Kōrero: Kāwanatanga

Mai i te hononga tuatahi o te Māori ki te kāwanatanga he maha ngā pōhēhē a te Pākehā ki te ritenga Māori. Ko tētahi take e tautohetia nuitia ana i ēnei rā ko te kupu kāwanatanga.

Story by Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins
Te āhua nui: He kāinga Māori, ki Pēwhairangi, i te tau 1835 pea

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

I takea mai te kupu kāwanatanga i te kupu Māori mō ‘governor’ – kāwana.

Nō te Whakaputanga i te tau 1835 kātahi anō ka mahi ngātahi ngā iwi Māori ki te whakature i te mana motuhake ki tēnei whenua. Nā ngā rangatira o Te Tai Tokerau i haina tuatahi i runga i te whakatau kia whakaae rā anō ko rātou i mua i te whakatū kāwanatanga.

Ka rapua hoki e rātou te kī taurangi a te Karauna mō te noho haumaru o te mana motuhake o Aotearoa i ngā iwi kē.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te tau 1840 ka hainatia te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko te wāhanga Māori tērā i tāmokotia e te nuinga, me te tuku anō i te ‘kāwanatanga’ ki te Karauna. I te Māori anō te ringa kaha i tērā wā, ā, ka maharatia mō ngā Pākehā anake te kāwana o Piritānia i Aotearoa.

He rerekē taua wāhanga i te kaupapa reo Pākehā, i huaina kētia ko te kupu ‘absolute sovereignty’, ā, ka mārō ngā Pākehā koia tonu nei te tuku i whakaaetia.

Ngā whakawaimehatanga

Ka whakamātau te kāwanatanga ki te whakawaimeha i te Māori ki te ao o tauiwi. Koirā tonu te papa i riro ai ngā whenua haumako rawa a te Māori. Ka whakahokia te riri e te iwi Māori, ā, ki tā te kāwanatanga, he mahi takatakahi tērā i te ūpoko o te Karauna, ā, ka whakawhiua te Māori ki te pene me te hoari. Ko te pakarutanga tērā o ngā riri whenua o Aotearoa.

Māori me te Paremata

I runga i te hanganga o ngā tūru Māori i te tau 1867 ka hiahia te kāwanatanga ki te whakarata i te Māori me te whakaiti i ōna mana tōrangapū. Heoi ka tukituki tonu te Māori i te kāwanatanga mā roto tonu i te Kīngitanga me te Kotahitanga (Paremata Māori).

Te ao hurihuri

Mai i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka tīmata te heke a te Māori ki ngā taone noho ai, ā, ka whakapā haere ki te ao Pākehā. Nō konei ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te whakawaimeha i te Māori ki te ao Pākehā.

I ngā tekau tau 1970 ka ohooho ake te Māori ki ngā take nui e pā ana ki a ia.

I te tau 1975 ka waihangatia te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei tirotiro i ngā whatinga o te tiriti. Mai i te tekau tau 1980 ka whakatairanga ake te rōpū nei i te iwiruatanga. Heoi i te rautau 2000 he maha ngā take kei mua tonu i te aroaro o te kāwanatanga, pērā i ngā ture e pā ana ki te takutai moana.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins, 'Kāwanatanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kawanatanga (accessed 13 November 2019)

Story by Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins, published 20 Jun 2012, updated 22 Aug 2016