Kōrero: Hītori

Whārangi 4. Ngā pakanga, ngā hōrapatanga, ngā paheketanga

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā riri tōmua

I te tekau tau atu i 1840, ka pakanga te Māori me te Pākehā. I te tau 1843, ka maringi te toto i tētahi riri whenua ki te whārua o Te Wairau. I pakaru te pakanga ki Te Tai Tokerau (1845-46) i te turakitanga a Hōne Heke i te pou haki o Ingarangi i Kororāreka. I tū anō he tautohetohenga ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara me Whanganui. I te tekau tau atu i 1850, he rīriri tonu te āhua ki Taranaki, ko te take, ko ngā whenua i hokona ki te Pākehā.

Ko te whenua te take

Tatū rawa ki te tekau tau atu i 1850, i taea e te kāwanatanga te hoko i ngā whenua ka rite ki te hiahia o ngā tangata whai. Heoi, atu i taua wā, ka whakakeke ngā iwi Māori ki te hoko ō rātou whenua. Ko te tikanga a te Māori, nō te iwi katoa kē te whenua, kāpā nō te tangata takitahi. Koianei tētahi o ngā take ka tū te Kīngitanga i raro i ngā akiaki a Wiremu Tāmihana. I te tau 1858, ka whakawahia a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero hei Kīngi Māori tuatahi.

Ngā pakanga i Taranaki me Waikato

Ko Taranaki te muranga o ngā ahi o te riri. I te kore whakaaetanga a Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke kia hokona ōna whenua i Waitara i te tau 1861, ka pakaru te riri. E ai ki ngā tāngata whai, he wero nui ki te kāwanatanga te pupuri kaha a te Māori i ōna whenua. Nā Kāwana Hōri Kerei i whakahau kia kawea te riri ki roto o Waikato i ngā tau 1863-64. Koinei te hingatanga o te Māori.

Ka pakanga tonu a Te Kooti rāua ko Tītokowaru ki te Pākehā i te roanga ake o te tekau tau atu i 1860. Nō te tau 1872 ka mutu ngā pakanga mō te whenua. Inā te nui o ngā whenua i raupatuhia i ngā iwi ‘whakakeke’. Ka whakatūria te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te uta taitara ki runga te whenua mō te Māori takitahi, kia wawe ai te hoko ki te Pākehā.

Whai muri i ngā pakanga, he nui tonu ngā Māori i noho motuhake i te Pākehā. Ko te nuinga i haere ki uta noho ai. Ka riro tonu ngā whenua Māori ki ngā ringaringa o ngā Pākehā. I te nuinga o te wā i ngaro ngā whenua o te Māori mā ngā hokohoko i te Kōti Whenua Māori. I te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka tū a Parihaka hei pokapū mō ngā mautohe mārire, i raro i ngā poropiti a Te Whiti-o-Rongomai me Tohu Kākahi. Ka mautohe rātou mō ngā whenua o Taranaki i raupatutia. I te tau 1881 ka whakaeketia a Parihaka e te ope taua hōia, ka tāmia ngā mautohe.

‘Kāore he okiokinga’

When he was under pressure to sell his tribe’s land at Waitara, Te Āti Awa chief Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke wrote to Donald McLean, the chief land purchase commissioner: ‘These lands will not be given by us into the Governor’s and your hands, lest we resemble the sea-birds which perch upon a rock, when the tide flows the rock is covered by the sea and the birds take flight, for they have no resting place.’ I te wā e pēhia ana te rangatira o Te Āti Awa a Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke, kia hokona ngā whenua o tōna iwi i Waitara, ka tuhi reta ia ki a Te Mākarini, te kaikōmihana hoko whenua matua: ‘E kore mātou e whakaae kia taka ō mātou whenua ki te kapu o ōu ringa me ngā ringa o te Kāwana. Kei rite mātou ki te karoro ka tū i te toka, ka pari te tai, kua toremi te toka, kua rere te manu, kua kore hoki he tauranga mōna.’ 1

Te koura me te wūru

Nā ngā pakanga ka pōturi te ōhanga o Te Ika-a-Māui. Hāunga anō Te Wai Pounamu, ka nui te hua i puta i te wūru me te koura. Tini mano te hipi i tukuna kia kai noa i ngā whenua raorao o Te Wai Pounamu. I te tau 1861 ka kitea nuitia te koura ki Ōtākou; nō muri tata mai ka kitea anōtia i Te Tai Poutini. Nā tēnei ka horo te kuhu mai a te tangata whai ki Aotearoa. E ono tau i muri mai ka huraina te koura ki Hauraki; kātahi ka kaha ake te tipu o te tāone o Ākarana.

Nā te wūru ka tū a Waitaha ko te porowini whai rawa nui katoa o Aotearoa; otirā, nā te koura ka noho ko Ōtepoti te tāone nui rawa atu.

Te kaupapa a Vogel

Kia tae ki te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, kua ngoikore ngā mahi kōura, kua heke hoki te utu mō te wūru. I te tau 1870 ka takoto te kaupapa a Julius Vogel te Kaitiaki Pūtea o te koroni, arā, kia tahuri a Niu Tīreni ki ētahi mahi tūmatanui, pēnei i te hanga rerewē me te āwhina i te manene kia haere mai ki tēnei whenua; mā te pūtea taurewa ēnei mahi nui e utu. Kātahi ka nui haere te taupori. I whakaatu te tatauranga o te tau 1871, kua eke te taupori ki te hauwhā miriona (kāpā ngā Māori). Kia hipa ngā tau tekau, kua eke te tokomaha ki te haurua miriona tāngata. He rite ngā whakaaro o Vogel ki ō Wakefield, arā, mā te whakawai i ngā tāngata me ā rātou rawa ki Niu Tīreni ka tipu tēnei whenua. Nā te take nei, ka hua te whakaaro, he whenua motuhake tenei, kāore ōna wehewehenga. Whāia, i te tau 1876 ka whakakorea ngā porowini.

He paheketanga roa

Nā ngā pūtea taurewa a Vogel, ka paheke te ōhanga o te motu, ā, kia taka rā anō ki te tekau tau atu i 1890 kātahi anō ka puta haere i te pōuri. Ahakoa te nui o te utu mō te wīti mō tētahi wā, ka heke te uara o ngā hua ahuwhenua, ka kore haere te hiahia ki te whenua. Nā te paheketanga ka kore ngā mahi mā te hunga noho tāone, ka tū rānei ko ngā wāhi mahi mōrearea. Ka wehe te tini ki tāwāhi, ko te nuinga i haere ki Ahitereiria.

Te tuku mīti ki tāwāhi

Kīhai rawa i pēnei te kaha paheke o te ōhanga o te motu. Heoi, i te tau 1882 ka whai rawa anō te motu i te āheinga kia whakatio mīti hei hoko ki Ingarangi. Nā tēnei ka taea ngā mahi hoko mīti (tio), tae atu ki te pata me te tīhi (makariri). Kia ea rā anō ngā raruraru mō te taha ki ngā kaipuke kawe whata mātao, ka tū a Aotearoa hei wāhi ahuwhenua mō Ingarangi. Ko te ahuwhenua te mahi nui o te ōhanga o Aotearoa, ka turakina ngā wao ngahere, ka ahua te whenua.

Ahakoa te pōuri i pā mai ki te motu i te paheketanga o te ōhanga, ka hiki ngā manawa i te taenga pai o ētahi mīti tio mai i Niu Tīreni ki Ingarangi i te tau 1882. Kua āhei te hoko mīti tio, pata, tīhi ki tāwāhi. Ahakoa ngā raruraru i pā mai i te tīmatanga o te tuku kai tio ki tāwāhi, ka matika a Niu Tīreni hei pāmu mō Ingarangi. Nā te huri o Niu Tīreni ki ngā mahi ahuwhenua, ka huri te whenua mai i te ngahere ki te pāmu.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Ann Parsonson, ‘Te Rangitāke, Wiremu Kīngi, ?–1882’. Dictionary of New Zealand biography , http://www.dnzb.govt.nz › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

John Wilson, 'Hītori - Ngā pakanga, ngā hōrapatanga, ngā paheketanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hitori/page-4 (accessed 20 October 2019)

Story by John Wilson, published 8 Feb 2005