Kōrero: Kōhatu

Whārangi 1. Ngā whao kōhatu

Ngā whakaahua

Nō te taenga o te Māori ki Aotearoa mai i Poronīhia ki te Rāwhiti i ngā tau 1250 ki 1300, ka kitea te whānui o ngā kōhatu pai mō te hanga whao, taonga, aha atu. Ka mōhio rātou i ngā kōhatu pērā i te ōnewa me te whaiapu; heoi, kāore rātou i mōhio ki ētahi atu kōhatu, pērā i te pounamu. Nō roto pea i te 50-100 tau ka kitea e rātou ngā kōhatu nui, ā, ka tū hoki ngā wāhi mō te auaha kōhatu. Taka rawa ki te rau tau 1300 e tauhokohoko ana te Māori i te pounamu me ngā toka pounamu ki ngā kokonga katoa o te motu.

Ngā toki me ngā whao

Ko te toki me te whao ka whai hiranga. He mea whītiki te rau kōhatu ki te rākau hei kakau. Mō te whakairo me te tārei waka ēnei tūmomo toki. Ko te whao mō te whakairo.

I te tuatahi, he ōrite ngā toki ki ērā ka kitea ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ki te rāwhiti. Kei ngā toki tōmua ngā reke kia pai ai te whiri i te kakau ki runga. Ko te tokomaha i auahatia i te ōnewa, i te toka mārō, pērā i te:

  • adzite. He tino mārō tēnei kōhatu, i ētahi wā karangatia ai e te Pākehā he baked argillite
  • ōnewa.

Ka pahure te wā ka whāiti iho ngā momo o te toki. Ki Te Ika-a-Māui, ka māmā ake te auahatanga, ka paku iho te reke. Ko te nuinga o ēnei toki i mahia mai te ōnewa, te karā, te pounamu, te pakohe. Ko te toki pounamu i kaha mahia ki Te Wai Pounamu.

Kitea ai te adzite me te pounamu ki Te Wai Pounamu anake, heoi, e kitea ana ngā momo toki nei puta noa i Aotearoa. He tohu tēnei ki te whānui o te mahi tūopu i ēnei taonga.

Te auaha toki

He mahi tohunga tonu te auaha toki. He mea wāwāhi ngā toka mā tētahi atu toka. Ko ngā kōhatu ka tohungia ka paoa ki te kuru kia maramara. Kātahi kua whakamahia anō ngā kuru hei whakamāheni i ngā taratara. E kīia nei tēnei mahi he ‘pecking’, he ‘bruising’ rānei. Oti rawa ake, ko te orooro i te toki ki runga i te kōhatu hōanga mākū – he roa tonu tēnei mahi.

Kōhatu taona

Hei tā Te Whatahoro Jury, ka tahuna te ahi ki runga i te kōhatu, kia wehe mai tētahi wāhi o taua kōhatu. Kia whero te kōhatu i te wera, ka putua he wai ki runga i te toka. Nō konei kua pākarukaru te kōhatu i te kaha wera, ā, ka māmā ake te wāwāhi i te kōhatu. Ka whakamahia ngā kōhatu nei hei orooro, hei auaha toki.

Ngā whao matā

Ko ngā whao i kaha whakamahia mō te tapahi me te waruwaru ko ngā matā tūhua me te whaiapu. E kitea ai te matā tūhua ki te taha whakararo o Te Ika-a-Māui anake, ā, kei te motu o Tūhua ngā putunga matua. I tauhokohokotia, tēnei momo matā puta noa i Aotearoa.

I kaha whakamahia te whaiapu ki ngā motu e rua; Ōtākou ka auahatia te silcrete (he hōanga mārō) me te porcelanite. E kitea nuitia ana te silcrete ki ngā wāhi whaiwhai moa. Arā atu anō ngā whao matā i auahatia mai te karā me te ōnewa. Kei Taranaki ngā pākuru mō te paopao. E whakaarotia ana o mō te patupatu kēkeno, ēnei whao.

Ngā wiri me ngā whaiuru

Ko tā te wiri he wero kōhao ki te rākau, ki te kōhatu rānei. I ngā wā o mua, ka whakamahia tēnei mō te wero kōhao ki ngā matau hī ika. I auahatia ēnei taputapu i ngā tūmomo kōhatu, ki te whaiapu, te matā tūhua me ngā kōhatu hanga toki.

Mō te mahi matau, ka werohia he kōhao ki waenganui i tētahi kōiwi papatahi (he kōiwi moa i te nuinga o te wā). Kātahi ka oroorotia ki te hōanga. I ētahi wā ka whakamahia ki te schist, te rākau rānei kua kōhatungia. Ko ngā toka hōanga nunui ka whakamahia hei orooro, hei whakakoi kōhatu.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Phil Moore and Bruce McFadgen, 'Kōhatu - Ngā whao kōhatu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kohatu/page-1 (accessed 18 September 2019)

Story by Phil Moore and Bruce McFadgen, published 12 Jun 2006