Kōrero: Hītori

He poto noa te wā o te tangata ki Aotearoa. Koinei te whenua whakamutunga rarahi ake o te ao i tūhuratia e te tangata. Otirā nā ngā tūpuna o te Māori i hura i te takiwā o te rau tau 1200. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1840, ka tīmata te horo mai o te tangata whai. I ngā tau i muri mai ka rerekē te āhua o ngā hapori, ngā tōrangapū, te ōhanga. Nā ēnei rerekētanga kua whanake a Aotearoa hei whenua tū motuhake i a Ingarangi, he whenua kei Te Moananui-a-Kiwa e nōhia ana e ngā iwi maha o te ao.

Story by John Wilson
Te āhua nui: Kororāreka, nā Augustus Earle

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Te noho Māori

I ahu mai te iwi Māori i Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Nā ngā rangahautanga o ēnei tau tata nei i whāki, nō waenganui i te tau 1200 AD me te tau 1300 AD ka tae tuatahi mai rātou i Poronihia. He noho ā-iwi tā rātau noho. Ko ā rātou mahi he ngaki māra, he hopu manu me te ika, he auaha taputapu, rākau, taonga hoki.

Ngā Pākehā tuatahi

Ko te kaihōpara Tatimana, ko Abel Tasman te Pākehā tuatahi kia kite i a Aotearoa i te tau 1642. I ngā tau 1769–70 ka whakamaherehia tuatahitia e Kāpene Hēmi Kuki o Ingarangi te whenua. Whai muri, ka tīmata te taetae mai o ngā kaipatu kekeno, kaipatu tohorā, me te hunga tauhokohoko. Nō te tau 1814 ka tīmata te kauhau a ngā mihinare i te rongopai ki ngā Māori. Nā rātou ngā Māori i ako ki te ahuwhenua, te pānui, te tuhituhi.

Ngā tekau tau o 1840 me 1850: he koroni hōu nā Ingarangi

Nō te taenga mai o te tini tāngata whai, ka whakatau te kāwanatanga o Ingarangi kia riro ki a ia te mana whakahaere o Aotearoa. I te tau 1840 ka hainahia te Tiriti o Waitangi e ngā rangatira Māori me ngā māngai o te Kuini o Ingarangi. Ko te hiahia o Ingarangi kia riro ki a ia te kāwanatanga o te motu. Hei utu mō tēnei, e ai kī ngā māngai o te Kuini, ka noho tonu ko ngā Māori hei rangatira i runga i ō rātou whenua me ā rātou taonga, ka whiwhi hoki rātou i ngā tika katoa o te kirirarau o Ingarangi.

Atu i 1860 ki te paunga o te tekau tau 1880: te riri me te whanaketanga

Ka tau te ringa kaha o Pākehā ki runga i te Māori me ōna whenua. I te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka tū te riri. Ko te otinga, i raupatuhia, i hokona ngā whenua o te Māori. Ka makuru te tipu o te ōhanga o Aotearoa i ngā hokonga wūru, kōura ki tāwāhi. I te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka āwhinatia e te kāwanatanga te mano Pākehā kia hūnuku ki Aotearoa noho ai. Ka whakatakotohia te rerewē, ka whakatūria he tāone.

Ngā tau 1890 ki 1945: ka rerekē te hapori, ka pakaru te riri ki te ao

Ko Aotearoa te whenua tuatahi ki te whakawhiwhi i te wahine ki te pōti. I te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao ka whawhai a Aotearoa ki te taha o Ingarangi i te pakanga ki a Tiamana. I ngā tekau tau o 1920 me 1930, tini te tangata o Aotearoa i whiua e te rawakore i te paheketanga o te ōhanga o te ao. Nā whai anō ka tohungia e te tini ko Reipa hei kāwanatanga, ko te tūmanako mā rātou e whakamāmā te noho a te iwi. I te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ka tomo anō ngā hōia o Aotearoa ki ngā pae o te riri ki tāwāhi.

Te wāhanga whakamutunga o te rau tau 1900

Atu i te tekau tau 1950, ka whānui haere te tauhokohoko o Aotearoa, kāpā ki Ingarangi anake. I taua wā, ko Piritana Nui te mākete nui mō ngā mīti, wūru, pata, tīhi hoki mai i Aotearoa. Kātahi ka tīmata te hoko a Aotearoa i āna rawa ki ngā whenua maha, pērā i te Hononga o Amerika (USA). I taua wā anō, ka ngana a Aotearoa kia motuhake tana tū.

He ao hōu mō te iwi Māori

Nō muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka horo te iwi Māori ki ngā tāone nunui noho ai. Kia taka rawa ki te tau 1975, kātahi anō ka arongia ngā māharahara a te iwi Māori mō ngā tūkinotanga a te kāwanatanga i a rātou. Nō tēnei wā anō ka tīmata te Māori ki te whakaora i tōna reo, ōna tikanga.

He whenua kanorau

Mō tētahi wā roa ka hiahia te nuinga o Aotearoa kia noho ‘kiritea’ te whenua nei. Hāunga, atu i te tekau tau 1970, ka nui haere ngā iwi ka tau ki Aotearoa noho ai – mai Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, mai Āhia, mai ngā pito katoa o te ao.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

John Wilson, 'Hītori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hitori (accessed 17 June 2019)

Story by John Wilson, published 8 Feb 2005