Kōrero: Kaumātua

Whārangi 3. Ko ngā kaumātua ngā whare mātauranga me ngā kaiwhakatipu

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā whare kōrero

I ngā wā o mua ko ngā kaumātua tonu ngā whare pupuri kōrero ā-iwi, whakapapa, tuku iho hoki. Ko ngā kaikōrero mātau ka whakanōhia ki runga i ngā paepae marae. Ka taka ki a rātou ngā mahi tā kawa, taki hoki i ngā kawenga tapu. Ka anga atu rā te mātātahi ki te hunga kaumātua hei whakamārama kōrero, hei tautiaki, hei whakanoho i ngā ture me ngā tikanga ā te iwi.

Ngā kaipupuri tikanga

E whai ake nei ko tā Hirini Mead mō te tūranga o te kaumātua ki te tiaki i ngā tikanga Māori: ‘Older individuals generally have a greater familiarity with and knowledge about tikanga because they have participated in tikanga, have observed interpretations of the tikanga at home and other tribal areas. The kaumātua and kuia, the elders, are often the guardians of tikanga.’ (Ka mārama ake te hunga kaumātua ki te mātauranga me ngā tikanga Māori, inā hoki kua rumakina rātou ki ngā tikanga, kua kite hoki rātou i te whakahaerenga o ēnei tikanga ki ō rātou kāinga, rohe maha. I te nuinga o te wā ko ngā kaumātua tonu ngā kaipupuri tikanga).1

Ngā pēpeha mō te kaumātua

Anei ētahi whakataukī e pā ana ki te kaumātua:

‘Ka eke anō i te puke ki Ruahine.’ E nanaiore ana tētahi i runga i te pae o Ruahine. I te mātanga o te pae o Ruahine e te hukarere, e kīa ana kua kōeke.

‘He rākau tawhito, e mau ana te taitea i waho rā, e tū te kōhiwi.’ He kōrero tēnei mō te kaumātua, arā ahakoa te heke o te tinana, e mauri tau tonu ai tōna wairua.

‘Rākau papa pānga ka hei ki te marae.’ Arā ko te rākau ka whiua ki te taha, ka taea te whakairo tuarua anō hei rākai ki te marae. He kōrero tēnei mō te hunga pakeke kua pūkenga i a rātou tētahi mahi engari kua kotoremomoe. Ka āhei rātou ki te whakaheke i ērā pūkenga ki te rangatahi.

‘Ngā taru o Tura.’ He kōrero tēnei mō te hina me te kaumātuatanga.

‘Ka haere te matatahi, ka noho te matapuputu.’2

Waiata oriori

Tāpiri anō ko tētahi momo whakaheke mātauranga ko te waiata oriori. He mea tito ēnei e te kaumātua mō tāna mokopuna hou. Ka hoki ngā kupu o ēnei waiata ki ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā whakapapa a tōna iwi, hei whakamaharatanga ake mā te tamaiti rā ki ōna kawenga mā te iwi. Ko Hinekitawhiti o Te Auiti tērā i tito i tana waiata oriori mō tāna mokopuna kōhine mō Ahuahukiterangi, e noho mai nā i te takiwā o Te Ariuru ki Tokomaru. I roto i te oriori nei ka puta te oha a te kuia ki tana mokopuna, me te whakatau ake i ōna kārangaranga maha atu i Tokomaru huri noa ki Raukōkore. Ka whakarērea hoki āna tohutohu mō ngā rangatira ā-iwi me ngā tohu whenua o tōna takiwā.

Te kōwhiri tauira

Kāre ngā kaumātua tae rawa ki ngā kuia i tuku mātauranga ki ngā tamariki mā te waha anake, engari i whakaputaina hoki e rātou ki ngā tini mahinga katoa. Hei ngā wā takitahi kua tohua tētahi tamaiti i tūmanakohia ai mō te ako. Ka hoki a Pei Te Hurinui Jones ki te wā e tai ana ia i te taha o tana koroua i a Te Hurinui Te Wano ā tae noa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1911. He nui ngā hui me ngā rūnanga ā-iwi i whai haere ai rāua puta noa i te motu. Ko te nuinga o ngā kōrero tuku iho i a Pei Te Hurinui he mea whāngai e tōna koroua.

Kaumātua whāngai

I ngā wā e karangahia ana ngā mātua ki te mahi, ki te pakanga rānei, ko ngā kaumātua e nānā ana i ngā tamariki. He tikanga anō kia riro mā ngā kaumātua anō te mātāmua e opeope e riro ki a ia ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā whakapapa. He nui noa atu te hunga tamariki ka whakapakekehia e o rātou kaumātua ki o rātou kāinga anō.

Taura here kaumātua-mokopuna

Ko ngā kaumātua pea te hunga i kitea nui ai e ngā tamariki. I tūhonotia ai te hononga o te kaumātua me te mokopuna i runga i te manaakitanga me te aroha, me te whakaoko tohutohu hoki. Ka hoki ngā mahara a Te Rangi Hīroa: ‘When I was told that an aged visitor whom I had never seen before was a tipuna to me, my heart warmed towards him. I placed him in the same category as my other tipuna who resided in the same village and had lavished affection upon me. He was a member of the family'  (Pēnā ka kīa mai ahau he tipuna tētahi kaumātua manene nōku, ka rata tōku ngākau ki a ia. Ka whakaaro nui au mōna, anō nei he kaumātua ia o te kāinga tonu nei nā rātou au i poipoi. He whānau tonu ia).3

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Hirini Moko Mead, Tikanga Māori: living by Māori values. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Huia, 2003, wh. 14. Back
  2. Hirini Moko Mead rāua ko Neil Grove, Ngā pēpeha a ngā tīpuna. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Victoria University Press, 2001. Back
  3. Te Rangi Hīroa, The coming of the Maori. 2nd ed. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Maori Purposes Fund Board and Whitcombe and Tombs, 1950, wh. 342. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rawinia Higgins and Paul Meredith, 'Kaumātua - Ko ngā kaumātua ngā whare mātauranga me ngā kaiwhakatipu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kaumatua/page-3 (accessed 8 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Rawinia Higgins and Paul Meredith, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011