Kōrero: Mātauranga Māori

Whārangi 5. Te kaupapa Māori

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ko te whanaketanga nui nei o te mātauranga Māori i te pito o te rautau 1900 ko te haumako o te tipu o ngā kaupapa Māori. Nā te Kōhanga Reo i para te huarahi i ngā tau 1980, kia whai wāhi hoki ko te kura kaupapa Māori i muri mai i a ia.

Te kōhanga reo

Ko te kōhanga reo te urupare Māori ki te haumate o te reo Māori. I te tau 1913 nuku atu i te 90 ōrau ngā tamariki kōrero Māori; tae rawa ake ki te tau 1975, e 5 ōrau noa iho. He kaupapa te kōhanga reo nā te Māori i turuki, kia rumakina rawatia te tamaiti ki te reo, me tōna whānau. I te tau 1982 ka tuwhera te kōhanga reo tuatahi ki Wainuiomata. Kotahi tau i muri mai,100 ngā kōhanga reo ka whakatūria puta noa i te motu.

Te tipu o te kōhanga

Ahakoa kāore i rahi ngā pūtea kāwanatanga kia tae rā anō ki te tau 1990, ka tipu haere tonu te kōhanga reo i ngā tau waru tekau. Te taenga ki te tau 1993, e 819 ngā kōhanga reo, ā, he rahi ake i ngā kura kōhungahunga a te Pākehā. Neke atu i te 14,000 ngā tamariki kōhanga reo, kāti, he haurua o ngā tamariki Māori katoa i whakaurua ki ngā ratonga kōhungahunga puta noa, i tērā wā. Nō te tau 2009 e 464 ngā kōhanga reo ā-motu. Nā ngā ture whakaae me ngā āhuatanga pūtea tēnei whakahekenga. E 60,000 ngā tauira i puta i te kōhanga reo; he take nui tēnei i whanake anō ai te reo Māori hei reo ora.

Te kura kaupapa Māori

He kura kāwanatanga te kura kaupapa Māori, ka whakahaerehia pū i runga i te whakaaro whānau Māori me te ahomatua o te reo Māori. I te tau 1985 ka waihangatia te kura kaupapa Māori tuatahi o Hoani Waititi ki te Uru o Tāmaki-makaurau. Rite tonu ki te kōhanga reo, me kohi pūtea rawa ngā mātua e tū ai ō rātou kura i mua i te whakawhiwhinga ki ētahi tahua kāwanatanga. Ka whai mana te kura kaupapa Māori ki roto ki te Ture Mātauranga o 1989, ā, i te tau 1990 ka tautoko te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga i te whakatūnga o ētahi kura hou.

Te whanaketanga o ngā kura

Ka tipu nui ngā kura Māori i te tekau tau 1990, ā, ka āta haere anō te tipunga i te rautau 2000. I te tau 2009 e 73 ngā kura kaupapa Māori, e 6,000 ōna tauira. Ko te nuinga he kura whakakotahi (tau 1-13), arā, i tīmata hei kura tuatahi kātahi ka pūāwai kia whai wāhanga wharekura. I te tau 2001 ka whakamana te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga i ngā kura teina. He kura ēnei kua tono kia whakamanaia hei kura tuatahi, engari kāore anō kia āta whakamanaia. Ka noho ēnei kura i raro i te maru me te ārahi o tētahi kura kaupapa whai mana, e kīia ana ko te kura tuakana

Altered to reflect the fact these are both primary schools in the arrangement, not secondary schools mentoring primary. Also translated ‘that have applied’..etc in Eng text.. Then split into two sentences for easy reading.

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Ngā wānanga

I whakawhanaketia ngā kura wānanga hei whakatenatena i te reo Māori me te mātauranga Māori, me te whakatairanga ake i te Māori ki ngā mātauranga ao whānui. Ko te nuinga o ngā tauira kāore i ahu tika mai i te kura tuarua.

Te wānanga tuatahi o te ao hurihuri

I whakatūria Te Wānanga o Raukawa ki Ōtaki i te tau 1981 e ngā iwi o Te Āti Awa, o Ngāti Raukawa me Ngāti Toarangatira. I hua mai te wānanga i te rautaki ā-iwi o aua iwi e toru i te tau 1975 hei urupare i te haumate o te reo ki ērā rohe.

Ētahi atu wānanga

I tīmata Te Wānanga o Aotearoa ki te Waipā Kōkiri Arts Centre i te tau 1984, ā, kei ngā whaitua katoa o Aotearoa ōna whare ako ināianei. I te tau 2009 e 21,000 ōna tauira; ko te tuarua tēnei o ngā whare wānanga nui o te motu.

I te tau 1992 ka tuwhera ngā tatau o Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi. Nō te tau 2004 ka whakamanatia a Awanuiārangi ki te kawe i ngā akoranga tākutatanga, he tuatahi mō tētahi whare wānanga taketake o te ao.

I te tau 1993 ka tūtohua e te kāwanatanga ngā wānanga o Raukawa me Aotearoa, ā, i te tau 1997 ka tūtohua ko Awanuiārangi. Whai muri i te take ki te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1998, ka whakatauria ētahi tahua pūtea ki ēnei wānanga hei rongoā mō te korekore o ngā tahua i tō rātou tīmatanga mai.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ross Calman, 'Mātauranga Māori - Te kaupapa Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/matauranga-maori/page-5 (accessed 14 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Ross Calman, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012