Kōrero: Mātauranga Māori

I ngā wā o mua ka ako tahi ā-rōpū te Māori i te taha o ana whanaunga, i runga anō i ngā tikanga o tua whakarere. Ko te hunga rangatira anake ka tukua kia tomo ki ngā akoranga o te whare wānanga. I ngā tau mai i te tau 2000, kua tū mai ngā wānanga, ngā kōhanga reo, me ngā kura kaupapa Māori, ā, ko te reo Māori te reo whakaako i ngā tamariki i ēnei kura.

Story by Ross Calman
Te āhua nui: Te kōhanga reo ki Mahitāone

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Mātauranga Māori taketake

I ngā wā o mua, nā te tohunga ngā karakia whakarite i te tamaiti mō tēnā mahi, mō tēnā mahi māna i roto i te iwi. Ka ako tahi ngā tamariki, ka rumakina ki ngā kawa o tua whakarere.

He puare ngā tatau o te whare wānanga ki ngā tamariki nō ngā kāwai rangatira anake.

Ngā kura mīhana, tauiwi hoki

Nā te mihinare nā Thomas Kendall te kura Pākehā tuatahi mō ngā Māori i waihanga ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1816. Nō te tekau tau 1830, kapi katoa te whenua i ngā kura mīhana.

I te 1847 ka tīmata te tautoko a te kāwanatanga i ngā kura mīhana ki te whakarato i te rongopai, ki te whakangungu mō ngā ahumahi me ngā akoranga reo Ingarihi. Nō te tau 1858 kua tau me noho pōri rawa ngā tauira Māori ki ō rātou kura.

Ngā kura Māori, te tau 1867 ki te tau 1969

I te tau 1867 ka whakatūria te pūnaha kura Māori. Mai i te tau 1894 ka whakahau te ture, me haere mārire te tamariki Māori ki te kura. Ka whakaakona rātou ki te reo Pākehā, ā, ka patua mō te korero Māori. Kāore he hua o ēnei kura; he koretake ngā kaiako, ka mutu he ihu oneone, he mahi horoi noa iho ngā akoranga.

Nō te tekau tau 1930 ka kore-utu te kura tuarua engari kāore tonu te Māori i whai wāhi atu. Mai i te tau 1941 ka tuwhera ngā wāhanga kura tuarua ki ētahi kura Māori.

I te tau 1969 ka taka te whakahaere o ngā kura Māori ki raro i ngā poari kura ā-rohe.

Ngā kura hāhi Māori

Nō te rautau 1800 ka whakatūria ngā kura Māori tuatahi, hei kura mīhana. Ko Te Aute tērā i whakaihuwaka mō te ako i te mātauranga me te whakaputa i ngā ihu o te tamariki Māori ki ngā whare wānanga Pākehā. Heoi anō, i āki tonu te Kāwanatanga i ēnei kura kia arotahi ki ngā akoranga mahi ā-ringa. Kia maunu haere te Māori ki ngā tāone noho ai i te tekau tau 1940, kātahi ka haere te tamariki Māori ki ngā kura tuarua.

Tae rawa ake ki ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 2000, kua kati ētahi o ngā kura hāhi Māori.

Te kaupapa Māori

Mai i te tekau tau 1980 ka whātoro ake anō te mātauranga Māori i te:

  • kōhanga reo
  • kura kaupapa Māori
  • whare wānanga Māori.

Nā te Māori tonu ēnei i waihanga i mua tonu i te tahuri mai a te kāwanatanga. I te tau 2011 ko Te Wānanga o Aotearoa te wānanga tuarua nui ake o Aotearoa.

Ngā whanaketanga mohoa noa

Nā te tipu matomato o te wāhanga reo Māori kua kore anō e rahi ngā rauemi me ngā kaiako reo Māori mō ngā whakahaere reo Māori katoa.

E mea ana te tini o ngā pūrongo kāore te Māori i te eke ki ngā taumata o te pūnaha mātauranga. Ahakoa rā, te āhua nei he momoho ake ērā e haere ana ki ngā kura Māori i ērā kei ngā kura auraki.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ross Calman, 'Mātauranga Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/matauranga-maori (accessed 25 June 2019)

Story by Ross Calman, published 20 Jun 2012