ki te whā miriona, mai i te 2 miriona i te tau 1952 me te toru miriona i te tau 1973. Kei te piki haere tonu, nā te tipu o te iwi kāinga me te tau mai o ngā manene. I te tau ka eke i te marama o Hune i te tau 2004, e 57,890 ngā pēpi i whānau mai.

I te tau 2002, ka piki te taupori mā te e 38,198, nā te nui o ngā manene. Ka rerekē tēnei rahi ia tau: I ngā tau 1999-2000, neke atu i te 20,000 te hekenga o te taupori nā te mea he nui ake te hunga i wehe ki tāwāhi, tērā i te hunga i hōu mai ki Aotearoa.

Te pakeke; te tāne me te wahine

Kei te kaumātua haere te taupori. I te mutunga o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka kaha te piki o te taupori, nā te nui o ngā pēpi me te taetae mai o te hunga manene. I te tau 1971, e 32% o te taupori i raro iho i te 15 tau; kia tae ki te tau 2001, kua heke tēnei ki te e 23%.

He tamariki ake te taupori Māori tērā i te taupori whānui. E 3% anake o te iwi Māori kei runga ake i te 65 tau (e 12% mō te taupori whānui). He pērā anō mō ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, arā, he tamariki ake rātou i te taupori whānui.

He tokomaha ake ngā wāhine i ngā tāne, paku nei. Ka kitea tēnei nui i te hunga ka eke ki te tau e 65. Ko Te Tai Poutini anake te takiwā he rahi ake ngā tāne i ngā wāhine.

Māori

E 14% o te taupori o Aotearoa (e 526,281 i te tau 2001) he Māori. Ko te titiro, ka kake whakarunga tēnei rahi, nā te mea kei te nui ake ngā pēpi Māori kei te whānau mai tērā i ngā pēpi Pākehā, Āhia rānei.

Te kanorau o Aotearoa

E 75% o te taupori he kiritea, nā te mea i mua i tekau tau o 1970, i ahu mai te nuinga o ngā manene i Ūropi. Nō nā tata nei taetae mai ai ngā iwi o ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa me Āhia. Kia tae ki te tau 2001, neke atu i te e 250,000 te rahi o ia o ēnei hapori.

Tokomaha ake ngā tamariki ka whānau mai he rerekē ngā matawaka o tōna whāea me tōna matua. I te tau 2001, 18% o ngā tamariki i raro iho i te 15 tau ehara nō te tōpūtanga iwi kotahi. Neke atu i te haurua o ēnei tamariki he Pākehā, he Māori rānei ō rātou pakeke.

Kei te memeha te taupori Pākehā, nā te tokoiti o ngā pēpi kei te whānau mai, me te kaha ake o ētahi atu iwi ki te whakawhānau tamariki.

Te wāhi ki te Māori

Ko te Māori te tangata whenua o Aotearoa. He wāhi nui ngā tikanga a te Māori ki te tuakiri o Aotearoa. Mārama te kitea o ngā rerekētanga a te Māori me te Pākehā i ngā whakahaere o ia iwi, pērā i te tangihanga.

Nui atu ngā mate ka pā ki te Māori tērā ngā mate ka pā ki ētahi atu iwi. Tōmua

atu te matemate o te Māori, karukaru ake ō rātou kāinga, nui atu te Māori kei te pāngia e ngā mate, ā, kāore hoki te Māori i te puta i te mātauranga. He pērā anō ngā mate ka pā ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Te noho pai a ngā iwi

Tatū rawa ki te pokapū o te rau tau 1900, kei te noho tonu te nuinga o te iwi Māori ki ngā taiwhenua. I waenganui i ngā tau 1951 me 1971 ka kake te taupori Māori noho tāone mai i te 20% ki te 58%. Tae ana ki te tau 2001, kua rite te rahi o te Māori e noho ana ki ngā tāone ki ētahi atu iwi. Nō te tīmatanga o te noho tata a te Pākehā me te Māori, ka whakamātauhia te kōrero mō tēnei motu e mea ana, ‘koinei te whenua pai rawa mō te noho pai a ngā iwi’. I te tau 1971 ka tohungia tētahi kaitakawaenga whakawhanaunga ā-iwi hei tāmi i te whakatoihara iwi.

Ngā iwi o ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

I te tau 2001, haurua o te taupori mai ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ka ahu mai i Hāmoa (231,800); ka whai ko ngā tāngata o ngā Kuki Airani (52,000), whai muri iho ko te iwi o Tonga (40,700). He tokomaha ake ngā tāngata o Rarotonga, o Niue, o Tokelau e noho ana ki Aotearoa tērā i te hunga kāinga e noho rā ki aua moutere.

Neke atu i te haurua o te taupori o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i whānau mai ki Aotearoa. He rangatahi te nuinga, nui rātou kei te noho ki Tāmaki-makau-rau.

Ngā iwi o Āhia

I waenganui i te tau 1991 me te tau 2001, ka huarua te tipu o te taupori Āhia ki Aotearoa. Tae ana ki te tau 2001, e 6.6% o te taupori whānui he Āhia. Ko ngā tāngata mai Haina te tōpūtanga tāngata nui mai Āhia, whai muri ko ērā nō Īnia. Kua roa te noho a ētahi whānau mai ēnei whenua ki Aotearoa.

Noho ai te nuinga (e 66%) o te taupori Āhia ki te tāone nui o Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ka rongo rātou i ngā whakawhiu o te hunga whakahē i te kuhu o te manene ki Aotearoa. He tautohenga tēnei ka hāpaitia e ētahi kaitōrangapū. Heoi, ko te kōrero nui pea, e whakaae ana te hapori whānui o Aotearoa ki te manene.

Ngā reo

Kōrerohia ai te reo Ingarihi e te nuinga o ngā tāngata o Aotearoa. Heoi, nō te whakaoranga o te reo Māori, me te mātotoru o ngā manene ki tēnei motu, i te tau 2001, neke atu i te hāwhe miriona ngā tāngata kei te mōhio ki te kōrero i tētahi reo i tua atu i te reo Ingarihi.

Neke atu i te e 160,000 ngā tāngata kōrero Māori. Kotahi te Māori i roto i te tokowhā kei te kōrero Māori. Kua takoto ngā rautaki e ora ai te reo.

Whai muri i te reo Ingarihi me te reo Māori, ko te reo Hāmoa, e kōrerohia ana e te e 80,000 tāngata. Whai muri ko te reo o Tonga me ngā momo reo o Haina, arā te Cantonese me te Mandarin.


Where New Zealanders live

Kei te raki te nuinga o te iwi

Neke atu i te haurua o te taupori kei te noho ki te raki o Te Ika-a-Māui. Neke atu i te kotahi miriona ngā tāngata e noho ana ki te rohe o Tāmaki. He nui ake te taupori o Tamaki tērā i te taupori o Te Wai Pounamu. Noho ai te e 90% o te iwi Māori ki Te Ika-a-Māui. Tata ki te haurua o te taupori o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa he Māori. Koinei te rohe Māori rawa o ngā rohe puta noa.

Noho ai te kotahi hauwhā o te taupori kei te tonga o Te Ika-a-Māui, ā, kotahi hauwhā e noho ana kei Te Wai Pounamu.

Te Wai Pounamu

Ko Waitaha te rohe nui rawa o Te Wai Pounamu; kō atu i te haurua o te taupori o Te Wai Pounamu e noho ana ki reira. Kei Te Tai Poutini te taupori iti rawa – e 30,000 anake.

Te tāone me te taiwhenua

E 75% o ngā tāngata ka noho ki ngā tāone e 10,000 neke atu rānei te rahi. Haurua o te taupori e noho ana ki ngā tāone nunui e whā, a Tāmaki-makau-rau, a Kirikiriroa, a Te Whanganui-a-Tara, a Ōtautahi (ko Ōtepoti te tāone nui rawa i te rau tau 1800, heoi, kua taka a ia ki raro i ngā tāone kei runga ake nei). Kotahi anake te tangata i roto i te tokowhitu kei te noho ki te tuawhenua.

Ko te nuinga o ngā tāngata e noho ana ki te tuawhenua me Te Wai Pounamu ehara i te manene kātahi anō ka tau ki Aotearoa. He Pākehā, he Māori te nuinga o ngā tāngata e noho ana ki tuawhenua, torutoru noa iho ngā Āhia me ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Kitea ai i te tau 2001, e 98% o ngā tāngata o Waimate i Te Wai Pounamu he Pākehā. I tua atu, i Murihiku, kotahi anake te tangata i roto i te 15 i whānau mai ki whenua kē.

He rerekē te rohe o Tāmaki ki ētahi atu rohe. He nui ake ngā tāngata o Āhia me Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, tāpiri atu ki te hunga i whānau ki tāwāhi – kotahi tangata i roto i te tokotoru.

Ka nekeneke te taupori

Ia rima tau, ka nuku te haurua o te taupori neke atu i te rima tau te pakeke, ki whare kē. Kaha ake te tipu o te taupori i te raki o Te Ika-a-Māui tērā i te tipu o te taupori o Te Wai Pounamu, nā te taetae o te hunga manene, me te kaha whānau mai o ngā tamariki ki te iwi Māori me ngā iwi mai Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ko Ōtautahi te tāone ka muia e ngā tāngata ka noho ki Te Wai Pounamu.


Families and households

Te whānau

I te tau 1962, e 66,000 ngā pēpi ka whānau mai ki Aotearoa. Tae rawa ki te tau 2001, ka taka tēnei ki te e 56,221. I taua wā anō, ka piki te rahi o ngā wāhine whakawhānau tamariki mā te e 70%, heoi, tokoiti rātou i hiahia ki te whakawhānau tamariki. Ko ngā wāhine e whakawhānau tamariki ana, kei te tiaki kia pakeke ake rātou. I te tau 2004, ko ngā wāhine e 30 – 34 te pakeke kei runga noa atu mō te whakawhānau tamariki.

Kei te pakupaku haere ngā whānau. I te tau 2001, e 35.3% o ngā whānau kotahi anake te tamaiti. I paheke te rahi o ngā whānau e toru ā rātou tamariki, mai i te 19.3% i te tau 1962 ki te 17.7% i te tau 2001.

Te noho motuhake

Ko Aotearoa te whenua tuatoru i te ao mō te rahi o ngā whānau kotahi anake te pakeke (whai muri i a Kānata me Ingarangi). I te tau 2001, 31% o ngā whānau kotahi anake te pakeke. Kei te āta piki tēnei tatauranga. Nui atu te pānga o te rawakore ki ēnei whānau tērā ki ngā whānau e rua ngā pakeke. Ko te nuinga o ngā pakeke motuhake he wāhine, neke atu i te haurua o ēnei wāhine kei waenganui i te 17-34 tau te pakeke.

Te mārena me te wehe

Kei te heke te rahi o te hunga e hiahia ana kia mārena. Kua paheke ngā mārena mai i te 45.5 mō ia 1,000 tāngata i te tau 1971, ki te 16.2 mō ia 1000 tāngata i te tau 1992. Tatū ki ēnei rā, kei tēnei taumata tonu.

Kei te tatari te hunga mārena kia pakeke ake rātou. I te tau 1971, tata ki te 33% o ngā wāhine i mārena i a rātou e rangatahi tonu ana; tae rawa ki te tau 1999, kua paheke tēnei ki te 3% anake.

I waenganui i ngā tau 1976 me 1999, ka kake te rahi o ngā wehenga (ngā wehenga i roto i ngā mārena 1,000) mai i te 7.4 ki te 12.6. I te tau 2002 neke atu i te 10,000 ngā wehenga tūturu – tata ki te haurua o ngā mārena.

Ngā kāinga

I te tau 2001, kei raro i te 3 ngā tāngata e noho ana kei te whare kotahi (3.5 tāngata i te tau 1976). Kua kake ngā tāngata noho i tō rātou kotahi ki te 300,000, (hauwhā o te tatauranga katoa). Ko tētahi o ngā take pēnei ai, ko te noho ora o ngā wāhine noho motuhake kia 65 tau te pakeke neke atu.

Ngā kāinga whawhao

Ki te kake te rahi o ngā tāngata e noho ana ki tētahi whare ki runga ake i tētahi taumata, kīia ai taua kāinga he kāinga whawhao. I te tau 2001, e 5% o ngā kāinga he kāinga whawhao. Nāwai ā, ka mahea tēnei āhuatanga. I te tau 1986, e 72,924 ngā kāinga he iti rawa ngā rūma; tae ki te tau 2001, kua heke tēnei ki te e 65,088.

Ko te hunga ka noho ki te tonga o Tāmaki te hunga nui kei ngā kāinga whawhao. Kaha ake te pānga o tēnei āhuatanga ki ngā Māori me ngā tāngata o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Te hoko me te pupuri whare

Noho ai te e 33% o te taupori ki ngā whare rīhi. Ko te iwi Māori me ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ngā iwi nui kei ngā whare rīhi. Ko ngā Pākehā kei te noho i ō rātou whare karekau he mōkete, nā te mea he pakeke ake te taupori Pākehā, ka mutu kua roa rātou e utu ana i ā rātou mōkete. I te tau 2001, ka heke te tini pupuri whare mai i te 73.8% i tau 1991, ki te 67.8 %.

Te reti me te pupuri whare

Ahakoa te mea he ngāwari te tango mōkete i te tekau tau atu i 1990, kua kore te nuinga o ngā tāngata o Aotearoa e hiahia te hoko whare. Mai i te tau 1981, ka piki te tokomaha rīhi whare, ka heke te tokomaha e noho ana kei ō rātou kāinga ake. Kua heke te toharite o te hunga pupuri whare mai i te 74% i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1990, ki te 68%. Heoi he teitei tonu tēnei tatauranga mō ngā whenua kei roto i te OECD.

Ngā momo whare

Ko te nuinga o ngā momo whare ki Aotearoa (e 80%) ko ngā whare tū motuhake mō te whānau kotahi. Heoi kei te piki haere ngā nohoanga piri tahi.

Kei te piki haere te maha o ngā whare e whā ngā rūma neke atu. He tohu tēnei kei te nui haere ngā rawa, kei te tawhiti atu te hunga whai moni whiwhi pai ki tērā te hunga kāore i te nui ā rātou moni whiwhi. I te tau 2001, e 73.5% o ngā kāinga, kei waenganui i te kotahi me te toru ngā rūma, he hekenga mai te 80.5% i te tau 1991. I waenganui i ngā tau 1991 me 2001 ka kake te tokomaha o ngā whare e whā ki te ono ngā rūma, mai i te 16% ki te 20.4%.

Tērā tētahi tōpūtanga tāngata e rua ō rātou kāinga, ko tētahi he kāinga hararei. Nā te nui haere o ngā rawa, kua kore ngā kōpuha noa – bach (crib rānei ki Te Wai Pounamu); kua hanga nui kē ētahi o ēnei whare tuarua.


Sex and gender

Ngā wāhine

Atu i te tekau tau o 1980, nā te whakaputanga o te mana wahine me te panoni o te ōhanga me te hapori o Aotearoa, ka piki te āhua o ngā wāhine. Taka mai ki ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 2000, kua kitea te wahine i ngā tūranga teitei me ngā rāngai ōhanga. I te tau 2005 he wahine te pirimia, te kāwana-tianara, te kaiwhakawā matua, te rōia matua me te tumuaki o te kamupene nui rawa o Aotearoa.

Ki tā te ture, me ōrite te utu ka whakawhiwhia ki te tāne me te wahine. Ahakoa anō te tini wāhine kei te whai mahi utu, me te piki o ngā utu ki ngā wāhine, i te tau 2001, he iti iho te utu a te wahine ki tā te tāne (toharite e $14,500 mā te wahine, e $24,900 mā te tāne). He pērā anō te kōrero mō ngā utu ia wiki: i te tau 2002, $857 te utu ki te tāne, e $685 ki te wahine.

He nui ake te wā whakapauhia ai e te wahine ki te awhi i ētahi atu o te whānau me te mahi mō te kore utu. I te tau 2001, e 57% o te hunga mahi kore utu kei waho o ō rātou kāinga, he wāhine. E 60% o te hunga tiaki tūroro i te kāinga, he wāhine.

Takatāpui

I te tekau tau atu i 1970 ka tino rerekē te wāhi o te takatāpui ki Aotearoa. I te tau 1986, ka whakakorea ngā aukatinga a te ture mō te moe a te tāne i te tāne me te wahine i te wahine. I te tau 1993 ka mana te Ture Tikanga Tangata; e kore e taea te pana tangata takatāpui. Kua nui ake te aronga o te hapori me ngā ture ki te hunga ka noho i ngā hononga takatāpui.

Tae ki te tau 2003, kua eke ētahi takatāpui hei mema paremata, ko tētahi kua tae rā anō ki te rūnanga kāwanatanga.

Ka tipu te whakaaetanga

Ko Whale rider te pikitia nui o Aotearoa i te tau 2003. I puta te pikitia nei i tētahi pukapuka nā Witi Ihimaera, he kaituhi takatāpui Māori. I te tau 2004, i te whiwhinga o Ihimaera ki ngā tohu whakanui i te rā whānau o te Kuini o Ingarangi, kīhai i kōrerotia tana takatāpuitanga –he tohu kua ngāwari te titiro a te tangata ki te hunga takatāpui. I mua ake, me huna ngā kaituhi takatāpui o Aotearoa i tō rātou takatāpuitanga.

Kairautanga

Kei Aotearoa te kairautanga, i kawea mai i ngā tau tōmua o te noho a te Pākehā. Heoi, nō te tau 2003 ka whakaaetia ā-turetia. I mua i tēnei he takahinga ture te whakahaere whare kairau; hunaia ai ēnei tūmomo whare ki raro i te kārangaranga whare miri tinana, arā, ‘massage parlours’.


The health of the nation

Atu i te tekau tau o 1950 ka piki te hauora o te taupori. Ka heke te rahi o te rangatahi me ngā taipakeke ka mate. Nō nā noa nei ka heke te toharite mate o ngā taipakeke whai mahi, me te hunga kua tae ki te ahunga rua.

Ka piki ngā tau o te tangata

I te tau 2000, ko te toharite, e 76 ngā tau ka ora te tāne, e 81 ngā tau ka ora te wahine. Kei raro iho ngā tatauranga mō te Māori – e 68 tau mō te tāne, e 71 tau mō te wahine.

Ngā mate kōhungahunga

I te wāhanga tuarua o te rau tau 1900, ka heke ngā mate kōhungahunga ki Aotearoa, mai i te 28 mate mō ngā tamariki e 1,000 ka whānau mai i te tau 1950, ki te e 6 mate mō ngā tamariki e 1000 ka whānau mai i te tau 1998. Hāunga tērā, mō tōna tūranga ki te ao, kua heke a Aotearoa i ngā tau e 25 kua pahure.

He nui ake ngā pānga o te mate kōhungahunga ki te iwi Māori tērā i ētahi atu iwi. Heoi, atu i te tau 1950 ki te tau 1998, kaha ake te paheketanga o tēnei mate i waenganui i te iwi Māori, (mai i te 70 ki te 8 mate mō ngā tamariki e 1,000).

Te hauora me te āhua noho

Atu i te tau 1993, ko te mate pukupuku tētahi o ngā mate nui. Ko ētahi atu mate nui ko te mate manawa me ngā mate ka pā ki ngā iatoto o te roro.

Kai hikareti ai te kotahi tangata i roto i te tokowhā neke atu i te 15 ngā tau. Nō te tau 1990 ka tīmata te aukati a te ture i te kai hikareti ki ngā wāhi tūmatanui. Nō te tau 2004 ka kapi e te ture ngā pāpara kāuta me ngā whare kai. Toharite huarua te nui ake o ngā Māori ka kai paipa i ngā tauiwi. Nā whai anō he rahi ōwehe ake te Māori i ngā tauiwi e hinga ana i te mate manawa, te mate pukupuku pūkahukahu me ngā mate romahā.

Te tinei i te hikareti

Mō ngā tau e maha, ka ātete ngā rōpu mautohe i te kai paipa. Whāia, ka tahuri Te Manatū Hauora ki te aukati i tēnei kai. Whakaaturia ai ngā tohu whakatūpato ki ngā pākete hikareti. Ko ētahi o ngā tohu e kī ana, ‘ Ka mate ētahi atu i tō kai hikareti’, ‘Nā te kai hikareti ko te mate pukupuku’, ‘Ka riro koe i te kai hikareti’, ‘Ka mate koe i te kai hikareti’. Tini te Māori e kai paipa ana tērā i ētahi atu iwi. Kei roto anō ēnei whakatūpato i te reo Maori.

Ngā tahumaero

I te tekau tau atu i 1990 ka kaha ake te pā mai o te mate kiriuhi ua kakā (meninakouka) me te mate kohi. Ka pā kino te mate kohi ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Ngā aituā i te huarahi me te mate whakamomori

I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1970, ka kake te rahi o ngā aitua i te huarahi ki tōna taumata. Tino kino tēnei tūmomo mate i te hunga taitama kei waenganui i ngā tau 15 ki te 24. Heoi, i waenganui i ngā tau 1989 (i tērā tau, 22.7 ngā mate i te huarahi mō te e 100,000 tāngata) me 2002, ko Aotearoa te whenua o ngā whenua e 30 (tae atu ki Ahitereiria, Ingarangi me Amerika) i kaha rawa atu te heke o ngā aituā i te huarahi, otirā ka heke mā te haurua.

Tamariki rawa kia mate

He nui rawa ngā taitama o Aotearoa kei te mate whakamomori. Mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1950, kua kake haere te rahi o te hunga rangatahi kei te whakamate anō i a rātou. E ai ki tētahi rangahau o te tau 2004, mō ia 100,000 tāngata o Aotearoa, e 25.1 rātou te hunga mai i ngā tau 15 ki te 19 ka whakamate i a rātou anō; ko te tatauranga mō Ahitereiria ko te 9.6, mō Ingarangi ko te 3.3. Ko te kōrero a ētahi, ‘he whakaaturanga kino o ngā mate hinengaro ka pā ki te rangatahi o Aotearoa’.1

Ngā ratonga hauora

Taea ai e ngā tāngata o Aotearoa ngā ratonga hauora mā roto i te pokapū hauora kei tō rātou hapori. Ka noho tonu ētahi tākuta hei kaimahi tūmataiti, ahakoa te whakakuhuna o ētahi ratonga hauora kore utu, wāhanga utu rānei. Ināianei ka tāpirihia he āwhina hei utu i tētahi wāhanga o ngā rongoā. Ka hokona mai te rahi o ngā rongoā e Pharmac, te tari hoko rongoā a te kāwanatanga; mā tēnei ka iti iho te utu mō te rongoā. Ka whiwhi pūtea tāpiri te hunga iti nei ā rātou moni whiwhi, mō ā rātou utunga hauora.

Ko te kāwanatanga ka utu mō ngā hōhipera. Whakarato ai rātou i ngā āwhina mō ngā mate whawhati tata me ngā mate kino rawa. Arā anō ngā hōhipera tūmataiti, me utu te tangata; i te nuinga o te wā whakamahia ai ēnei hōhipera mō ngā pokanga kīhai i te mate whawhati tata.

I ngā tau 1996-97 whakahaerehia ai tētahi rangahau ā-motu. I kitea, e 38% o ngā tāngata o Aotearoa ka whai inihua hauora tūmataiti, ko te nuinga mō ngā pokanga kīhai i te mate whawhati tata.

Footnotes
  1. Christchurch Press, 8 June 2004. › Back

Education

Kura tūmatanui

Whakaratoa ai e te kāwanatanga te mātauranga kore utu mō ngā kura tuatahi, kura waenganui, kura tuarua. Kāore he wāhi i ēnei kura mō nga akoranga hāhi, whakapono. Kāore he utu o te haere ki te kura mō ngā tamariki mai i te 5 tau ki te 19 tau te pakeke, ā, me haere te tamaiti ki te kura mai i te 6 tau ki te 16 tau.

Mai i te tau 1989, whakahaerehia ai ēnei momo kura e ngā poari kaitiaki ka tohungia e ngā mātua.

Whakaakoranga kōhungahunga

Kāore he ture whakahau i ngā tamariki kōhungahunga ki te kura. Heoi, tini ngā tamariki kei raro i te rima tau te pakeke ka haere ki ngā kura pūhou, ngā pokapū kōhungahunga (playcentre). He wāhi nui tō ngā mātua i roto i ngā pokapū kōhungahunga, ka mutu, tatū ki te paunga o te rau tau 1900 kua hōrapa ēnei momo whare ako.

Kura kōmitimiti

Whai muri i te whakamanatanga o te Ture Mātauranga 1877, ka whakatū e te hāhi Katorika āna kura tuatahi, tuarua hoki ki te pupuri i te tuakiri o te hāhi Katorika. Ināianei, kua kōmitimiti ēnei kura ki ngā kura tūmatanui. Ko te kāwanatanga kei te kawe i ngā utu mō ēnei kura, heoi, me tuwhera ō rātou tatau ki ngā tauira katoa. Otirā, ka mau tonu ēnei kura ki ā rātou ake tū āhuatanga.

Kura tūmataiti

Kei reira anō ngā kura tūmataiti (ko te nuinga nō ngā hāhi). Ka tū motuhake ēnei kura i te kāwanatanga, me utu hoki te haere ki reira hei tauira. Ko ētahi o ngā kura tūroa kua tū hei kura mō te hunga whakahīhī i ō rātou rawa me tō rātou tūranga i roto te hapori. O ngā kura tūmataiti kātahi anō ka tuwhera, ko te nuinga nā ngā hāhi Karaitiana pakipaki i whakatū. Ka whiwhi ngā kura tūmataiti ki ētahi āwhina mai te kāwanatanga, heoi, tū motuhake ō rātou poari motuhake.

Kura tuatoru

Tata ki te katoa o ngā kura tuatoru (kuratini, kāreti ako kaiwhakaako, whare wānanga) ka whiwhi āwhina i te kāwanatanga, engari, motuhake te tū o ō rātou kaunihera whakahaere. Mō te nuinga o ngā whakaakoranga, me utu te ākonga i tētahi wāhanga o ngā utu. Mā te pūtea taurewa ka tuwhera ngā kura tuatoru ki ngā tāngata katoa. I ngā wā o mua nā te iti o te utu, nā ngā tahua tauira tāpiri me ngā mahi o te raumati ngā utu i ea.

Whakatutukitanga i roto i te mātauranga

Ko te nuinga o ngā tamariki o Aotearoa ka tīmata ki te kura ina eke ana ō rātou tau ki te rima. Nui atu ngā rangatahi kei te noho ki te kura mō tētahi wā roa. Heoi, torutoru noa ngā tauira Māori ka noho ki te kura tatū rawa ki te 18 tau.

Ko te National Certificate of Education Achievement (NCEA) te tohu mātauranga mō ngā tauira pakeke i ngā kura tuarua. E 25% ngā tamariki neke atu i te 15 tau te pakeke, karekau ā rātou tohu mātauranga. Kotahi o ngā tāngata tokowaru e pupuri ana i tētahi tohu whare wānanga.

Mātauranga me te Māori

Kei roto te nuinga o ngā tamariki Māori i ngā kura a te kāwanatanga. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1980 ka tū ngā kōhanga reo hei whakaora i te reo Māori. Ka mutu ana te kōhanga reo ka tomo ētahi tauira ki ngā kura kaupapa Māori; kāore he utu ki te haere ki ēnei kura. Kua tū anō he whare wānanga.

Ka āhei ngā tamariki katoa o Aotearoa kia kuhu ki ngā kura a te kāwanatanga, ka taea hoki te tukuna o ngā tamariki ki ngā kōhanga reo, kura kaupapa Māori hoki.

He kaupapa kē

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1980 ka tū ngā kōhanga reo me ngā kura kaupapa. Ko te tuarua ēnei o ngā momo kura i waihangahia hei kura mō te Māori. I tīmata ngā kura Māori i te rau tau 1900, tatū rawa ki ngā tau i muri te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. Heoi, he rerekē te take whakatūhia ai rātou, arā, ki te whakanunumi i te Māori ki roto i te ao Pākehā, kāpā te pupuri i nga tikanga me te reo Māori. Nui ngā kōrero a ngā tauira o aua kura mō tā rātou patunga mo te kōrero Māori i roto te taiwhanga ako.

Kura kei ngā taiwhenua

Ko te kura tētahi pokapū mō ngā hapori ki taiwhenua. Ka kati ētahi o ēnei kura nā te tokoiti haere o te taupori ki taiwhenua, ka tonoa ngā tamariki ki ngā kura tōpū, ko te whakapae, he teitei ake te mātauranga ka whakaratoa e ēnei kura.


Religion and the churches

Karaitiana

Kitea ai te nui o te whakapono Karaitiana ki Aotearoa i te tūtū o ngā whare karakia ki ngā tāone me ngā taiwhenua o te motu puta noa.

E ai ki ngā tatauranga, he Karaitiana te haurua o te taupori o Aotearoa. Ko ngā peka matua o te whakapono Karaitiana ko te Mihinare, te Katorika, te Perehipitiriana. I tua atu i ngā rohe o Tāmaki, o Ōtākou, o Murihiku, ko te hāhi Mihinare te hāhi nui rawa o Aotearoa.

Raro iho i te hauwhā o ngā Karaitiana haere ai ki te karakia. Kei te tokoiti haere te hunga whai i ngā hāhi. Heoi, kei te kaha te tipu o ngā hāhi pakipaki. Kitea nuitia ai te mahinga tahitanga i waenganui i ngā peka Karaitiana ki ngā tāone ki taiwhenua.

Me kī, kua kore e kaha ngā hāhi Karaitiana me ā rātou rōpū tautoko pērā i ngā rā ki mua.

Te wāhi ki ngā hāhi Karaitiana

Kua kitea ngā taupatupatu i waenganui i ngā hāhi Karaitiana mō ngā take pēnei i te whakawahi i te wahine hei minita me ngā takatāpui. Kua whakaaehia e te nuinga o ngā hāhi i waho atu i te Hāhi Katorika ngā wāhine hei minita.

Ki te tirohia te hapori whānui, kua tū ngā Karaitiana o te taha mauī kia whawhai te whakatoihara iwi, te rawakore, kia tautokona te ira tāne me te ira wahine, me te wehenga tokorau. Hāunga anō ngā Karaitiana i te taha matau, kei te tohe rātou mō ēnei kaupapa tonu nei, engari kei tētahi taha kē.

Ngā whakapono maha

Nō muri tata nei mauria mai e ngā iwi manene a rātou whakapono. Nō te tau 2010, neke atu i te 50,000 ngā Hinuhinu me ngā Puta i Aotearoa, ā, neke atu i te 35,000 te tokomaha o ngā pononga Muslim.

Atu i te rau tau 1800 ka tū ngā hapori Hūrae. Ka hangaia ō rātou whare karakia ki te nuinga o ngā tāone nui.

Ngā hāhi Māori

E rua ngā hāhi Māori i puta i te Karaitiana. Nā Wiremu Tahupōtiki Rātana te hāhi Rātana i waihanga i ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900; nā Te Kōti Arikirangi i waihanga i te hāhi Ringatū i te rau tau atu i 1800.

Kua whakatūria e ngā hāhi Karaitiana ētahi rōpū, wāhanga Māori ka haere ngātahi me ngā kaupapa o te hāhi whānui e aha ai, e puta ai te taha Māori i roto i te whakapono Karaitiana.


Modern society

Wāhi o Aotearoa i te ao whānui

Kua pakari ngā herenga o Aotearoa ki te ao whānui. E ai ki ētahi, ko te Amerikenatanga tēnei o te ao, e whakaatu nei i te motunga o ngā here ā-hapori, ā-tikanga ki Ingarangi. Tirohia te mātotoru o ngā kaupapa i te pouaka whakaata me ngā pikitia; he Amerikena te nuinga.

Kua kore e rongohia te kōrero mō Ingarangi, Koterana me Airana, anō ko te wā kāinga, pērā i te rau tau 1800.

Whiti ki tāwāhi

Nāwai ā, nā te ngāwari o te nekeneke tawhiti, ka kaha te puta o ngā tāngata o Aotearoa ki te ao whānui. I te tau 1950, mō ngā tāngata e 1,000, 11 te tokomaha i wehe ki tāwāhi mō tētahi wā poto. Tae ana ki te tau 2000, ka kake tēnei tatauranga ki te e 355 mō ngā tāngata 1,000. Neke atu i te haurua o ēnei tāngata, ka whakawhiti ki Ahitereiria. He āhuatanga nui tēnei ki Aotearoa, arā, te haere o te rangatahi ki tāwāhi. Ko Rānana te taunga nui mō taiohi, nā te mea ka āhei rātou te whai mahi ki Ingarangi i raro i ētahi kaupapa.

Ka rerekē ngā awe

I ēnei rā paku iho i te e 7% o te hapori whānui i whānau mai ki Ingarangi, Koterana me Airana. Ahakoa te whai a te tini i ngā hōtaka pouaka whakaata Ingarihi pērā i a Coronation Street me The office, kua huri kē te aronga ki ngā ia o Amerika me te ao whānui. Kāore e nui te awe o Ahitereiria ki runga i te ahurea o Aotearoa, hāunga te tata o tērā whenua me te rite o ngā takenga mai me ngā hītori.

Kua nui ngā iwi manene kua tau ki Aotearoa i ngā tau tata nei; me kī, he nui rātou nō Āhia me Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Tini te tangata ka haere ki tāwāhi mahi ai, he tokomaha rātou kei te whakaako Ingarihi ki ngā whenua pēnei i Hapanihi, Kōrea me Haina. Nā ēnei mahi ka tuwhera tētahi ara e rongo ai a Aotearoa i te awe o ērā whenua.

Whitiwhitinga kōrero

He waea kei te e 97% o ngā whare kei ngā tāone nunui; ki ngā taiwhenua, neke atu i te e 90% o ngā whare he waea ō rātou. Ka taea te ipurangi e te e 33% o ngā kāinga. Ka tareka e te tata ki te katoa o ngā tamariki te whāwhā rorohiko ki ngā kura.

Te tuku karere waea pūkoro me te whakawhiti kōrero

E ai ki ngā tatauranga o te tau 2001, he waea pūkoro kei te neke atu i te e 58% o ngā kāinga, he kakenga mai te 22% i te 1997-98. I te tau 2009 ka whai a Aotearoa i ētahi atu whenua, arā, ka mukua te kōrero i runga waea pūkoro i te wā e taraiwa motukā ana. 

Motukā me ngā waka kawe tāngata

He motukā, ētahi motukā rānei kei te e 90% o ngā kāinga i te motu. Kia tae ki te tau 2001, haere ai te e 66% o ngā kaimahi o Aotearoa ki te mahi mā runga motukā. Kotahi tangata anake i te 20 ka haere ki te mahi mā raro.

E 2% anake o ngā tāngata ka hopu pahi ki te mahi, tokoiti iho mā runga tereina. I ngā wā o mua, mō ngā haerenga roa, ko ngā tereina, pahi, ngā waka kōpiko ngā waka kawe tāngata. Hāunga ēnei rā, ko te waka rererangi te waka nui te mahia mō ngā haerenga roa, tawhiti. Heoi, kei te whakaratoa tonutia ētahi mahi rerewē ahakoa iti, tāpae atu ki ngā waka kōpiko haere i waenganui Te Whanganui-a-Tara me Waitohi.

Ngākau nui ki te motukā

Ka rawe kē ki te iwi o Aotearoa ō rātou motukā. E rua miriona ngā motukā, e whā miriona ngā tāngata. I te tau 1997 ko Aotearoa te tuawaru o ngā whenua o te ao mō te toharite motukā ki te tangata, arā, e 560 motukā ki ngā tāngata 1,000.

Taihara

Mō ngā tau 1962 ki te 1995, ka piki te toharite mō ngā taihara mā te hauwhā.

Ia tau, kei waenganui i te 40 ki te 65 ngā tāngata ka kōhurungia. Kei te kake whakarunga ngā tūkinotanga tāngata, kāore i te hopukina ngā nanakia i te nuinga o ngā tāhaetanga.

Ia tau, e 7,000 tāngata ka mauria ki te whare herehere. Ka tareka e ngā whare herehere tekau mā whitu o te motu ngā mauhere e 6,000. Kei tua atu i te e 40% o ngā mauhere he Māori. Kō atu i te 50% ngā mauhere kei raro iho i te 30 tau te pakeke.


Food, drink and dress

Kai a te Māori

I ngā rā o mua, ko te mahi kai me te whakatipu kūmara ngā mahi nui a te Māori. I tae te kūmara ki Aotearoa i te tonga o Amerika. Ka patua te aruhe hei kai, mahia anōtia ai ngā kākano o te karaka kia pana te taikaha e pai ai hei kai.

Mai anō, he nui te kai moana ki te Māori. Mahia ai te kupenga me te aho. Kohia ai ngā mātaitai pērā i te kūtai, te pāua, te pūpū, te pipi, aha atu. Nui te manu ki ngā ngahere, te tuna me te īnanga ki ngā awa me ngā wai māori.

Hāngī

Kei te whai tonu te Māori i te tikanga tunu kai puta i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, arā, te mahi umu; ki Aotearoa, ko te hāngī. Kua tīmata te whai haere a tauiwi i tēnei momo tunu kai o Aotearoa ake.

Pērā ki te moa

I te taenga o te tangata ki Aotearoa i te taha rāwhiti o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa, nui ana te moa, he manu nui, he manu kāore e rere. Kei ngā wāhi whaipara maha ngā taunaki ka tohu ki te nui o te moa hei kai mā ngā tāngata tōmua. Nā te patupatu i te moa ka ngaro tēnei manu, i mua i te taenga o te Pākehā. I kai anō ngā iwi tōmua i ngā whakangote o te moana. Ka nui ngā kekeno i patua e ngā kaipatu kekeno mai Ūropi me Amerika i te paunga o te rau tau 1700 me te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800. Mai i taua wā, ka ora anō te kekeno. Heoi, kāore anō ka tau te kiko kekeno ki runga ngā tēpu kai o Aotearoa.

Kai a te Pākehā

Whakaaturia ai mā roto i ngā kai te wāhi nui o Ingarangi, Koterana me Airana i te hītori o Aotearoa. Mō te wā roa, tatū rawa ki te tekau tau atu i 1950, ko ngā kai a te Pākehā ko ngā kai i ahu mai i Peretānia. Atu i te rau tau 1800, me mīharo rā ki te nui o te mīti i kainga – hei ngā teihana hipi, ko te rara hipi te kai mō te parakuihi, te tina me te kai o te pō.

Ngā kai huhua

I muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ka tau ki Aotearoa ngā manene o Ūropi, me ā rātou ake kai. I mua, kua waia kē te taupori o Aotearoa te kai ngā kai maroke a te Pākehā, arā te mīti, te rīwai, te kapu tī. Ka tau mai ngā tauhōu o Ūropi; ko ētahi ka whakatū whare kai, wāhi kai, toa hoki. He rite te āhuarangi o Aotearoa ki tērā i ngā whenua karapoti i te moana o Mediterranean, kāpā ki te āhuarangi o te raki o Ūropi, whai anō kua kaha te kainga o ngā huawhenua pēnei i te eggplant, zucchini, garlic; kei raro e putu ana te kāpeti, te pūputi me te kāroti, tae rawa ki te nuinga o ngā kai o Peretānia.

He iwi haere te iwi o Aotearoa; ka kite rātou, ka rongo rātou i te maha o ngā momo kai o te ao; tāpiri atu ki te tini manene ka tau mai Āhia me ētahi atu rohe me ā rātou tūmomo kai, ka toro te iwi o Aotearoa ki ngā tūmomo kai o te ao. Tae ana ki te tīmatanga o te rau tau 2000, kua eke ngā tohunga tunu kai o Aotearoa ki ngā taumata i te ao, kua hau hoki te rongo mō ngā kai o Aotearoa.

Kei te kaha te tipu o ngā mahi wāina, kua nui ngā momo kai. Neke atu i te e 2000 ngā umanga kai e mahi ana i te tīhi, te hinu, te honi, te aihikirīmi, te aha atu o ngā kai tino rawe hei hoko ki Aotearoa, ki tāwāhi hoki.

Whare kai

Kua hōrapa ngā wharekai me ngā wāhi inu kawhe. Kei Aotearoa ngā kai reka rawa o te ao, pērā i ngā momo kai fusion, Pacific Rim.

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1960 ka tae te pākī me te parehe ki Aotearoa. I te tau 1971 ka tuwhera ngā toa o Kentucky Fried (KFC ināianei); whai muri ko Pizza Hut (1974) me Makitānara (1976). Heoi, nā tētahi tatauranga i te tau 2001 i whakaatu ko te ika me te kotakota rīwai (fish and chips) tonu te ō rangaranga e hiahiatia rawatia ana. I ahu mai tēnei kai i Peretānia.

Ngā momo inu

Tatū ki ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1900, kua roa kē, ko te pia te waipiro nui ki ngā tāne o Aotearoa. Ka manakotia te wāina, nā te haere o te tangata ki tāwāhi, te taunga mai o ngā manene me ā rātou wāina; te whanaketanga hoki o te kaipakihi wāina o Aotearoa. I huarua te inu i te wāina atu i te tau 1975 ki te tau 2003.

He nui ngā hokonga wāina ki tai. I te tīmatanga ka hau te rongo mō ngā wāina mā o Aotearoa, pērā i te sauvignon blanc mai Te Wairau (Marlborough). Nō ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau atu i 2000, ka rongohia te reka o te pinot noir. Pakupaku noa iho te nuinga o ngā whare wāina o Aotearoa, kāore i pērā i ngā whare wāina ki tai.

Whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ka tuwhera ngā toa hoko kawhe tuatahi. Taka rawa ki te tekau tau atu i 1990, kua huri te aronga o te iwi ki te inu kawhe. Waihoki, kua kore e kaha inumia te tī pērā i ngā tau 50 ki mua.

Ngā kākahu

Tatū rawa ki te tekau tau atu i 1950, he kākahu pai ngā kākahu mō te haere ki ngā hui, karakia, ngahau, aha noa. Mau pōtae ngā tāne i waho i ngā wā katoa; he pōtae, karapu, pēke ō ngā wāhine mō ngā wā ōkawa. Ahakoa te hipa o ngā tau, i te tau 2002 ka whakapaetia te pirimia a Helen Clark mō te mau tarau ki tētahi hākari kāwanatanga.

Tae ana ki te rau tau 2000, kua rauangi ngā kākahu, hāngai ana ki te tāone. I whai ngā rangatahi i te momo o ngā kākahu o te ao hurihuri. Heoi, ka kitea tonutia te ia o te Māori me ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Kua eke ētahi kaihoahoa kākahu o Aotearoa ki ngā taumata o te ao.

More links and websites


How to cite this page: John Wilson, 'Hapori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hapori/print (accessed 24 July 2019)

Story by John Wilson, published 8 Feb 2005