Kōrero: Mātauranga Māori

Whārangi 2. Ngā mihinare

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā kura mīhana, te mātauranga Pākehā

Ko te kura tuatahi mō te Māori i Aotearoa nā Thomas Kendall o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare i whakatū ki Rangihoua ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1816. Ka whakamahia e Kendall te tikanga ako ā-tūī, arā, rote learning, hei whakaako i te pānui me te tuhi, ā, ka whakapirihia atu ko ngā kōrero karaipiture. E ai ki te kōrero he uaua ki a Kendall te hopu i ngā taringa o ana tauira, ka mutu, i haere te kura i ngā wā anake o te whiwhi kai, i āhei ai a Kendall ki te whāngai i āna tauira. I tū ngā akoranga i te ata me te ahiahi, ā, he kohi kai te mahi i te awatea. Nā Kendall tonu i tuhi ngā puka tuatahi ki roto ki te reo Māori hei whakamahi ki tana akomanga. E rua tau e haere ana te kura o Kendall ka kati. Nō te tekau tau 1830 he maha ngā kura ka tāpirihia ki ngā whare mīhana puta noa i te motu. I te tau 1822 ka tū ngā kura o ngā Metoriti, me ērā o ngā Katorika i te tau 1838.

Ngā tauira ki Ahitereiria

Ko te kura tuatahi rawa mō te tamariki Māori i tū i Ahitereiria kē. Nā Samuel Marsden tēnei kura i whakatū i tana kāinga ki Parramatta, i Poihākena i tau 1813. Tae rawa ake ki te tau 1820 e 25 ngā taitama Māori e akona ana ki ngā tikanga me ngā whanonga o tauiwi.1

Te kai-ngākau ki te tuhituhi me te pānui

Kāore i roa ka kaingākautia e te Māori te pānui me te tuhituhi. Hāunga ia te tiro a ngā mihinare, ki a rātou he huarahi tēnei ki ngā karaipiture, heoi anō, ka hiahia kē te Māori ki te ao hōu me ōna kaipuke, ki ōna pū, taputapu rino hoki. I te putanga o ngā tauira o ēnei kura ka hangaia anō e rātou ngā kura ki ō rātou ake kāinga. I te haerenga o te mihinare me te kaiwhakaruru iwi Māori a George Clarke ki roto o Waikato me Hauraki i te takiwā o 1840, tata tonu i te katoa o ngā kāinga Māori i kitea e ia he whai kura. E ai ki te tauira i ngā tau o 1840, kotahi haurua o te iwi Māori i mōhio ki te pānui me te tuhituhi. Ko te nuinga o ngā akoranga he reo Māori, engari nā te korekore o ngā rauemi atu i ngā karaipiture, kua kore haere e aronui atu te Māori ki ngā kura Pākehā, mai i te tekau tau 1840.

He pukapuka mō te katoa

I te tau 1834 ka whakatū a William Colenso i tōna whare tā pukapuka ki Paihia. Nō te tau 1845 kua ōrite te maha o ngā puka paipera tapu ki te maha o ngā hunga pakeke Māori katoa.

Ko Kāwana Kerei

Ko Hōri Kerei te kāwana o Niu Tīreni i ngā tau o 1845 ki 1853 me ngā tau o 1860 ki 1868. Koia te kaiwhao i ngā ture kaikiri a te kāwanatanga i ngā tau tōmua o te noho Pākehā. I runga i ngā ture i waihangatia e ia, ka whakawaimehatia te Māori ki roto ki te pūnaha mātauranga, ā, tae noa ki ngā tau o 1930. Ko te whakapono o tērā tāima he iwi kaha ake te Pākehā, ā, he hōnore nui mō te Māori kia huaina rātou he Piritana parauri. Ka mutu, i waenganui i te tekau tau 1840 ka tuwhera te tāwaha o te riri, ā, ka whakaarotia ko te mātauranga te huarahi hei whakarata i te Māori. Arā hoki ngā taunaki e whakarite ana te kāwanatanga ki te whakamahi i te Māori ki ngā mahi ihu oneone mō te whenua maru hou.

Te Ture Mātauranga 1847

Nā te kore moni o te kāwanatanga, ka taituarā a Kerei i te whatunga kura mīhana mā te ture Education Ordinance 1847, i runga anō i ngā mātāpono e whā:

  • me tohutohu i te whakapono
  • me whakangungu mō ngā ahumahi
  • me tohutohu ki te reo Ingarihi
  • me āhei ngā whakatewhanga kāwanatanga.

Te Ture Kura Māori 1858

Ka kawea whakamua tēnei punaha i raro i te Ture Kura Māori o 1858. I whakaratohia te 7,000 pāuna ki ngā kura, me te whakahau me wehe rawa ngā tauira Māori i ō rātou kāinga ki ngā kura noho ai. Taka mai ki te tau 1851, e 700 ki te 800 ngā tauira Māori o ngā kura a te kāwanatanga, ā, he iti iho i ērā i haere ki ngā kura mīhana i te tekau tau 1830. He uaua te taha ki te ako mā te reo Pākehā, me te pau o te moni ki te tautoko tika i ngā kura. Heoi, he maha tonu ngā kura i reo Māori tonu. Heke iho ki ngā tau pakanga o ngā tau 1860, ka kati te nuinga o ngā kura mīhana.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. J. M. Barrington rāua ko T. H. Beaglehole, Maori schools in a changing society: an historical review. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: New Zealand Council for Educational Research, 1974, wh. 9. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ross Calman, 'Mātauranga Māori - Ngā mihinare', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/matauranga-maori/page-2 (accessed 5 June 2020)

He kōrero nā Ross Calman, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012