Kōrero: Kāwanatanga

Whārangi 4. Te tītari kāwanatanga

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Kotahitanga me te Kīngitanga

Whai muri i ngā pakanga whenua o Aotearoa ka riro tonu te whenua, nā te raupatu me ētahi atu tukanga. Heoi ka mau tonu ngā hiahia mana motuhake, ā, i te nuinga o te wā i roto anō i te mārie. I te tekau tau 1890 ka ara ake te Paremata Māori o Te Kotahitanga hei whakakotahi i ngā iwi ki raro i te mana o te Tiriti o Waitangi.

I puta tonu te ihu o Te Kīngitanga whai muri i ngā pakanga whenua, ā, ka tūrangawaewae rātou ki Ngāruawāhia.

Te whakahaere tikanga Māori

Ko tētahi mana o ngā kaunihera Māori (i hangā i te tau 1900) ko te whakahaere tangihanga. I te tau 1902 ka whakahipa te Kaunihera Māori o Mangonui i tēnei ture: ki te hinga tētahi tangata i waenga i te 15 o Māehe me te 15 o Hepetema (me te tatau i ēnei rā e rua) o tētahi tau, me nehu te tūpāpaku i roto i te whā rā atu i te matenga; ā, ki te hinga te tangata i waenga i te 16 o Hepetema me te 14 o Māehe i te tau o muri atu (me te tatau i ēnei rā e rua), me nehu i roto i te toru rā, atu i te matenga, hāunga ērā tūpāpaku mā te Kaunihera ā-takiwā e whakatau ngā whakaritenga, me ērā atu mate ka kōrerotia i raro i ētahi atu Ture o te Huihuinga Matua o te Pāremata.’1

Ngā kaunihera Māori

Hei urupare i te tino rangatiratanga Māori ka hangaia ngā kaunihera whenua me ngā kaunihera Māori i te tau 1900. Ko te pūtake o ngā kaunihera whenua he whakawaimeha i ngā kaupapa whakahē hoko whenua a te Māori, mā te whakarite i ētahi whakaaetanga rīhi whenua. Ko te kaupapa o ngā kaunihera Māori he whakahaere i ngā take hauora, whakahiato ora hoki o ngā hapori. Engari ka auare ake ēnei kaunihera e rua.

Te whakauru i te Māori

Nō te hekenga nui o te Māori ki ngā taone ka whai hiranga ake ngā kaupapa whare, whakahiato ora hoki ki te Tari Māori. I te tari hoki te whakahaere o ngā wātene Māori nō raro mai i te ture Māori Social and Economic Advancement Act 1945. Nō konā kua tino kaha te pāhekoheko o te Māori me te Pākehā, ā, ka riro ki ngā wātene Māori ētahi mana iti hei whakatau i te noho mārire i waenganui i ngā iwi e rua. E ai ki ngā tūtohunga o te Pūrongo Hunn me whakakotahi mai te Māori ki roto i te ao Pākehā, ā, koinei te tūāpapa mō ngā kaupapa Māori a te kāwanatanga puta noa i te tekau tau 1960. Ka hangaia e te kāwanatanga te Kaunihera Māori, ā, ko te whakaotinga tēnei o te hiahia o te kāwanatanga kia whakawhitiwhiti kōrero ki te iwi Māori hei iwi kotahi, kaua ki ngā iwi maha.

Ngā mautohe me ngā tika tiriti

I te tekau tau 1970 ka whakaarahia ngā kaupapa o te tuakiri me ngā nawe Māori mō ngā hapanga ture o mua. I te tau 1975 ka waihangatia te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei whakatewhatewha i ngā whatinga ture o te Tiriti o Waitangi.

He maha ngā whanaketanga mō te Māori i hua ake i ngā tirohanga o te Rōpū Whakamana. I te tau 1987 ka whakamanahia te reo Māori, ā, taro ake ka whakatūria ngā wānanga Māori, ngā reo irirangi Māori me Whakaata Māori hei manatoko i te reo Māori. I ngā tirohanga a te Ropū Whakamana anō ka hua ake ētahi whakataunga kokoraho ā-iwi, i tukua mai ai ētahi pūtea me ētahi rawa.

Te iwiruatanga

Mai i ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau 1980 ka whakatairanga te kāwanatanga i te iwiruatanga, ā, ka whai kaha ake ngā ratonga tūmatanui ki ngā hiahia o te hapori Māori. Ko te tūnga tērā o ētahi whakahaerenga ā-iwi hei kaiwhakarato whakahiato ora ki ngā hapori me ngā whānau Māori. Kāti, ko te kaupapa Whānau Ora tētahi hōtaka i hangaia kia whai oranga ngā whānau Māori i te whakamahinga o ngā kaiwhakarato Māori.

Ki tā te kaitohu matua o te kāwanatanga ki ngā take Māori, arā, ki tā Te Puni Kōkiri, ko tōna aronga matua kia angitu te Māori, engari, kia Māori tonu.2

Ngā wero ki te kāwanatanga

He maha tonu ngā wero ki te kāwanatanga. I te tau 2004 ka whakamanahia te ture i riro ai te takutai moana ki te Karauna. Neke atu i te 30,000 ngā Māori me ngā kaitautoko Pākehā i rangatū ki te Whare Miere hei wero i taua ture. Nō te tau 2011 ka whakakorea taua ture i raro i te Ture Takutai Moana hou. Nā konei ka ara ake anō ētahi tautohe.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. ‘By-Laws of the Mangonui District Maori Council’, Supplement to New Zealand Gazette 14 (18 Hui-tanguru 1902), wh. 403. Back
  2. ‘Statement of intent 2010–2013.’ Te Puni Kōkiri, http://www.tpk.govt.nz/en/in-print/our-publications/corporate-documents/statement-of-intent-2010-2013/page/14/ (i tirohia i te 28 Haratua 2012). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins, 'Kāwanatanga - Te tītari kāwanatanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kawanatanga/page-4 (accessed 11 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012, updated 22 Aug 2016