Kōrero: Hawaiki

Whārangi 4. Ngā ariā mō Hawaiki

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā whakamāramatanga a ngā pūkenga o mua

Nō te tīmatanga o te titiro hōhonu a ngā pūkenga Pākehā ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā iwi, mīharo rawa ētahi o rātou ki ngā kōrero mō Hawaiki. Nā runga i te mea he kōrero kei tēnā iwi, kei tēnā iwi mō Hawaiki, i whakamātau ētahi o rātou kia rapu i te whānuitanga o te māramatanga mō tēnei kaupapa.

Ko tētahi o ēnei pūkenga ko S. Percy Smith, te tumuaki tuatahi o te Rōpū Poronihiana (Polynesian Society). He maha āna tuhinga mō ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā hītori a ngā iwi. I roto i tana pukapuka a Hawaiki, the original homeland of the Māori (1904), ka takoto e Smith āna ariā mō te wāhi ake o Hawaiki. Ka whakahuatia e ia ngā moutere o Sava’ii i Hāmoa, a Hawaii me Java i Initonīhia hei Hawaiki. Ki a Smith, mā te āta tātari i ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori ka taea te whakatau i ahu mai te Māori i Hawaiki. I tōna wā, he huarahi rangahau tēnei i kaha te whāia e te tokomaha o ngā pūkenga, Māori mai Pākehā mai, otirā, i hiamo rātou ki ana whakataunga.

Ētahi atu ariā mō te takenga mai o te Māori

Nō muri o te whakaputa i te pukapuka a Smith ka rahi ngā pukapuka i whakaputangia e whakapae ana ko ngā heke o ngā tangata o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa i ahu mai i te rāwhiti, i te whenua rahi o Āhia . Nā runga i ēnei tātaritanga i taketake mai i ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori, ka hua ngā ariā pēnei i tēnei e kī ana i ahu mai tētahi ‘kahupapa waka’ i tae ki Aotearoa mai i te pokapū o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Arā noa atu ngā kōrero a ētahi kaituhi e whakapae ana kei te whenua rahi o Īnia, kei te whenua o Mesopotamia rā anō – kei te takiwā e kīia nei i ēnei rā ko Īrāki – te kāinga tūturu o te Māori. Hei tauira te pukapuka a Alfred K. Newman, Who are the Māoris ? (1912) mō ngā tuhituhinga e tohe ana ko Īnia te pūtakenga o te Māori.

Ngā rangahautanga o ēnei rā

He maha ngā kōrero i ēnei rā e whakahē ana i ngā tikanga a Smith. E rua ngā wero a Orbell i roto i tana pukapuka a Hawaiki: A new approach to Māori tradition (1985). Tuatahi, e kī ana ia kāore i te tika kia tirohia ngā kōrero tuku iho anō hei hītori tūturu. E whakapae ana ia i te taenga mai o te Pākehā, kua pūrākau kē ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā iwi. Ki tāna titiro ko ngā ‘maharatanga’ o te whenua matua i Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa ka huri i roto i te wā hei pūrākau. Nā reira he pai ake kia tirohia ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā iwi hei tohu noa iho ki ngā nekenekehanga o mua, ehara ko te tūturutanga. Tuarua, hei tā Orbell he tere rawa a Smith mā ki te pītahitahi i ngā maioro ki te taha. Hei tā Orbell: ‘Ko te raru kē, nā te hē o tā rātou titiro ki ngā kōrero me te kimikimi noa, kua noho noa te kaupapa … kāore he kiko’ (w. 8).

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Orbell, Margaret, Hawaiki: a new approach to Maori tradition. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press, 1991, p. 8. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, 'Hawaiki - Ngā ariā mō Hawaiki', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hawaiki/page-4 (accessed 14 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 20 Apr 2015