Kōrero: Mātauranga Māori

Whārangi 7. Ture mātauranga Māori

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā ture ō mua

I mua i te taenga mai o Tauiwi kei te whānau, te hapū me te iwi te mana whakahaere i te mātauranga. I mua i te whakaekenga mai o te kāwanatanga kua tū kē ngā kura a ngā mihinare ki te ako i ngā tamariki Māori.

Nā Kāwana Hōri Kerei i whakatau ture ki te tautoko i ēnei kura i te tekau tau 1840. Otirā ko te urunga tērā o ngā kaitirotiro kāwanatanga me ngā mātāpono – arā, te ako i te whakapono, te whakangungu ahumahi me te whakamahi i te reo Pākehā. I noho tonu ngā kaupapa whakamutunga e rua ki roto ki te ture mātauranga tae noa ki waenga pū o te rautau 1900.

Ahakoa i kīia he ture whakakotahi i ngā painga o te ao Pākehā me te ahurea Māori, he ture whakawaimeha kē i te ahurea Māori ki roto ki te ao Pākehā. Koinei te ture ārahi tae rawa mai ki ngā tau 1930.

Ture pūnaha kura Māori

Mai i te tau 1867 ka hangaia te pūnaha kura taketake; i hua ake ai te pūnaha ā-motu o ngā kura tuatahi. I te tuatahi, nā te Tari Māori tēnei i whakahaere. I te tau o 1879 ka riro atu te mana whakahaere i ngā kura Māori ki te Tari Mātauranga, ā, ka haere tonu ngā ture o te ako reo Pākehā me ngā akoako mahi ihu oneone. He whāiti rawa ngā huarahi ki te kura tuarua. Nō te tau 1941, ka tāpirihia ngā wāhanga kura tuarua ki ngā kura tuatahi Māori. I aro pū anō ngā kura nei ki te ako i ngā mahi ā-ringa, ā, nō te tau 1945 ka rerekē anō i te tīmatanga o ngā whakamātautau Kura Tiwhikete. Mai i taua tau hoki ka tīmata te noho tāone o te Māori me te ako ki ngā kura Pākehā.

Ngā whakapau kaha o te iwi taketake

Nā ngā whakapau kaha o te hapori me ngā tautoko a te Tari Māori ka whakawhanaketia te kōhanga reo i te tekau tau 1970. Ka māhuri tōtara haere ngā tamariki, kua hīkaka hoki ngā mātua kia haere tonu ngā akoranga mā ngā tamariki ki roto ki te ao Māori. Nā whai anō ko te waihanganga o te kura kaupapa Māori i te tau 1985. I te tau 1989 ka whakamanatia e te ture te kura kaupapa, ā, i te tau 1990 ka tautokotia e te Tāhuhu o Te Mātauranga te whakatūnga o ētahi atu kura hou.

I whanake hoki te kaupapa Māori ki roto ki te wāhanga whare wānanga. I te tau 1981 ka huaki a Te Wānanga o Raukawa ki te ao. He roa te wā kātahi rawa ka tahuatia tēnei wānanga me ērā atu wānanga e rua. Waihoki ko te nuinga o ngā kaupapa reo Māori, ka tōmuri te kuhu haere o te kāwanatanga ki te āwhina.

Te Tau Ruamano

I te rautau 2000 ka waihangatia e te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga a Ka hikitia: managing for success: the Māori education strategy, 2008-2012; arā, te rautaki e tūtohu ana i te whānui o ngā tikanga ako mā te Māori ki roto ki te ao mātauranga. Ka arotahi tēnei rautaki ki ngā putanga momoho mō ngā tauira Māori; reo Māori mai, reorua mai, reo Pākehā mai. I kapi katoa te rautaki i te hunga mai i ngā tamariki nohinohi tae noa ki ngā tauira whare wānanga. E whā ōna hua nui:

  • te mahi tahi o te ākonga Māori ki te rapa huarahi ako ki te angitu
  • kia tuawhiti te ākonga Māori, me te whakakite ki ō rātou mana ahurea motuhake, pūmanawa hoki
  • kia whai wāhi te ākonga Māori ki te ao Māori
  • kia riro i te Māori ngā rākau o te ao hurihuri, e whai wāhi i a ki te motu, me te ao.
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ross Calman, 'Mātauranga Māori - Ture mātauranga Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/matauranga-maori/page-7 (accessed 19 September 2019)

Story by Ross Calman, published 20 Jun 2012