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Kāwanatanga – Māori engagement with the state

by Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins

Mai i te hononga tuatahi o te Māori ki te kāwanatanga he maha ngā pōhēhē a te Pākehā ki te ritenga Māori. Ko tētahi take e tautohetia nuitia ana i ēnei rā ko te kupu kāwanatanga.


Defining kāwanatanga

Ka ahu mai te kupu kāwanatanga i te kupu Ingarihi mō te kāwana (governor). Kāore ōna ritenga i te ao Māori. Ka mutu nā te noho ā-iwi mai o te Māori he rerekē ōna mana rangatira, ōna mana whakahaere me ōna tikanga noho i te huatau kāwanatanga i puea mai i te pūnaha karauna o Peretānia. Ko te rapunga tērā o ngā kanohi tuatahi o te kāwanatanga Peretānia i ētahi kupu hei whakamārama i ngā tū whakaaro i hiahia rātou ki te whakatinana.

1835, Te Whakaputanga

I te tau 1835 ka tāmokotia te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni e ngā rangatira o Te Tai Tokerau. Nā te Kainoho Peretānia nā James Busby te waikanaetanga i hoahoa. I roto i te whakaputanga kāore ngā rangatira e whakaae kia riro ki tētahi te mana kāwanatanga o tō rātou motu hāunga anō ngā tangata nā rātou i tohu, i whakamana hoki.1 Te āhua nei ko te whakamāramatanga ki ngā rangatira mō te kupu ‘kāwanatanga’, ka mau tonu i a rātou te tino rangatiratanga kia tukuna rā anō e rātou ki ētahi.

‘Governorship’, ‘governance’ rānei?

I rea ake te kupu ‘kāwana’ i tōna hoa kupu Ingarihi, ‘governor’, ā, ka hua mai te kupu kāwanatanga. I ētahi wā ko te whakamāoritanga tēnei o te ‘governance’. E ai ki ngā tumukōrero pēnei i a Judith Binney, nō te kitenga tuatahi o te kupu ‘kāwanatanga’ i te Tiriti o Waitangi ka mahara rātou ko ngā mana me ngā mahi tērā o te kāwana a William Hobson. Nā whai anō ko tō rātou whakaaro ki te kupu kāwanatanga ko te ‘governorship’, kaua ko te ‘governance’. Ka mutu he tino rerekē te aronga o ēnei kupu, ā, ki te whakaaro o ētahi koinei rātou i haina i te tiriti.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te tau 1840 ka hainatia te Tiriti o Waitangi. He nui noa atu ngā rangatira i haina i ērā i haina i te whakaputanga i te tau 1835. E ai ki te wāhanga tuatahi i te reo Māori, ‘ka tuku rawa atu ki te Kuini o Ingarangi ake tonu atu te Kawanatanga katoa o o ratou wenua’. I te taha Ingarihi o te tiriti ka mea, ‘he tuku rawa i te mana tūturu katoa o ō rātou whenua ki te Kūini o Ingarangi mō ake tonu atu.’2 Ka whakamahia e ngā kaiwhakamāori te kupu ‘kāwanatanga hei whakamārama i te ‘complete sovereignty’.

Te whakamārama anō i te kupu kāwanatanga

I namata nei i werohia ai e te hunga matatau ki te tika o ngā whakamārama reo. Kua kī ake rātou kāore tonu ngā rangatira e haina mena i te mārama ki te hōhonutanga ake, arā, ki te tuku atu i te mana ki ō rātou whenua. I te whakamāoritanga hōu a Hugh Kāwharu o te Tiriti ka whiua atu te kupu ‘sovereignty’, ka whakamahia te ‘government’ mō te ‘kāwanatanga’. E ai ki a Kāwharu, ‘Kore rawa e mārama ngā kaihaina Māori ki te kāwanatanga hei kupu mō te “sovereignty”: arā, kāore kau he māramatanga mō rātou i roto i ngā āhuatanga kua kitea e rātou i te ao Māori, i ngā tauira rānei i roto i te ao Māori, tae noa mai ki taua wā.’3

Tino rangatiratanga

Kei te wāhanga tuarua o te Tiriti i whakaūngia ko te ‘kāwanatanga’ o te motu ka haere ki te Karauna, engari ka mau tonu te Māori ki te tino rangatiratanga ki ō rātou hapū, ki ō rātou whenua me ō rātou taonga katoa. Heoi kei te wāhanga reo Ingarihi i te kaupapa tuatahi ka whakamāramatia te tikanga o ‘te tino rangatiratanga’ arā, ‘full, exclusive and undisturbed possession’.4 Ki tā Kāwharu whakamārama ko te ‘unqualified exercise of their chieftainship’.5

Mai noa e tautohe ana te Māori me te kāwanatanga ki te tikanga ake o te ‘kāwanatanga’ me te ‘tino rangatiratanga’. Ko tā te kāwanatanga mahi he whakatau i ōna mana kāwanatanga mā te taunaki, te whakamahitahi, te ringakaha me ngā ture hanganga. Heoi nō nātatanei ko te whakamārama o ētahi Māori mō te tino rangatiratanga ko te ‘Māori self-government’.

Footnotes
  1. I takoto ki Facsimiles of the Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Waitangi. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1976, preface. Back
  2. I takoto ki Facsimiles of the Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Waitangi, preface. Back
  3. I. H. Kawharu, ‘Treaty of Waitangi – Kawharu Translation.’ Waitangi Tribunal, http://www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz/treaty/kawharutranslation.asp (i tirohia i te 28 Haratua 2012). Back
  4. I takoto ki Facsimiles of the Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Waitangi, preface. Back
  5. I. H. Kawharu, ētita, Waitangi: Maori and Pakeha perspectives of the Treaty of Waitangi. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Oxford University Press, 1989. Back

Implementing kāwanatanga

Te whakauru i ngā tikanga Māori

I ngā tau tata whai muri i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, he uaua rawa mō te kāwanatanga ki te whakahaere i ngā rohe Māori katoa. Kāretahi he ope taua o ngā kāwana tuatahi, kāore anō kia pakari ngā whakahaere. Nā reira ka whai wāhi nui ngā tikanga me te ritenga Māori.

Inā koa, i te tau 1844 ka whakamana a Kāwana Pitiroi i te ture Native Exemption Ordinance. I ngā whakawānga kēhi o tētahi Māori me tētahi Pākehā, he reawhā te muru taonga mai i te tangata Māori; tāpiri anō ki ērā atu whakawhiu. He ōrite tēnei ki te tikanga Māori o te murunga hara.

I raro i te ture New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 ka whakamanaia te waihanga o ngā rohe Māori; ā, kia toitū hoki ko ngā ture, ngā ritenga me ngā whakahaere Māori. Heoi anō, kāore noa iho i waihangatia ēnei rohe Māori.

Pākehā ā-ture

Ko tētahi tauira o ngā kaupapa whakawaimeha i te Māori ki roto ki te ao Pākehā ka pā i te tau 1912, i te whakaurunga o tētahi kawenga ture ki roto ki te Native Land Amendment Act; i āhei ai te Māori ki te tono ki te Kōti Whenua Māori kia noho Pākehā ia i raro i te ture. Kāore tēnei i pā ki te nui o te toto tauiwi o tētahi Māori, engari i pā ki ētahi kaupapa pāpori pērā i te mōhio ki te reo Ingarihi, te mātau ki te mātauranga Pākehā, me te utu mahi, whenua rānei. I mua i te whakakorenga o te kawenga ture i te tau 1931, e 77 ngā Māori i hurihia hei Pākehā.

Te whakawaimehatanga me te ture Pākehā

Ko tōna tikanga he rangitahi anake te whakamana o te kāwanatanga i te ture Māori kia puta ētahi reanga hou e whakaae ana ki te ture Pākehā. Ko tētahi wāhanga o tēnei tukanga he whakawai i te Māori ki ngā āhua, ngā ritenga me te reo Pākehā. Kātahi ka whakahautia ki roto ki ngā niupepa reo Māori a te kāwanatanga pērā i Te Karere Maori, Te Manuhiri Tuarangi me te Maori Intelligencer kia tukua ki te Pākehā ‘te whakarite i ngā mea katoa, nā te mea kei te Pākehā te mātauranga, te kaha, ngā rawa, me te metararahi, ā, ka whakapūmautia te Kawanatanga o tō whenua … whiua ki tahaki te taha Māori, whāia kētia ngā whakahaere a te Pākehā.1 He nui te Māori i whai i te ia o ēnei tohutohu engari ka mau tonu te nuinga ki ngā āhuatanga o te ao Māori.

Ngā taua mau pū

He wā kua tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te pū hei kaupare i ngā whakatumatuma ki tōna mana. I ngā tau o 1844 me 1845 ka poroporoa e Hōne Heke Pōkai te pou kara o Peretānia i Kororāreka (ko Russell).

Nō te tutūtanga o te puehu ka whakaara a Kāwana Pitiroi i ana taua ki te tinei i te ahi o Heke me ana hoa pakanga. Nāwai ka whakaūngia e Kāwana Thomas Gore Browne te mana kāwanatanga i te tūnga o tōna ihu ki te mana whenua Māori ki Waitara i Taranaki. Nō konei ka pakaru anō mai te pakanga i te tau 1860.

Nā te kore hiahia o Kāwana Kerei (George Grey) ki tētahi mana whakahaere kē atu i Aotearoa ka pāhuatia e ia a Waikato me te Kīngitanga i te tau 1863. I te tau 1881 ka whakamahia anō ngā taua hei wāwāhi i te kāinga o Parihaka ki Taranaki. He mautohe mārire tā ērā iwi ki raro i te awe o Te Whiti-o-Rongomai rāua ko Tohu Kākahi.

I te whakakāhoretanga a ngā rangatira o Muriwhenua ki te utu tāke kurī i ngā tau mai i 1890, me te whakahē a Rua Kēnana me ana apataki kia māpere ki te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, ka urutomo anō ngā taua o te kāwanatanga.

Footnotes
  1. Te Karere Maori or the Maori Messenger 2, nama 3 (2 Haratua 1862), wh. 30. Translation by Paul Meredith. Back

Containing Māori opposition

Ngā whakahē hoko whenua

Ka whakatika te Paremata tuatahi o Aotearoa (tau 1852) ki te hoko i ngā whenua Māori mō te kongakonga noa iho. Taka mai ki te tau 1860 kua riro i te kaikōmihana whenua matua o Kerei te nuinga o Te Waipounamu; haunga anō ki Te Ika-a-Māui, he uaua ake te hao whenua nā te nui o te iwi Māori. Kātahi ka tipu ngā whakamau i waenganui i ngā iwi, ā, ka horapa i te motu. Nō konei ka hua ake te Kīngitanga.

He pā whakawairua

I muri i ngā riri whenua me te raupatutanga o ngā whenua haumako i Waikato ka taui a Tāwhiao me ana kaitautoko ki rāwahi o te awa o Pūniu ki roto o Ngāti Maniapoto. Kātahi ka whakatakototia e rātou te aukati ki te Pākehā, ā, ka mōhiotia taua rohe ko te ‘King Country’. E rua tekau tau ka noho motuhake tēnei rohe mai i ngā whakahaere o te kāwanatanga. I ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900 i te wā o Pirimia Richard Seddon (Te Hētana) ka kaikā ia kia tineia te mana o te Kīngitanga. Nā whai anō i te tau 1903 ka whakaae a Kīngi Mahuta i te tono a Te Hētana kia piki ki runga i te Kaunihera Hanga Ture. I noho rawa a Mahuta ki te Kaunihera Hanga Ture tae noa ki te tau 1910; heoi he tūranga iti noa iho tōna, ā, kīhai i whanake ngā kerēme raupatu o Waikato.

Te whakahoa ki ngā rangatira

Kātahi ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te whakahoahoa ki ngā rangatira noho mārire ki te kāwanatanga. I te tau 1860 ka whakatūria e Kāwana Browne te hui i Kohimarama, ā, e 200 ngā rangatira ka mene atu. Ko tōna kaupapa he whakahē i te kaupapa o te Kīngitanga me te whakamana i ngā kaupapa hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga. I te hokinga o Kerei ki tōna tūranga i te tau 1861 ka whāia e ia tāna ake rautaki kia hanga i ētahi rūnanga ki ngā rohe, ā, ka whai mana rātou i te taha o ngā kaiwhakawā ā-rohe ki te hanga ture ki ngā hapori. Nō konei ka tāmōmōhia te tino rangatiratanga a te Māori mā te tuku i ētahi rangatiratanga ki raro tonu i te mana o te kāwanatanga.

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Nō te kakenga o te taupori Pākehā ka kaha ake te whāinga a te kāwanatanga i te whenua Māori. Hei whakatere, hei whakamāmā anō hoki i ngā hoko, ka whakatakitahitia ngā taitara whenua Māori. Arā, i te tau 1865 ka hangaia te Kōti Whenua Māori. Ko tōna oati tēnei; ‘ka whakaaturia te whakatau whakaaio o te Koroni me te piki o te ora me te noho tika a te iwi Māori mehemea i whakaritea ō rātou pānga whenua, ā, ka ōrite te tikanga o te rangatiratanga o te whenua Māori ki tō te ture Pākehā.’1 Mai i te pito o te rautau 1800 ko te Kōti Whenua Māori te taero nui o te Māori. Ki tā ētahi tumukōrero he pononga noa iho te kōti nō te kāwanatanga, ā, ka mahitahi ngā kaiwhakawā me ngā apataki Karauna ki te wewete i te mana whenua Māori. He maha ngā pitihana a ngā iwi ki te Paremata mō ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Ngā māngai Māori

I te tau 1867 ka hangaia ngā tūru Māori e whā ki raro i te ture Māori Representation Act. Ko tōna tikanga he kaupapa rangitahi ngā tūru. Ko te matū o ngā tūru he whakawai i ngā iwi ki te kāwanatanga me te tinei i ngā tino rangatiratanga o ngā rangatira. Nā te whakanoho kia whā noa iho ngā tūru Māori, kāore i taea e te Māori te whai mana ake mā te pōti hoki. Ka mutu whai muri i te tau 1876 (te wā i whakakōhatuhia ngā tūru) ka tohu atu te kāwanatanga ki ngā tūru Māori mō ōna kaupapa mahitahi me te Māori. Heoi ka raungaitihia ngā māngai Māori i rō Paremata, ā, ka whakamahia rātou hei karetao i ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga ki ngā Māori.

Footnotes
  1. I takoto ki ‘The Pouakani Report 1993.’ Waitangi Tribunal, http://www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz/reports/viewchapter.asp?reportID=ad61afe4-9943-41f1-8872-7435b1ab83b8&chapter=23 (i tirohia i te 28 Haratua 2012). Back

Sharing kāwanatanga

Kotahitanga me te Kīngitanga

Whai muri i ngā pakanga whenua o Aotearoa ka riro tonu te whenua, nā te raupatu me ētahi atu tukanga. Heoi ka mau tonu ngā hiahia mana motuhake, ā, i te nuinga o te wā i roto anō i te mārie. I te tekau tau 1890 ka ara ake te Paremata Māori o Te Kotahitanga hei whakakotahi i ngā iwi ki raro i te mana o te Tiriti o Waitangi.

I puta tonu te ihu o Te Kīngitanga whai muri i ngā pakanga whenua, ā, ka tūrangawaewae rātou ki Ngāruawāhia.

Te whakahaere tikanga Māori

Ko tētahi mana o ngā kaunihera Māori (i hangā i te tau 1900) ko te whakahaere tangihanga. I te tau 1902 ka whakahipa te Kaunihera Māori o Mangonui i tēnei ture: ki te hinga tētahi tangata i waenga i te 15 o Māehe me te 15 o Hepetema (me te tatau i ēnei rā e rua) o tētahi tau, me nehu te tūpāpaku i roto i te whā rā atu i te matenga; ā, ki te hinga te tangata i waenga i te 16 o Hepetema me te 14 o Māehe i te tau o muri atu (me te tatau i ēnei rā e rua), me nehu i roto i te toru rā, atu i te matenga, hāunga ērā tūpāpaku mā te Kaunihera ā-takiwā e whakatau ngā whakaritenga, me ērā atu mate ka kōrerotia i raro i ētahi atu Ture o te Huihuinga Matua o te Pāremata.’1

Ngā kaunihera Māori

Hei urupare i te tino rangatiratanga Māori ka hangaia ngā kaunihera whenua me ngā kaunihera Māori i te tau 1900. Ko te pūtake o ngā kaunihera whenua he whakawaimeha i ngā kaupapa whakahē hoko whenua a te Māori, mā te whakarite i ētahi whakaaetanga rīhi whenua. Ko te kaupapa o ngā kaunihera Māori he whakahaere i ngā take hauora, whakahiato ora hoki o ngā hapori. Engari ka auare ake ēnei kaunihera e rua.

Te whakauru i te Māori

Nō te hekenga nui o te Māori ki ngā taone ka whai hiranga ake ngā kaupapa whare, whakahiato ora hoki ki te Tari Māori. I te tari hoki te whakahaere o ngā wātene Māori nō raro mai i te ture Māori Social and Economic Advancement Act 1945. Nō konā kua tino kaha te pāhekoheko o te Māori me te Pākehā, ā, ka riro ki ngā wātene Māori ētahi mana iti hei whakatau i te noho mārire i waenganui i ngā iwi e rua. E ai ki ngā tūtohunga o te Pūrongo Hunn me whakakotahi mai te Māori ki roto i te ao Pākehā, ā, koinei te tūāpapa mō ngā kaupapa Māori a te kāwanatanga puta noa i te tekau tau 1960. Ka hangaia e te kāwanatanga te Kaunihera Māori, ā, ko te whakaotinga tēnei o te hiahia o te kāwanatanga kia whakawhitiwhiti kōrero ki te iwi Māori hei iwi kotahi, kaua ki ngā iwi maha.

Ngā mautohe me ngā tika tiriti

I te tekau tau 1970 ka whakaarahia ngā kaupapa o te tuakiri me ngā nawe Māori mō ngā hapanga ture o mua. I te tau 1975 ka waihangatia te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei whakatewhatewha i ngā whatinga ture o te Tiriti o Waitangi.

He maha ngā whanaketanga mō te Māori i hua ake i ngā tirohanga o te Rōpū Whakamana. I te tau 1987 ka whakamanahia te reo Māori, ā, taro ake ka whakatūria ngā wānanga Māori, ngā reo irirangi Māori me Whakaata Māori hei manatoko i te reo Māori. I ngā tirohanga a te Ropū Whakamana anō ka hua ake ētahi whakataunga kokoraho ā-iwi, i tukua mai ai ētahi pūtea me ētahi rawa.

Te iwiruatanga

Mai i ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau 1980 ka whakatairanga te kāwanatanga i te iwiruatanga, ā, ka whai kaha ake ngā ratonga tūmatanui ki ngā hiahia o te hapori Māori. Ko te tūnga tērā o ētahi whakahaerenga ā-iwi hei kaiwhakarato whakahiato ora ki ngā hapori me ngā whānau Māori. Kāti, ko te kaupapa Whānau Ora tētahi hōtaka i hangaia kia whai oranga ngā whānau Māori i te whakamahinga o ngā kaiwhakarato Māori.

Ki tā te kaitohu matua o te kāwanatanga ki ngā take Māori, arā, ki tā Te Puni Kōkiri, ko tōna aronga matua kia angitu te Māori, engari, kia Māori tonu.2

Ngā wero ki te kāwanatanga

He maha tonu ngā wero ki te kāwanatanga. I te tau 2004 ka whakamanahia te ture i riro ai te takutai moana ki te Karauna. Neke atu i te 30,000 ngā Māori me ngā kaitautoko Pākehā i rangatū ki te Whare Miere hei wero i taua ture. Nō te tau 2011 ka whakakorea taua ture i raro i te Ture Takutai Moana hou. Nā konei ka ara ake anō ētahi tautohe.

Footnotes
  1. ‘By-Laws of the Mangonui District Maori Council’, Supplement to New Zealand Gazette 14 (18 Hui-tanguru 1902), wh. 403. Back
  2. ‘Statement of intent 2010–2013.’ Te Puni Kōkiri, http://www.tpk.govt.nz/en/in-print/our-publications/corporate-documents/statement-of-intent-2010-2013/page/14/ (i tirohia i te 28 Haratua 2012). Back

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins, 'Kāwanatanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kawanatanga/print (accessed 24 September 2019)

Story by Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins, published 20 Jun 2012, updated 22 Aug 2016