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History

by  John Wilson

He poto noa te wā o te tangata ki Aotearoa. Koinei te whenua whakamutunga rarahi ake o te ao i tūhuratia e te tangata. Otirā nā ngā tūpuna o te Māori i hura i te takiwā o te rau tau 1200. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1840, ka tīmata te horo mai o te tangata whai. I ngā tau i muri mai ka rerekē te āhua o ngā hapori, ngā tōrangapū, te ōhanga. Nā ēnei rerekētanga kua whanake a Aotearoa hei whenua tū motuhake i a Ingarangi, he whenua kei Te Moananui-a-Kiwa e nōhia ana e ngā iwi maha o te ao.


Māori arrival and settlement

Te tūhura me te heke

He poto te noho a te tangata ki Aotearoa tērā ki tētahi atu whenua motuhake o te ao. Kāore tonu i te whakaaetia whānuitia te tau i nōhia tuatahitia ai te whenua nei, engari ko te kōrero o ēnei rā e mea ana, ka tae mai ngā tāngata tuatahi i te pito rāwhiti o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i te takiwā o te rau tau 1200. Kia taka rawa ki te tau 1642, kātahi anō ka mārama ngā tāngata o Ūropi mō tēnei whenua.

I āta tūhuratia tēnei whenua e ngā tāngata mai Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. I whai rātou i ngā aramoana, ko ngā aumoana, te hau me ngā whetū o te rangi ngā kai whakamārama i tō rātou huarahi. E mea ana te kōrero, nā Kupe a Aotearoa i hura. Nāwai rā, ka tīmata te taetae mai o ngā rōpū tokoiti mai Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ka whanake ngā rōpū iti nei hei iwi. Kia tau rawa te Pākehā ki Aotearoa kātahi anō ka karangahia ngā tāngata whenua o Aotearoa, he Māori.

Te whai i ngā matapaia Lapita

Ahakoa te rahi o te uku ki Aotearoa, kīhai te Māori i auaha matapaia. Heoi, nā ō rātou tīpuna (iwi Lapita) tēnei mātauranga i kawe mai i Āhia, ki te tonga mā-rāwhiti o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, tae rawa ki Hāmoa me Tonga mate atu ai. Mā te whai i ngā mahuetanga matapaia Lapita (ko tēnei wāhi ake kei Kanaki), ka kitea te putanga ake o te tangata ki Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. He āhua rite ngā whakahoahoa Māori ki ngā tauira kei te matapaia Lapita.

Te mahi kai

I noho rōpū ngā tāngata tuatahi, ko te kekeno me te moa ā rātou tino kai. Nā te kaha o te patupatunga, ka ngaro te moa. Ko te hopu kai me te kohi kai te oranga mō ngā iwi o Te Wai Pounamu.

Te whakatipu kai me te mahi ika

Kawea mai ai e ngā tāngata o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa te kūmara me te uwhi ki Aotearoa. Nā te mahana o te whenua i Te Ika-a-Māui, ka makuru te tipu. Inā te rahi o ngā māra kūmara hei whāngai i ngā iwi kei ō rātou pā e noho ana. Ahakoa tēnei ahuatanga, i mahia tonutia e ngā iwi o Te Ika-a-Māui ngā manu me ngā tamariki a Tangaroa. I ētahi takiwā o Te Tai Tokerau, nā te tini o te tangata, ka whakataetae ngā iwi mō ngā kai. I whai te kurī me te kiore i te tangata ki Aotearoa mai i Poronihia, hāunga te poaka me te heihei.

He iwi kaha

I ngā wā pai ka ora te noho a te Māori. He poto noa iho te koiora o te Māori o ērā wā ki te koiora o te tangata Māori o ēnei rā, engari ka rite ki te koiora o te tangata Pākehā o tērā wā. I kake pea te taupori Māori ki te 100,000 i mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā.

Kawe tikanga ā-waha

I tukuna ā-wahatia e te Māori āna hītori me āna kōrero. Ka noho ā-whānau, ā-hapū, ā-iwi te Māori, i raro i te mana o tētahi tipuna nui. He mahi whakahirahira ki te Māori te tātai whakapapa.

Ngā riri

He mea nui ki te Māori te mana me te utu. Nā tēnei, ka whānui ngā pakanga me ngā riri. Heoi, ko te tikanga o aua wā, he wā mō te pakanga, he wā hoki mō te noho mārire. I te nuinga o te wā, noho ai te Māori ki ō rātou kāinga, ki ō rātou wāhi mahi kai rānei, kāpā ki ngā pā tūwatawata.

Ngā toi me ngā tikanga a te Māori

Ko te taonga toi nui rawa a te Māori, ko te whakairo whare me te hahau waka, tae atu ki te auaha whao, taonga hoki mai te kōhatu. Ahakoa ngā pakanga me ngā riri i waenganui i ngā iwi, ka haere tonu ngā tauhokohoko i te taonga me te kai. Heoi mā te pakanga anō riro mai ai he rawa.


Europeans to 1840

Tūhuratanga

I te tau 1642, ka tae a Abel Tasman, te kaihōpara Tatimana ki Aotearoa. Koia te Pākehā tuatahi kia kite i tēnei whenua. Ka whakatakoto mahere ia o te takutai hauāuru, atu i Māwhera ki Te Rēinga. Nāwai ā, ka tapaina e tētahi kaiwhakamahere Tatimana te ingoa o Nieuw Zeeland ki te whenua i kitea e Tasman. Ka pahure ngā tau e 127 – kātahi anō ka tau mai he Pākehā ki Aotearoa.

Nō te tau 1769 ka tae a Hēmi Kuki ki Aotearoa. Koinei te tuatahi o āna haerenga e toru ki Aotearoa. I huri taiāwhio, i whakatakoto mahere ia o te whenua nei, i mua i tana hokinga ki Ingarangi ki te whāki ko wai mā ngā tāngata o tēnei whenua, he aha hoki āna rawa.

He wāhanga tawhiti o Ahitereiria

I ngā tau 50 i muri i te waihangatanga o te tāone o Poihākena i 1788, ka tū a Aotearoa hei wāhanga tawhiti ki ngā mahi ōhanga me ngā nekeneke o te koroni o Poihākena (New South Wales). Whāia, i ahu mai i Poihākena te nuinga o ngā tāngata whai tōmua. Nō te paunga o te rau tau a1700 ka taetae ngā kaipatu kekeno, tohorā hoki. Nō ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800 ka tīmata ētahi ki te noho me te ahuwhenua. I tēnei wā, i roto a Aotearoa i tētahi pūnaha tauhokohoko ka hōrapa ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ko ētahi o ngā taonga o Aotearoa i hokona ki Haina rā anō.

Ngā tūtakitanga a te Māori me te Pākehā

Ka tū te ‘tāone’ tuatahi ki Kororāreka, nā te pekapekatanga atu o ngā kaipatu tohorā ki Pēwhairangi ki te tiki kai, wai māori hoki. Atu i te tekau tau 1790 ka tīmata te hokohoko a te Māori i āna poaka me āna rīwai ki te hunga nei. Ko tētahi atu wāhi tūtakitaki ai te Māori me te Pākehā ko Te Ara-o-Kiwa (Foveaux Strait), i te mea i konei te mahi a te kekeno i aua wā. Whāia, ka whakatata atu te Māori ki ngā wāhi kei reira ngā kaihoko. Mēnā he Pākehā kei waenganui i te iwi e noho ana, ka pai kē ake mō te hoko i ngā rawa a te Pākehā, tae rawa ki te pū.

Ngā mihinare

Nā Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden) he minita nō Poihākena, te mīhana tuatahi i whakatū ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1814. Taka mai ki te tau e 1840, neke atu i te 20 ngā mīhana kua whakatūhia. I tua atu i te whakapono, nā ngā mihinare i whakaako te Māori ki ngā mahi ahuwhenua, tae atu ki te pānui me te tuhituhi. Nā ngā mihinare anō hoki te reo Māori i whakatakoto ki te pepa. I te tekau tau atu i 1830, ka kawea mai e ngā mihinare Wīwī te whakapono Katorika.

He puka – he kariri

I tua atu i te whakapono, nā ngā mihinare te Māori i whakaako ki te pānui me te tuhituhi. Nō ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1830 ka tīmata te mihinare a William Yate ki te whakatakoto ā-tuhi i te reo Māori. Nā Te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society) tētahi tohunga kaitā, a Te Koreneho (William Colenso), i tonoa kia haere ki Paihia me tana perehi hanga nūpepa, kia taea ai te tā pukapuka. Tatū ki te tau 1837 kua oti te Kawenata Hōu te tā i roto i te reo Māori. Heoi, i kaha ake te hiahia o ētahi Māori ki ngā rākau pakanga a te Pākehā tērā ki āna pukapuka.

Ngā pakanga ā-iwi

Ā tōna wā ka kāpia e te whakapono hōu ngā iwi Māori, engari i te tīmatanga he pōturi rātou ki te amine ki te whakapono hōu. He nui ake tō rātou aronga ki te tauhokohoko rīwai me te muka harakeke mō te pū. Otirā, i ngā pakanga i ngā tekau tau atu i 1820 me 1830, he nui ake ki ngā iwi te pū tērā i te whakapono. Nā tēnei āhuatanga ka kino ake ngā pakanga i waenganui i ngā iwi. Ko Ngā Puhi i raro i a Hongi Hika tētahi iwi kino i roto i ngā pakanga nei. Nā rātou ngā iwi o te tonga i whakamate. Pērā anō a Ngāti Toa i raro i a Te Rauparaha, ka whakaeke i a Ngāi Tahu o Te Wai Pounamu. Ahakoa te nui o ngā mate i te pū, he nui ake te tangata i mate i ngā tahumaero i tae mai me te Pākehā.


British sovereignty and settlement

Te tutetute a Ingarangi

I te tekau tau atu i 1830, ka ngana te kāwanatanga o Ingarangi kia takoto he ture i Aotearoa, hei tiaki i āna kaihoko, me te kati atu i ngā Wīwī. Ko te hiahia o ngā mihinare, ki te tiaki i te iwi Māori i ngā kino o te noho a te Pākehā.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te tau 1833 ka tonoa a Te Pūhipi (James Busby) ki Pēwhairangi hei Rehireneti (British Resident). Nā Te Pūhipi ngā rangatira o Te Tai Tokerau i whakahau i te tau 1834 ki te mahi mai he haki mō ratou, ā, i te tau 1835 ka haina rātou i tētahi whakaputanga o tō rātou rangatiratanga. E whitu tau i muri i te taenga o Te Pūhipi, ka tono te kāwana tuatahi o Niu Tīreni, a Wiremu Hopihona (William Hobson), kia hui ngā rangatira Māori ki Waitangi i te 6 o ngā rā o Pēpuere 1840, ki te haina i tētahi tiriti me te Karauna o Ingarangi. Neke atu i te e 500 ngā rangatira i haina. Kātahi ka mauria te tiriti ki ngā pito o te motu kia hainatia e ngā rangatira o ngā rohe. I kawea te tiriti ki Te Ara-o-Kiwa rā anō.

Te tino rangatiratanga me ngā tika

I raro i te tiriti, ka tukuna e te Māori te kāwanatanga ki a Ingarangi, ā, ka whakawhiwhia te Māori ki ngā tika o te tangata whenua o Ingarangi; ka puritia hoki ōna whenua me ētahi atu ‘taonga’. Nāwai ā, ka hua te raruraru i te mea he rerekē ngā kōrero o te takotoranga Pākehā o te tiriti ki ērā o te takotoranga Māori. Nō konei uaua ake ai te whakatikatika i ngā takahitanga o te tiriti.

Nā te whakaaetanga a ngā Māori, ka kauhautia te rangatiratanga o Ingarangi ki runga i a Aotearoa. Ka riro mai a Te Wai Pounamu i runga i te take tūhura.

Te ‘whakataetae’ mō Akaroa

I te rau tau atu i 1800, i whakataetae a Ingarangi rāua ko Wīwī, kei a wai te mana i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Iti noa ngā pānga o Wīwī ki Aotearoa, engari kei te haere tonu ngā kōrero e mea ana, nā te taenga o ngā Ingarihi ki Te Wai Pounamu i mua i te Wīwī, ka riro mai a Te Wai Pounamu ki te Ingarihi. Tirohia te whakataetae mō Akaroa. I te taenga o ngā tāngata whai o Wīwī ki Aotearoa, kua taka kē te whenua nei ki raro i te mana o Ingarangi. Heoi nō te mōhiotanga o Kāwana Hopihona kei te ahu ngā Wīwī ki Akaroa i Te Wai Pounamu, ka tonoa e ia a Kāpene Stanley i runga i te kaipuke Britomart ki te whakaatu i te mana o Ingarangi ki reira. Heoi, e kore rawa e rite Te Moana-o-Raukawa ki te moana i waenganui i a Ingarangi me Ūropi, arā, te roma e wehe ana i ngā iwi kōrero Ingarihi i ngā iwi kōrero Wīwī.

Te tīmatanga o te noho Pākehā

I mua noa atu i te hainatanga o te tiriti, nā runga i ngā whakahau a Edward Gibbon Wakefield, ka tonoa e te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni ētahi tāngata whai ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. I ngā rua tau i muri mai, ka whakatūria e te kamupene ngā tāone o Wanganui, o Whakatū me Niu Paremata. Nā ētahi kamupene iti a te Kamupene ngā tāone o Ōtākou (1848) me Ōtautahi (1850) i whakatū. Ka tipu noa a Ākarana, te tāone matua o te Koroni i taua wā.

Ngā hōparatanga a te Pākehā

Kia taka ki te tekau tau atu i 1850, kua taea kē te nuinga o Te Ika-a-Māui e te Pākehā. I te nuinga o te wā ka arahina rātou e ngā Māori mōhio. Nui te whenua i takahia e Te Herewini (George Selwyn) te pīhopa tuatahi o Aotearoa. Kia taka rawa mai ki te wā o te keri koura i te tekau tau atu i 1860, kātahi anō ka taea ngā maunga whakahī o te tuawhenua o Te Wai Pounamu.

Te kāwanatanga motuhake

Nā te hiahia o ngā tāngata whai kia whakatū kāwanatanga mō rātau ake, i te tau 1852 ka whakamanahia e te paremata o Ingarangi te ture kāwanatanga mō Niu Tīreni. Nā tēnei ture ka tū he kāwanatanga mō te motu, he whare paremata, tāpae atu ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe e ono. Tāria, ka riro mai te mana kāwanatanga (he rōpū whiriwhiri ki runga, e tautokona ana e te nuinga i roto i te whare paremata). Heoi i puritia tonutia e te kāwana me te tari koroni ki Rānana te mana whakahaere i ngā ture e pā ana ki ngā ‘Māori’.


War, expansion and depression

Ngā riri tōmua

I te tekau tau atu i 1840, ka pakanga te Māori me te Pākehā. I te tau 1843, ka maringi te toto i tētahi riri whenua ki te whārua o Te Wairau. I pakaru te pakanga ki Te Tai Tokerau (1845-46) i te turakitanga a Hōne Heke i te pou haki o Ingarangi i Kororāreka. I tū anō he tautohetohenga ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara me Whanganui. I te tekau tau atu i 1850, he rīriri tonu te āhua ki Taranaki, ko te take, ko ngā whenua i hokona ki te Pākehā.

Ko te whenua te take

Tatū rawa ki te tekau tau atu i 1850, i taea e te kāwanatanga te hoko i ngā whenua ka rite ki te hiahia o ngā tangata whai. Heoi, atu i taua wā, ka whakakeke ngā iwi Māori ki te hoko ō rātou whenua. Ko te tikanga a te Māori, nō te iwi katoa kē te whenua, kāpā nō te tangata takitahi. Koianei tētahi o ngā take ka tū te Kīngitanga i raro i ngā akiaki a Wiremu Tāmihana. I te tau 1858, ka whakawahia a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero hei Kīngi Māori tuatahi.

Ngā pakanga i Taranaki me Waikato

Ko Taranaki te muranga o ngā ahi o te riri. I te kore whakaaetanga a Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke kia hokona ōna whenua i Waitara i te tau 1861, ka pakaru te riri. E ai ki ngā tāngata whai, he wero nui ki te kāwanatanga te pupuri kaha a te Māori i ōna whenua. Nā Kāwana Hōri Kerei i whakahau kia kawea te riri ki roto o Waikato i ngā tau 1863-64. Koinei te hingatanga o te Māori.

Ka pakanga tonu a Te Kooti rāua ko Tītokowaru ki te Pākehā i te roanga ake o te tekau tau atu i 1860. Nō te tau 1872 ka mutu ngā pakanga mō te whenua. Inā te nui o ngā whenua i raupatuhia i ngā iwi ‘whakakeke’. Ka whakatūria te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te uta taitara ki runga te whenua mō te Māori takitahi, kia wawe ai te hoko ki te Pākehā.

Whai muri i ngā pakanga, he nui tonu ngā Māori i noho motuhake i te Pākehā. Ko te nuinga i haere ki uta noho ai. Ka riro tonu ngā whenua Māori ki ngā ringaringa o ngā Pākehā. I te nuinga o te wā i ngaro ngā whenua o te Māori mā ngā hokohoko i te Kōti Whenua Māori. I te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka tū a Parihaka hei pokapū mō ngā mautohe mārire, i raro i ngā poropiti a Te Whiti-o-Rongomai me Tohu Kākahi. Ka mautohe rātou mō ngā whenua o Taranaki i raupatutia. I te tau 1881 ka whakaeketia a Parihaka e te ope taua hōia, ka tāmia ngā mautohe.

‘Kāore he okiokinga’

When he was under pressure to sell his tribe’s land at Waitara, Te Āti Awa chief Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke wrote to Donald McLean, the chief land purchase commissioner: ‘These lands will not be given by us into the Governor’s and your hands, lest we resemble the sea-birds which perch upon a rock, when the tide flows the rock is covered by the sea and the birds take flight, for they have no resting place.’ I te wā e pēhia ana te rangatira o Te Āti Awa a Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke, kia hokona ngā whenua o tōna iwi i Waitara, ka tuhi reta ia ki a Te Mākarini, te kaikōmihana hoko whenua matua: ‘E kore mātou e whakaae kia taka ō mātou whenua ki te kapu o ōu ringa me ngā ringa o te Kāwana. Kei rite mātou ki te karoro ka tū i te toka, ka pari te tai, kua toremi te toka, kua rere te manu, kua kore hoki he tauranga mōna.’ 1

Te koura me te wūru

Nā ngā pakanga ka pōturi te ōhanga o Te Ika-a-Māui. Hāunga anō Te Wai Pounamu, ka nui te hua i puta i te wūru me te koura. Tini mano te hipi i tukuna kia kai noa i ngā whenua raorao o Te Wai Pounamu. I te tau 1861 ka kitea nuitia te koura ki Ōtākou; nō muri tata mai ka kitea anōtia i Te Tai Poutini. Nā tēnei ka horo te kuhu mai a te tangata whai ki Aotearoa. E ono tau i muri mai ka huraina te koura ki Hauraki; kātahi ka kaha ake te tipu o te tāone o Ākarana.

Nā te wūru ka tū a Waitaha ko te porowini whai rawa nui katoa o Aotearoa; otirā, nā te koura ka noho ko Ōtepoti te tāone nui rawa atu.

Te kaupapa a Vogel

Kia tae ki te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, kua ngoikore ngā mahi kōura, kua heke hoki te utu mō te wūru. I te tau 1870 ka takoto te kaupapa a Julius Vogel te Kaitiaki Pūtea o te koroni, arā, kia tahuri a Niu Tīreni ki ētahi mahi tūmatanui, pēnei i te hanga rerewē me te āwhina i te manene kia haere mai ki tēnei whenua; mā te pūtea taurewa ēnei mahi nui e utu. Kātahi ka nui haere te taupori. I whakaatu te tatauranga o te tau 1871, kua eke te taupori ki te hauwhā miriona (kāpā ngā Māori). Kia hipa ngā tau tekau, kua eke te tokomaha ki te haurua miriona tāngata. He rite ngā whakaaro o Vogel ki ō Wakefield, arā, mā te whakawai i ngā tāngata me ā rātou rawa ki Niu Tīreni ka tipu tēnei whenua. Nā te take nei, ka hua te whakaaro, he whenua motuhake tenei, kāore ōna wehewehenga. Whāia, i te tau 1876 ka whakakorea ngā porowini.

He paheketanga roa

Nā ngā pūtea taurewa a Vogel, ka paheke te ōhanga o te motu, ā, kia taka rā anō ki te tekau tau atu i 1890 kātahi anō ka puta haere i te pōuri. Ahakoa te nui o te utu mō te wīti mō tētahi wā, ka heke te uara o ngā hua ahuwhenua, ka kore haere te hiahia ki te whenua. Nā te paheketanga ka kore ngā mahi mā te hunga noho tāone, ka tū rānei ko ngā wāhi mahi mōrearea. Ka wehe te tini ki tāwāhi, ko te nuinga i haere ki Ahitereiria.

Te tuku mīti ki tāwāhi

Kīhai rawa i pēnei te kaha paheke o te ōhanga o te motu. Heoi, i te tau 1882 ka whai rawa anō te motu i te āheinga kia whakatio mīti hei hoko ki Ingarangi. Nā tēnei ka taea ngā mahi hoko mīti (tio), tae atu ki te pata me te tīhi (makariri). Kia ea rā anō ngā raruraru mō te taha ki ngā kaipuke kawe whata mātao, ka tū a Aotearoa hei wāhi ahuwhenua mō Ingarangi. Ko te ahuwhenua te mahi nui o te ōhanga o Aotearoa, ka turakina ngā wao ngahere, ka ahua te whenua.

Ahakoa te pōuri i pā mai ki te motu i te paheketanga o te ōhanga, ka hiki ngā manawa i te taenga pai o ētahi mīti tio mai i Niu Tīreni ki Ingarangi i te tau 1882. Kua āhei te hoko mīti tio, pata, tīhi ki tāwāhi. Ahakoa ngā raruraru i pā mai i te tīmatanga o te tuku kai tio ki tāwāhi, ka matika a Niu Tīreni hei pāmu mō Ingarangi. Nā te huri o Niu Tīreni ki ngā mahi ahuwhenua, ka huri te whenua mai i te ngahere ki te pāmu.

Footnotes
  1. Ann Parsonson, ‘Te Rangitāke, Wiremu Kīngi, ?–1882’. Dictionary of New Zealand biography , http://www.dnzb.govt.nz › Back

Liberal to Labour

Te kāwanatanga Rīpera

I te pōti whānui o te tau 1890 ka eke te rōpū Rīpera hei kāwanatanga. Koianei te rōpū tōrangapū tuatahi me kī, o te ‘ao hōu’ kia eke ki ngā taumata kāwanatanga. Atu i te tau 1893 ki te tau 1906, ko Te Hētana (Richard Seddon) te pirimia o te kāwanatanga Rīpera. Nā ngā Rīpera i whakaū te tikanga ‘pāmu mō te whānau’, mā te wāwāhi i ngā teihana nui kia takoto te maha o ngā pāmu pakupaku; te hoko i ngā whenua Māori ki Te Ika-a-Māui, te whakarato āwhina pūtea ki ngā tāngata whai. Nā te koronga o ngā mākete whai rawa i ngā hua ahuwhenua o Aotearoa, ka whai hua ngā kaupapa nei. Nā te minita mō ngā whenua nā John McKenzie i hāpai te kaupapa o ngā ‘pāmu mō te whānau’. Ka ahu whakamua ngā mahi ahuwhenua i Te Ika-a-Māui. Kia eke ki te tau 1901, neke atu i te haurua o te taupori Pākehā o Aotearoa i te noho ki Te Ika-a-Māui. Koinei te wā tuatahi i pēnei te kaha o te taupori Pākehā o te raki mai anō i te tekau tau 1850.

Ka whakakuhu te kāwanatanga i a ia

Kātahi ka whakakuhuna haeretia e te kāwanatanga Rīpera tōna mana ki te ōhanga me ngā whakahaere o te hapori. Koianei te tīmatanga o te toko i te ora kāwanatanga, inarā whakaratoa ai te penihana kaumātua me ngā kāinga mō ngā kaimahi. I te tau 1893, whai muri i ngā mautohe a te hunga wāhine pērā i a Kate Sheppard, ka whakawhiwhia te wahine ki te pōti.

Kei runga i te moni

Atu i te tau 1887, ko Kate Sheppard te kaiārahi i ngā mautohe kia whakawhiwhia te wahine ki te pōti. Nō te tau 1893 ka tutuki tēnei wawata. Ka hipa ngā tau, nāwai ā, ka tohua ko tōna whakaahua ki runga i te nōti $10 hōu o Aotearoa. Ko ōna hoa i tāngia ki te nōti, ko Tā Edmund Hillary (ki runga i te nōti $5), te whakaihuwaka nāna te tihi o Everest i kake tuatahi i te tau 1953; ko te tipua o te ao Māori a Tā Āpirana Ngata (kei runga i te nōti $50); ko Ernest Rutherford (ki runga i te nōti $100), te kaimātai pūtaiao nāna i wāhi te ngota. I ngā wā o mua, tāngia ai te āhua o Kuini Irihāpeti i ngā nōti katoa; i ēnei wā, kei runga tōna āhua i te nōti $20 anake.

Ka pūmau ki Ingarangi

Nā ngā here ōhanga i waenganui i a Niu Tīreni me Ingarangi, ka kaha ake te whakawhirinaki atu o Niu Tīreni ki te emepaea. I te tau 1899, i āta kitea tēnei pūmautanga i te tuku a Niu Tīreni i ana hōia kia tū ki te taha o Ingarangi i te pakanga ki a Āwherika ki te Tonga. Ka puea ake te wairua whakatoatoa mō tēnei whenua. Koianei te take ka whakahē a Niu Tīreni kia kotahi atu ki te Whakaminenga o Ahitereiria i te tau 1901.

Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao

I te tau 1912 ka turakina te kāwanatanga Rīpera, ka matika mai ko te rōpū Riwhōma (Reform Party) i raro i a Te Maahi (William Massey). Ko te kī taurangi a tēnei kāwanatanga ki ngā kairīhi whenua kāwanatanga, ka taea e rātou te pupuri tūturu i aua whenua. Nō te pakarutanga o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, ka rūpeke atu a Niu Tīreni ki te taha o Ingarangi whawhai ai. Tini ngā hōia o Niu Tīreni i haere ki ngā pae o te riri ki tāwāhi, tini rātou i hinga. Ko te tau 1915 te pakaritanga o te tuakiri o Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni, i te taunga o ana hōia ki te pakanga i Karipori kei te Whenua Korukoru (Turkey). Nō konei rongohia tuatahitia ai a ANZAC – te wehi o ngā hōia o Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni, me ngā hononga ki a Ahitereiria. I te pakanga nui o te ao, i hinga anō ngā hōia o Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni ki te ahi pārāweranui e mura rā ki Ūropi.

Ka paheke te ōhanga o te ao

Whai hua ana a Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni i te pikinga o te ōhanga o te motu i te tekau tau atu i 1920. Heoi, ka ūhia te ao ki te kapua pōuri i te hōrapa o te ‘Paheketanga Nui’ i te tekau tau atu i 1930. Pākia kinotia a Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni. Ka hinga ngā utu mō ana hokonga ki tāwāhi. Ka pēhia te tini o ngā kai pāmu mō ā rātou mōkete, ka piki rawa atu te tokomaha i te kore mahi. Nāwai, ka tīmata te rīriri me te aha, ka pakaru ngā pakanga ki ngā tāone. Ahakoa tana ngana, kāore i tareka e te kāwanatanga whakakotahi a Te Kōti (Coates) te hiki i te motu ki te whaiao, ki te ao mārama.

Ka matika a Reipa

Mārama te kite i te kaha o te tōpūtanga kaimahi i ngā auporo ā ngā kaumoana (1890) me ērā i pupū ake i ngā tau 1912 - 1913 ki Waihī, ki ngā kaimahi hoki i ngā wāpu. Nā ngā pōreareatanga ki te hunga ahumahi, i tahuri rātou ki te ao tōrangapū. I te tau 1916 ka hua mai te rōpū Reipa. I te tekau tau atu i 1920 ka piki haere te mana o te rōpū nei. Nō te tau 1935 ka riro i a Reipa te mana kāwanatanga i raro i a Te Hāwiti (M. J. Savage). Kua kore kē e aro te iwi whānui ki te kāwanatanga whakakotahi me āna whakahaere i te wā o te Paheketanga Nui. I te matenga o Te Hāwiti i te tau 1940, ka whakakīia tōna tūranga hei pirimia e Pita Pereiha (Peter Fraser).

Te kāwanatanga o Reipa

I te wā ka kuhu a Reipa hei kāwanatanga, kua piki haere te ōhanga o te motu. Kāore te kāwanatanga nei i whai ngā tikanga tūturu o te taha maui o te ao tōrangapū, ka titiro tonu ia ki tōna ao me ōna nekeneke. I te tau 1936 ka tangohia e te kāwanatanga ki a ia te mana whakahaere o te Reserve Bank, ka piki ngā mahi tūmatanui (public works), ka tīmataria te hanganga o ngā whare kāwanatanga (state housing). Nā Te Ture Penihana (Social Security Act) 1938, ka whānui atu te hōrapa o te toko i te ora kāwanatanga.

Te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao

I te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ka tū anō ngā hōia o Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni ki te taha o ērā o Ingarangi. Nō te horonga o Hingapoa, ka tīmata te māharahara a Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni mō te kaha o Ingarangi ki te tiaki i a Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni. I te pakanga ki Te Moana Nui (Pacific Ocean), nā te Hononga o Amerika (United States of America) kē a Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni i whakamarumaru i ngā wetiweti a Hapanihi. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1950, ka whawhai ngā hōia o Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni ki Kōrea. He pērā anō i te tekau tau atu i 1960; nā te hiahia o te kāwanatanga Nāhinara kia whakapatipati i tōna kaitiaki i a te Hononga o Amerika, ka whai atu a Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni ki ngā riri ki Whitināmu (Vietnam). He nui ngā tāngata o te motu i mautohe mō tēnei pakanga.

Te paheketanga o Reipa

Ka noho tonu a Reipa hei kāwanatanga, ā, mutu rawa te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. I te tau 1945, ka whai wāhi te pirimia a Pita Pereiha ki ngā hui whakatū i te Kotahitanga o Ngā Whenua o te Ao (United Nations). Heoi, ka ngoikore haere a Reipa, ka memeha ngā tautoko o te tekau tau ki mua.


The later 20th century

Te whai manatanga o Nāhinara

Whai muri i te hingatanga o Reipa i te tau 1949, ko Nāhinara (National) te kāwanatanga mō te nuinga o te wā, tae rawa ki te tau 1984. I roto i aua tau, e rua anake ngā wā ka tū he kāwanatanga Reipa, arā, i te 1957-60 me te 1972-75. Nā tana mahi ki te āta pēhi i ngā auporo i ngā wāpu i te tau 1953 ka whakapiki e te pirimia e Te Hōrana (Sidney Holland) te mana o Nāhinara mā te karanga pōti ohorere.

Ngā here ki Ingarangi

I te wā e pūkahu ana te tupu o te ōhanga o Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni i te hokonga o ngā hua pāmu ki Ingarangi, i te horo tonu mai te tini o te manene ki ēnei motu, ko te nuinga nō Piritana Nui. Ka whakawhirinaki tonu a Aotearoa ki a Ingarangi, ka rite tonu āna tikanga ki ā Ingarangi. I te tau 1953 ka hī te ngākau o te motu i te kakenga o Edmund Hillary ki te tihi o te maunga Everest, hei tāna, he koha whakanui i te koroneihana o Kuini Irihāpeti II.

Ngā haerenga mai o te kāhui roera

Ko te tuatahi o te kāhui ariki o Ingarangi kia tae mai ki Aotearoa, ko Alfred, te tama tuarua a Kuini Wikitōria. I konei ia mō ngā tau 1869-71. I te tau 1920 ka peka mai te Pirinihi o Wērā (mō tētahi wā poto koia a Kīngi Erueti VIII), ā, i te tau 1927 ka tae mai te Tiuka o Ioka (Duke and Duchess of York) me tōna hoa rangatira. Heoi, nō te tau 1953 rawa tau mai ai tētahi ūpoko ariki o Ingarangi. Riro katoa te iwi whānui te whakamihi ki a Kuini Irihāpeti II, kātahi anō rā a ia ka eke hei kuini. Ka whakapaipaitia ngā tāone, ka puta te tini mano kia mātaki i te kuini me tōna hoa rangatira. Tekau tau ka taha, ka haere mai anō te kuini ki konei. Heoi, kāore i pērā te kaha o te tangata ka puta kia kite i a ia i tēnei haerenga me ngā haerenga ka whai.

I te tau 1973 ka kuhu a Ingarangi ki te European Economic Community (EEC). I taua wā, kua oti kē i a Aotearoa te whakawhānui i āna pūnaha tauhokohoko ki tāwāhi, engari he mea nui tonu te ngaronga o ngā mākete o Ingarangi mō ngā hua ahuwhenua. I te tau 1973, ka piki te utu o te penehīni puta i te ao. I te tau 1975 ka hinga te kāwanatanga Reipa. Ko Norman Kirk te pirimia o te kāwanatanga Reipa, tatū rawa ki tōna matenga. I te tau 1978 ka piki anō ngā utu mō te penehīni i te ao. Whāia, ka ngana te kāwanatanga Nāhinara o Robert Muldoon kia ārai i a Aotearoa i ngā whakawhiunga o te wā, mā ngā kaupapa ‘hanga whakaaro nui’ (‘think big’), arā, mā ngā tūmahi nunui pērā i te māturu hinu (oil refinery) ki Marsden Point, tāpae ki ngā pūtea tāpiri ki te taha ahuwhenua (farm subsidies). I te takahanga o ngā utu hinu o te ao i te tekau tau atu i 1980, ka paheke te ōhanga, ka ngoikore ngā tūmahi nui a Muldoon. Ka heke te uara o te tāra, ka piki te tokomaha noho mahi kore.

Te ‘pāhorotanga’ i 1984

I te tau 1984 ka tohungia te kāwanatanga Reipa tuawhā. Ko Roger Douglas te minita o te tahua i taua wā, he tangata pūmau ki te whakaaro kia wātea ngā mahi ōhanga i ngā rāwekeweke a te kāwanatanga. Ka tangohia e ia ngā pānga o te kāwanatanga ki runga i te ōhanga o te motu, ka hokona ētahi o ana whakahaere. I tua atu i tēnei, ka puta ana tuma ki te toko i te ora kāwanatanga. Ka tirohia e te rahi ēnei mahi āna, pēnei i te takahi i te tikanga e mea ana, kāore tētahi tangata e nui ake i tētahi atu.

I roto i ngā nekeneke o te ao, kāore te kāwanatanga Reipa i whakaae ki ngā kaupapa pana karihi. Nā tēnei ka raruraru ngā whakawhitiwhitinga me te Hononga o Amerika.

Nāhinara me Reipa

He ōrite ngā kaupapa i whāia e te kāwanatanga Nāhinara o ngā tau 1990–99 ki ērā o Reipa; ka whakamanahia te Ture Mahi Kirimana (Employment Contract Act) e tuwhera ai te mākete mahi. Nā tēnei ka heke te kaha o ngā uniana. Kātahi ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te wetewete i ngā kaupapa toko i te ora kāwanatanga, pēnei i ngā penihana.

I te tau 1996 ka whakakuhuna te kaupapa whirirua hei tikanga pōti whānui, e whai wāhi ai ngā rōpū tōrangapū ririki ki roto Paremata. Ahakoa tēnei, ka noho tonu ko Nāhinara rāua ko Reipa ngā rōpū tōrangapū nui.

Te Māori i te rau tau 1900

Tae rawa ki te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, e noho tonu ana te mātotoru o te iwi Māori kei te tuawhenua. I te paunga o te rau tau 1800 me te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1900, e tū kaha ana te rōpū o te Kotahitanga, he whakaaturanga o te manawa kaha o te iwi Māori. He pērā anō mō ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua a Āpirana Ngata me te hiki ake a Te Puea Hērangi i te Kīngitanga. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1920, ka waihangahia e Wiremu Tahupōtiki Rātana te Hāhi Rātana.

I te mutunga o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka horo te nuku o te iwi Māori ki ngā tāone. Nāwai ā, ka tipu te riri o te Māori mō tōna kore whai wāhi ki ngā hua o te ōhanga, tāpae atu ki te hokonga tonutanga o ōna whenua. Waihoki, ka tīmata te aro whānui o ngā tāngata ki te āhua o te noho o ngā iwi ki tēnei motu me te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ngā mahi tōrangapū me ngā hākinakina

Kua roa kē e tū ana ngā hākinakina i waenganui i a Aotearoa me taua whenua whakatāuke tangata, a Te Tonga o Awherika. I te taunga mai o te tīma whutupaoro o Te Tonga o Awherika i te tau 1981, ka tōtara wāhi rua te motu. Nō tō rātou hokinga, ka tahuri te motu ki te āta whakaaro mō te āhua o te noho a ngā iwi ki tēnei motu me te wāhi ki te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ka kakama te iwi Māori

Ka kaha ake te iwi Māori. Nā te whakapae kua whatia ngā ture o te Tiriti o Waitangi, ka hiahia ētahi kia hoki mai te tino rangatiratanga a te Māori ki te Māori. I te tau 1975 ka waihangahia te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei whiriwhiri kerēme, hei whakaea hoki i ngā whakamau. I te tau 1985 ka whakamanahia te taraipiunara kia tātari i ngā whatinga o te tiriti atu i te tau 1840, kāpā atu i te tau 1975 noa iho.

Tikanga-rua, takenga maha (Bicultural and multicultural)

Nō ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1980 ka whanake anō te reo Māori. Ka hōrapa te whakaaro, he whenua tikanga-rua a Aotearoa. I taua wā anō, tini te manene e tau mai ana. Kātahi anō ka toko te kōrero he whenua tikanga-rua a Aotearoa, ka huri a Aotearoa hei whenua takenga maha – kitea tuatahitia ai tēnei i te panoni o te taupori, nō muri ka kitea i te āhua tonu o ngā whakahaerenga ā-motu. He tohu ngā manene o ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa me Āhia ki te mea kua kore a Aotearoa e whakawhirinaki atu ki Ingarangi pērā i ngā tau ki mua.


How to cite this page: John Wilson, 'Hītori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hitori/print (accessed 16 September 2019)

Story by John Wilson, published 8 Feb 2005