Kōrero: Kīngitanga – the Māori King movement

Whārangi 1. Ko Ngā Pūtaketanga o Te Kīngitanga

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ko Te Kīngitanga tētehi o ngā kaupapa Māori tūroa mai i te wā o te taipūwhenua Pākehā, ko ia hoki tētehi o ngā kaupapa tōrangapū o Aotearoa. Mai o te tau 1858, kei te haere tonu i roto i ngā tau o te 2000. Ko te kīngi i tēnei tau 2012, ko Kīngi Tūheitia, te tuawhitu o ngā arikinui mai i te tīmatatanga o Te Kīngitanga.

Ko te Whakaaro ki tētehi Kīngi

I ngā wā o mua o te taenga mai o te Pākehā kāore he ‘Kingi’ o ngā iwi Māori katoa.  Kei tēnā iwi tōna mana, kei tēnā tōna rangatira.  Heoi anō, i te tekau tau 1850 kua nui kē ake te tokomaha o ngā kainoho Pākehā, kua haukotia te Māori ki roto o ngā tōrangapū, kua kaha atu te hiahia a Te Karauna ki te hoko i te whenua Māori. Kua wehea te Māori, ko ētehi mō te hoko whenua, ko ētehi e kore rawa.

Ko tā ētehi Māori he rite te mana o tō rātou Kīngi kotahi ki tō Piritānia. He whakaaro nui nō roto o ngā tāngata i toro ki Ingarangi, i kite hoki i ngā kaupapa Piritānia, i ōna ahumahi, i ōna ope pirihimana, ope hōia e haere ana.  Ko Piri Kawau (Te Āti Awa) tērā, i tūtaki i a Kuīni Wikitōria i te tau 1843, ko Tāmihana Te Rauparaha (Ngāti Toa) tērā, i tūtaki i a ia i te tau 1852. Ko tā rātou whakapono mā te kotahitanga o ngā iwi i raro i te kīngi kotahi, he ōrite te mana ki tō te Kuīni o Ingarangi, ka mutu ai te pakanga a tētehi iwi i tētehi, te pupuru a te iwi Māori i te whenua Māori, ā, ko te kāwanatanga o te Māori ka noho tonu ki te mana Māori motuhake.

Heoi tā Kawau rāua ko Tāmihana tahi, koia hei kīngi. Ēngari ko tā Kawau ki a Kuīni Wikitōria ko Pōtatau Te Wherowhero o Waikato te rangatira whaimana nui o Aotearoa. Ko tā Te Rauparaha, rangatira rongonui, ki tāna tama ki a Tāmihana, kei wareware nā Waikato  tōna iwi i pana i Kāwhia.

Te Tikanga Kore-Whakaae

He rongonui te kupu a Te Kani-ā-Takirau o Te Tairāwhiti me te kore e hiahia ki Te Kīngitanga:

Ko taku maunga ko Hikurangi,
He maunga tū tonu
Ehara i te maunga haere.
Ko tōku Kīngitanga
Nō tua whakarere,
Nō aku tīpuna o te Pō!1

Hīnana ki Uta,Hīnana ki Tai

Mai i te tau 1853 ka haerea Te Motu e Mātene Te Whiwhi o Ngāti Raukawa rāua ko Tāmihana Te Rauparaha, ki te whakapāoho i te whakaaro ki te kīngi Māori mō te iwi Māori. Ka toroa e Te Whiwhi ngā ariki, e haere ana tuatahi ki Tōpia Tūroa, te ariki o Whanganui. Ko tā Tūroa, ‘Kāore au e whakaae. Ko taku maunga ko Matemate-a-onga. Ko tōku moana ko Whanganui, ko ngā kai o roto he toitoi he īnanga.’2

Ko tā Tūroa me inoi ki a Iwikau Te Heuheu, te ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa o Taupō Moana hei kīngi. Ko tā Te Heuheu, ‘Ko Tongariro te maunga, ko Taupo te moana, ko Te Heuheu te tangata. Kei waenganui ia o Te Motu, ka rere mai ngā roma i ngā tahataha katoa. Titiro, ko ngā ika o aua wai he kōkopu, he kōura, he kōaro.’3 Ko tā Te Heuheu, kia tū ko Te Amohau o Te Arawa hei kīngi, ā, me taua kore e whakaae anō, pēnei: ‘Ko tōku maunga ko Ngongotahā, ko Rotorua te moana, ko ngā ika o roto he kōura, he kākahi, he īnanga.’4 Ko tā Te Amohau ko Te Hāpuku o Ngāti Kahungunu hei kīngi, nāna ko Te Kani-ā-Takirau o Ngāti Porou’ na, ko tāna, ‘Tūturu nō ngā tātai ariki o ō tūpuna, ēngari kei tētehi taha ahau o Te Ika nei. Waihoki, ehara taku maunga a Hikurangi i te maunga neke atu tōna wāhi.’5

He rangatira tūturu ēnei rangatira, he mārama pai he rangatira nō ō rātou iwi ake, engari mō waho atu me te hiki hoki i te kaupapa o te kīngi, nā reira te kupu mō ētehi atu. Ko Karauria o Ngāti Kahungunu, ko Tūpaea o Ngāi Te Rangi, ko Pāora Kīngi o Mataatua i toroa, kātahi te kaupapa ka whakahokia ki a Te Heuheu.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki Steven Oliver, ‘Te Kani-ā-Takirau – haurongo.’ Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, http://www.teara.govt.nz/mi/haurongo/1t41/1?setlang=mi (last accessed 30 May 2012). Back
  2. I takoto ki Maharaia Winiata, Centennial celebration, 2nd May, 1858–1958: founding of the Maori King Movement, Turangawaewae Marae, Ngaruawahia. Ngāruawāhia: King Korokī, 1958, no page number. Back
  3. Centennial celebration, no page number. Back
  4. Centennial celebration, no page number. Back
  5. Centennial celebration, no page number. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rahui Papa and Paul Meredith, 'Kīngitanga – the Māori King movement - Ko Ngā Pūtaketanga o Te Kīngitanga ', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kingitanga-the-maori-king-movement/page-1 (accessed 17 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Rahui Papa and Paul Meredith, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012