Kōrero: Mātauranga Māori

Whārangi 3. Te pūnaha kura Māori, 1867 ki te tau 1969

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā kura Māori

Nā runga i te Ture Kura Māori 1867 whai muri i ngā pakanga whenua o Aotearoa ka waihangatia te pūnaha ā-motu o ngā kura tuatahi ki ngā kāinga Māori. Ka taka ēnei whakahaere ki raro ki te Tari Māori o tērā wā. I runga i tēnei ture me takoha e te Māori ētahi whenua me ētahi pūtea mō ngā akomanga me te utu mō te māhita. Nō muri mai nō te tau 1871 ka hīkina ngā utu mō ngā akomanga me te māhita. I te tau 1879 ka riro te mana whakahaere o ngā kura Māori ki te Tari Mātauranga (tau waihanga 1877).

Nā te Waehere Kura Māori 1880 i whakaōrite te āhua ki te waihanganga o ngā kura, ngā marautanga, ngā haora ako, ngā whakahaere me ētahi kaupapa atu hoki. I te tau 1894 ka whakaturea me haere rawa te katoa o te tamariki Māori ki te kura. He rikarika hoki ētahi iwi ki te whakatū kura, ā, tae hoki ki ērā iwi i noho mārire ki te kāwanatanga i te wā o te pakanga.

Te Mātauranga ā-ringa

E ai ki te kaiarotake kura a Henry Taylor i te tau 1862, ‘Kāore au e tautoko i te mātauranga tiketike, i te whakaaro hōhonu mō te Māori; kāore e tika mehemea e āta whakaaro mātou ki te tūranga i te hapori o te Māori, arā, ko ngā tino pūkenga o te Māori he mahi ringa raupā.’1 I noho tonu tēnei pōhēhē tae noa mai ki roto i te rautau 1900.

Te Reo Ingarihi me ngā akoako mahi ringa raupā

Mai anō ko tōna pūtake he ako i te reo Pākehā. Ko te whakaaro ia, hei te huringa o tētahi takiwā Māori ki te reo Pākehā, ka whakakorea tōna kura Māori. Ahakoa i whakaaetia te reo Māori hei reo ako i ngā mahi Pākehā, kāore tonu i roa ka whakakāhoretia e ngā āpiha Pākehā te whakamahinga o te reo Māori. Nāwai rā, ka tīmata te patu i ngā tamariki Māori mō te kōrero Māori ki te kura. He maha ngā tau ka whakaaetia tēnei whakahau i te reo Pākehā e ngā hapori Māori tonu, hei whakaputa i te ihu o ā rātou tamariki ki te ao Pākehā. Hāunga ngā mahi pānui taketake, tuhituhi, pāngarau taketake, i aro nui kē te marautanga ki ngā mahi ihu oneone me ngā akoako horoi.

Ngā pōrarutanga kura

He maha ngā takaroatanga i te noho kē mai o ngā whakahaere ki Pōneke. Ka noho, ka noho kātahi ka oti tētahi kura, ā, ko te nuinga he tīhokahoka. Kotahi noa iho te wā i te tau ka tae tētahi kaimātai, mā runga hōiho. He roa hoki te haere o ngā tauira mai i ngā kāinga ki te kura. Ko ētahi kaiako kāore hoki he tohu whakangungu. I mua, he Pākehā katoa ngā kaiako, ā, nō muri rawa ka whiwhi kaiāwhina Māori ētahi.

Nā ngā whakapau kaha a Āpirana Ngata i ngā tekau tau 1920 me te whakangāwaritanga o ngā ture kaikiri ki Awherika, ka whakaurua ngā mahi toi Māori ki roto ki ngā kura Māori i te tekau tau 1930. Ko te tīmatanga tēnei o te tuku haeretanga o ētahi o ngā kaupapa whakawaimeha a te kāwanatanga.

Te kupu whakairo a te Māori

I te tau 1930 ka tuhi te Kaiwhakahaere Mātauranga a T. B. Strong, ‘Kāore he mātātuhi tō te reo Māori, ā ... ki te mate ā-moa te reo, kāore he aha ki te iwi Māori.’2 I aua tau anō ka tonoa kia tāpirihia te reo Māori ki ngā mahi o te whare wānanga, ā, ka whakahokia, ‘Kei hea nei ngā tuhinga kōrero?’ Kāti, i runga i ngā tuhinga kōrero a Kerei, Nga mahi a nga tupuna, me te puka a Āpirana Ngata, Ngā moteatea, ka whakahētia ērā kōrero.

Te mātauranga kura tuarua

Ahakoa te koreutu o te haere ki te kura tuarua i te tekau tau 1930, he iwi noho taiwhenua te Māori, ka mutu, i te taone kē ngā kura. Waihoki i ngā tau tōmuri o taua tekau tau, iti iho i te 1,000 ngā tamariki Māori i haere ki te kura tuarua – ko te nuinga he kura pōri. I te tau 1941, ka tūhonotia ngā kura tuarua Māori ā-rohe ki ngā kura tuatahi; nō te tau 1956, e 13 ngā kura nei. Tuatahi ake kāore he rauemi o ēnei kura, ā, i aro noa iho ki ngā akoranga ā-ringa. Nō te whakarewanga rā anō o te Kura Tiwhikete i te tau 1945, kātahi ka kore tērā tūāhua.

I muri mai i te pakanga

I muri i te tau 1945 ka mātotoru ake te iwi Māori me te hunga Māori noho tāone hoki. Ka huhua noa ake ngā tamariki kura auraki i ērā o ngā kura Māori (nō te tau 1947 ka tīmata te karangatanga ‘Māori schools). I te tau 1955 kua kake te maha o ngā kura Māori ki te 166, heoi nō tērā wā e whakamahere ana te tari mātauranga ki te whakawhiti i te mana whakahaere o ngā kura ki ngā poari mātauranga ā-rohe. Ka whakahē ngā kāinga Māori i runga i te whakaaro, nō rātou tonu ērā kura. Ka whakapuaki ngā kaitaunaki kura Māori i te meka he momoho ake tēnei tikanga kura mō te Māori i tērā o te kura auraki. Heoi i te tau 1961 ka tūtohu te Pūrongo o Hunn ki ngā ngoikoretanga a te Māori i roto i te pūnaha mātauranga, ā, ka whakahau kia whakawhenumitia te Māori ki roto ki ngā kura Pākehā. Tae rawa ki te tau 1969 ka whakawhitiria te kura Māori whakamutunga ki ngā ringaringa o ngā poari mātauranga ā-rohe.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1862, A-51, wh. 38. Back
  2. I takoto ki John Barrington, Separate but equal?: Māori schools and the Crown, 1867–1969. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Victoria University Press, 2008, wh. 191–192. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ross Calman, 'Mātauranga Māori - Te pūnaha kura Māori, 1867 ki te tau 1969', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/matauranga-maori/page-3 (accessed 19 October 2019)

Story by Ross Calman, published 20 Jun 2012