Kōrero: Kaumātua

Whārangi 4. Kaumātua me te rangatiratanga

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Rangatiratanga

Ko ngā kaumātua, tāne mai wahine mai, ngā kaiārahi o te whānau. I pūtahi te mana o te whānau ki ngā mātāmua, arā ngā mea mātau rawa hei akiaki i ngā tōmuri. Kei ngā kaumātua anō te whakatau whakamutunga mō te taha ki ngā take whenua whānau, ngā taonga ā-whānau, te whakatipu me te whakaako i ngā tamariki. Ko rātou anō ngā māngai o ngā whānau ki ngā rūnanga.

Tūranga kaumātua ki te rūnanga

He tūranga whai hiranga tō ngā kaumātua ki te rūnanga. Nō te tau 1805 ka tae mai te tohunga poka tinana a John Savage ki Aotearoa. E rua ngā marama e noho ana ia ki Pēwhairangi, ka hoki ia ki Ingarangi me tētahi Māori, ko Moehanga te ingoa. Ko ia te Māori tuatahi kia tae ki Ingarangi. Ka kite ia: ‘The elders have great weight in the councils of the chiefs, and in all affairs, excepting those of a military description, they decide independently of them, though the authority of the chiefs would undoubtedly enable them to prevent the elders from carrying any projected measure into execution, should they feel disposed to exert this authority’ (He nui te mana o te kaumātua ki ngā rūnanga o ngā rangatira, ki ngā take katoa, hāunga ngā take tauā, ahakoa e āhei tonu te mana o te rangatira te haukoti mahi kaumātua inā hiahia ai).1

Taumau

Ka uru anō te kaumātua ki ngā whakahaerenga o te tikanga taumau. He wā kua tū te kaumātua i roto i te hui me te rāhui i te mokopuna tamaiti mō te taumau. Ka tūtakina tēnei tikanga hei paihere ā-whānau, hapū, iwi hoki. He wā anō kua kōrero tētahi ki tana kaumātua i mua i te tono atu. Pēnā ka whakaaetia e tērā kaumātua, kua wātea ia te moe hoa.

Whakatau totohe

Ka whai mana anō te kaumātua ki ngā whakahaerenga o te hapori, me te whakawā raruraru. Ki te puta te totohe i ētahi hunga, kua tahuri rātou ki te rapu i ngā whakaaro āwhina o te kaumātua. Ka kōrero a Merimeri Penfold mō te whakawā a ōna kaumātua i te hunga ka taka ki te hē i ngā tau 1930: ‘Every Sunday they would have this gathering of elders and bring up elements that need to be addressed by them – like these guys who had been tampering with Māori tapu or raiding the hen run … this is the talk around the family, everybody knows about [the family member involved] and he was brought to meet the elders after church and that was sort of punishment, too' (Ia Rātapu kua hui katoa ngā kaumātua me te whakaputa ake i ētahi āhuatanga hei tirotiro mā te iwi – pērā i te hunga tānoanoa tapu, i ērā rānei ka whānako heihei ... koinei ngā kōrero e karapoti nei i te whānau, e mōhiotia ana te mea hara, ā, ka mauria ki te aroaro o ngā kaumātua hāhi, me tā rātou whiriwhiri whakawhiunga mōna). 2

Kupu tāpiri
  1. John Savage, Some account of New Zealand: particularly the Bay of Islands, and surrounding country: with a description of the religion and government, language, arts, manufactures, manners, and customs of the natives. Rānana: J. Murray, 1807, wh. 29. Back
  2. Nena Benton, ‘Interview with Merimeri Penfold, 12 July 2002.’ Te Pū Wānanga Transcript 8, Te Matahauariki Institute, University of Waikato. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rawinia Higgins and Paul Meredith, 'Kaumātua - Kaumātua me te rangatiratanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kaumatua/page-4 (accessed 15 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Rawinia Higgins and Paul Meredith, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011