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Māori education – mātauranga

by Ross Calman

I ngā wā o mua ka ako tahi ā-rōpū te Māori i te taha o ana whanaunga, i runga anō i ngā tikanga o tua whakarere. Ko te hunga rangatira anake ka tukua kia tomo ki ngā akoranga o te whare wānanga. I ngā tau mai i te tau 2000, kua tū mai ngā wānanga, ngā kōhanga reo, me ngā kura kaupapa Māori, ā, ko te reo Māori te reo whakaako i ngā tamariki i ēnei kura.


Education in traditional Māori society

Ngā tikanga ako

I ngā rā o mua he tikanga whakaheke mō ngā mea nui katoa. He tikanga ēnei i kunea mai i ngā rautau maha. Ko te tukanga ako ka huataki i te kōpū, i te māmā e waiata oriori ana ki te tamaiti kāore anō kia whererei. Kia whānau te tamaiti, mā te tohunga e whakarite te huarahi o te tamaiti ki roto ki te iwi.

Kia pakari haere ka āta whakakorikoritia ki ngā mahi a te hapū me te iwi; pērā i te kohi kai, i te hauhake me te taka kai, te raranga, te whakairo me te tū hei toa pakanga. Ka whakamahia, ka whakangungua hoki ngā pia. Mā ngā tākaro me ngā whakaharatau ka whakakoi rātou ki ngā mahi a te pakeke.

Ngā tikanga me te whāngainga

Ka tū tētahi kawa hei tohu i ngā taumata ka ekea i te tukanga ako, pēnei i te whakamātau pia. He mea tuku ngātahi ngā akoako, ā, he rite tonu te whai wāhi mai ngā a ngā pāpā, a ngā whāea me ngā kaumātua ki ngā akoako. I runga i ngā āhua o te tapu, ka āta whāngaia rātou ki ōna tikanga katoa. He iwi kōrero tuku iho te Māori. Ko ōna hītori, ko ōna pūmanawa me ōna whanonga kei roto i te waiata, te whakataukī, te kōrero tawhito, te pūrākau me te whakapapa.

Te whare wānanga

Ko te whare wānanga te wāhi e whāngaia ai te tauira ki te kai mārō. Ko ngā tauira ka ahu mai i ngā kāwai rangatira o te iwi. Me ihumanea hoki te tauira e mau ai ngā momo waiata, karakia, whakapapa me ngā kōrero tawhito e mana ai ia hei tohunga.

Ngā kete wānanga

He mea whakaheke te mātauranga Māori i ngā kete e toru i tīkina e Tāne i te toi o ngā rangi. Kei te kete aronui ko ngā mātauranga mō ngā whakapono, ngā kawa me ngā mātauranga mō te oranga kikokiko, wairua, hinengaro hoki o te tangata. Kei te kete tuauri ko ngā mātauranga pai o te tangata, ngā korero tuku iho me ngā mahi hoki o te ira tangata. Kei te kete tuatea ko te mahi whaiwhaiā me te mākutu.

E ai ki tētahi kōrero o Ngāti Kahungunu ka kake ake a Tāne ki Te Toi-o-ngā-rangi, arā, ki te rangi ngahuru mā rua. I reira ka naomia e ia ngā kete e toru o te wānanga me ngā whatukura e rua. Ko ngā kete i ahu mai i te whare ko Mātangireia, ā, ko ngā kōhatu i ahu mai i tētahi atu whare ko Rangiātea te ingoa. Kātahi ka heke a Tāne i ngā rangi, ā, whakairia rawatia ngā kete me ngā kōhatu ki Wharekura; he whare kei te rangi tuarua, kei Rangitāmaku.

Ko te whare wānanga tuatahi o te ao tangata nā Ruatepupuke i waihanga ki Te Hono-i-Wairua, ko Wharekura anō te ingoa. Ko Te Rāwheoro ki Ūawa te whare wānanga rongonui rawa pea, i Aotearoa nei.

Te kaupapa o te whare wānanga

He wānanga tō ia iwi, ā, he ingoa ake tō tēnā, tō tēnā. Arā atu ētahi whare ako pērā i te whare pora (raranga), te whare mātā (te hopu manu me te ika) me te whare tātai kōkōrangi.

He mea tīpako rawa ngā tauira, ā, ka kawea ngā whakahaere ki waho o te pā i runga i te tapu. Hei te hōtoke tū ai ngā akoako, mai anō i te ata hāpara tae noa ki te tūhoetanga o te rā. Ko te whakapapa, ko te tātai atua, ko ngā kōrero tuku iho ka huaina e te tohunga me ōna taura hei hopu mā ngā tauira. Ko ngā whare wānanga whakamutunga o ukiuki i tū i te wāhanga whakamutunga o te rautau 1800.


Missionaries and the early colonial period

Ngā kura mīhana, te mātauranga Pākehā

Ko te kura tuatahi mō te Māori i Aotearoa nā Thomas Kendall o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare i whakatū ki Rangihoua ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1816. Ka whakamahia e Kendall te tikanga ako ā-tūī, arā, rote learning, hei whakaako i te pānui me te tuhi, ā, ka whakapirihia atu ko ngā kōrero karaipiture. E ai ki te kōrero he uaua ki a Kendall te hopu i ngā taringa o ana tauira, ka mutu, i haere te kura i ngā wā anake o te whiwhi kai, i āhei ai a Kendall ki te whāngai i āna tauira. I tū ngā akoranga i te ata me te ahiahi, ā, he kohi kai te mahi i te awatea. Nā Kendall tonu i tuhi ngā puka tuatahi ki roto ki te reo Māori hei whakamahi ki tana akomanga. E rua tau e haere ana te kura o Kendall ka kati. Nō te tekau tau 1830 he maha ngā kura ka tāpirihia ki ngā whare mīhana puta noa i te motu. I te tau 1822 ka tū ngā kura o ngā Metoriti, me ērā o ngā Katorika i te tau 1838.

Ngā tauira ki Ahitereiria

Ko te kura tuatahi rawa mō te tamariki Māori i tū i Ahitereiria kē. Nā Samuel Marsden tēnei kura i whakatū i tana kāinga ki Parramatta, i Poihākena i tau 1813. Tae rawa ake ki te tau 1820 e 25 ngā taitama Māori e akona ana ki ngā tikanga me ngā whanonga o tauiwi.1

Te kai-ngākau ki te tuhituhi me te pānui

Kāore i roa ka kaingākautia e te Māori te pānui me te tuhituhi. Hāunga ia te tiro a ngā mihinare, ki a rātou he huarahi tēnei ki ngā karaipiture, heoi anō, ka hiahia kē te Māori ki te ao hōu me ōna kaipuke, ki ōna pū, taputapu rino hoki. I te putanga o ngā tauira o ēnei kura ka hangaia anō e rātou ngā kura ki ō rātou ake kāinga. I te haerenga o te mihinare me te kaiwhakaruru iwi Māori a George Clarke ki roto o Waikato me Hauraki i te takiwā o 1840, tata tonu i te katoa o ngā kāinga Māori i kitea e ia he whai kura. E ai ki te tauira i ngā tau o 1840, kotahi haurua o te iwi Māori i mōhio ki te pānui me te tuhituhi. Ko te nuinga o ngā akoranga he reo Māori, engari nā te korekore o ngā rauemi atu i ngā karaipiture, kua kore haere e aronui atu te Māori ki ngā kura Pākehā, mai i te tekau tau 1840.

He pukapuka mō te katoa

I te tau 1834 ka whakatū a William Colenso i tōna whare tā pukapuka ki Paihia. Nō te tau 1845 kua ōrite te maha o ngā puka paipera tapu ki te maha o ngā hunga pakeke Māori katoa.

Ko Kāwana Kerei

Ko Hōri Kerei te kāwana o Niu Tīreni i ngā tau o 1845 ki 1853 me ngā tau o 1860 ki 1868. Koia te kaiwhao i ngā ture kaikiri a te kāwanatanga i ngā tau tōmua o te noho Pākehā. I runga i ngā ture i waihangatia e ia, ka whakawaimehatia te Māori ki roto ki te pūnaha mātauranga, ā, tae noa ki ngā tau o 1930. Ko te whakapono o tērā tāima he iwi kaha ake te Pākehā, ā, he hōnore nui mō te Māori kia huaina rātou he Piritana parauri. Ka mutu, i waenganui i te tekau tau 1840 ka tuwhera te tāwaha o te riri, ā, ka whakaarotia ko te mātauranga te huarahi hei whakarata i te Māori. Arā hoki ngā taunaki e whakarite ana te kāwanatanga ki te whakamahi i te Māori ki ngā mahi ihu oneone mō te whenua maru hou.

Te Ture Mātauranga 1847

Nā te kore moni o te kāwanatanga, ka taituarā a Kerei i te whatunga kura mīhana mā te ture Education Ordinance 1847, i runga anō i ngā mātāpono e whā:

  • me tohutohu i te whakapono
  • me whakangungu mō ngā ahumahi
  • me tohutohu ki te reo Ingarihi
  • me āhei ngā whakatewhanga kāwanatanga.

Te Ture Kura Māori 1858

Ka kawea whakamua tēnei punaha i raro i te Ture Kura Māori o 1858. I whakaratohia te 7,000 pāuna ki ngā kura, me te whakahau me wehe rawa ngā tauira Māori i ō rātou kāinga ki ngā kura noho ai. Taka mai ki te tau 1851, e 700 ki te 800 ngā tauira Māori o ngā kura a te kāwanatanga, ā, he iti iho i ērā i haere ki ngā kura mīhana i te tekau tau 1830. He uaua te taha ki te ako mā te reo Pākehā, me te pau o te moni ki te tautoko tika i ngā kura. Heoi, he maha tonu ngā kura i reo Māori tonu. Heke iho ki ngā tau pakanga o ngā tau 1860, ka kati te nuinga o ngā kura mīhana.

Footnotes
  1. J. M. Barrington rāua ko T. H. Beaglehole, Maori schools in a changing society: an historical review. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: New Zealand Council for Educational Research, 1974, wh. 9. Back

The native schools system, 1867 to 1969

Ngā kura Māori

Nā runga i te Ture Kura Māori 1867 whai muri i ngā pakanga whenua o Aotearoa ka waihangatia te pūnaha ā-motu o ngā kura tuatahi ki ngā kāinga Māori. Ka taka ēnei whakahaere ki raro ki te Tari Māori o tērā wā. I runga i tēnei ture me takoha e te Māori ētahi whenua me ētahi pūtea mō ngā akomanga me te utu mō te māhita. Nō muri mai nō te tau 1871 ka hīkina ngā utu mō ngā akomanga me te māhita. I te tau 1879 ka riro te mana whakahaere o ngā kura Māori ki te Tari Mātauranga (tau waihanga 1877).

Nā te Waehere Kura Māori 1880 i whakaōrite te āhua ki te waihanganga o ngā kura, ngā marautanga, ngā haora ako, ngā whakahaere me ētahi kaupapa atu hoki. I te tau 1894 ka whakaturea me haere rawa te katoa o te tamariki Māori ki te kura. He rikarika hoki ētahi iwi ki te whakatū kura, ā, tae hoki ki ērā iwi i noho mārire ki te kāwanatanga i te wā o te pakanga.

Te Mātauranga ā-ringa

E ai ki te kaiarotake kura a Henry Taylor i te tau 1862, ‘Kāore au e tautoko i te mātauranga tiketike, i te whakaaro hōhonu mō te Māori; kāore e tika mehemea e āta whakaaro mātou ki te tūranga i te hapori o te Māori, arā, ko ngā tino pūkenga o te Māori he mahi ringa raupā.’1 I noho tonu tēnei pōhēhē tae noa mai ki roto i te rautau 1900.

Te Reo Ingarihi me ngā akoako mahi ringa raupā

Mai anō ko tōna pūtake he ako i te reo Pākehā. Ko te whakaaro ia, hei te huringa o tētahi takiwā Māori ki te reo Pākehā, ka whakakorea tōna kura Māori. Ahakoa i whakaaetia te reo Māori hei reo ako i ngā mahi Pākehā, kāore tonu i roa ka whakakāhoretia e ngā āpiha Pākehā te whakamahinga o te reo Māori. Nāwai rā, ka tīmata te patu i ngā tamariki Māori mō te kōrero Māori ki te kura. He maha ngā tau ka whakaaetia tēnei whakahau i te reo Pākehā e ngā hapori Māori tonu, hei whakaputa i te ihu o ā rātou tamariki ki te ao Pākehā. Hāunga ngā mahi pānui taketake, tuhituhi, pāngarau taketake, i aro nui kē te marautanga ki ngā mahi ihu oneone me ngā akoako horoi.

Ngā pōrarutanga kura

He maha ngā takaroatanga i te noho kē mai o ngā whakahaere ki Pōneke. Ka noho, ka noho kātahi ka oti tētahi kura, ā, ko te nuinga he tīhokahoka. Kotahi noa iho te wā i te tau ka tae tētahi kaimātai, mā runga hōiho. He roa hoki te haere o ngā tauira mai i ngā kāinga ki te kura. Ko ētahi kaiako kāore hoki he tohu whakangungu. I mua, he Pākehā katoa ngā kaiako, ā, nō muri rawa ka whiwhi kaiāwhina Māori ētahi.

Nā ngā whakapau kaha a Āpirana Ngata i ngā tekau tau 1920 me te whakangāwaritanga o ngā ture kaikiri ki Awherika, ka whakaurua ngā mahi toi Māori ki roto ki ngā kura Māori i te tekau tau 1930. Ko te tīmatanga tēnei o te tuku haeretanga o ētahi o ngā kaupapa whakawaimeha a te kāwanatanga.

Te kupu whakairo a te Māori

I te tau 1930 ka tuhi te Kaiwhakahaere Mātauranga a T. B. Strong, ‘Kāore he mātātuhi tō te reo Māori, ā ... ki te mate ā-moa te reo, kāore he aha ki te iwi Māori.’2 I aua tau anō ka tonoa kia tāpirihia te reo Māori ki ngā mahi o te whare wānanga, ā, ka whakahokia, ‘Kei hea nei ngā tuhinga kōrero?’ Kāti, i runga i ngā tuhinga kōrero a Kerei, Nga mahi a nga tupuna, me te puka a Āpirana Ngata, Ngā moteatea, ka whakahētia ērā kōrero.

Te mātauranga kura tuarua

Ahakoa te koreutu o te haere ki te kura tuarua i te tekau tau 1930, he iwi noho taiwhenua te Māori, ka mutu, i te taone kē ngā kura. Waihoki i ngā tau tōmuri o taua tekau tau, iti iho i te 1,000 ngā tamariki Māori i haere ki te kura tuarua – ko te nuinga he kura pōri. I te tau 1941, ka tūhonotia ngā kura tuarua Māori ā-rohe ki ngā kura tuatahi; nō te tau 1956, e 13 ngā kura nei. Tuatahi ake kāore he rauemi o ēnei kura, ā, i aro noa iho ki ngā akoranga ā-ringa. Nō te whakarewanga rā anō o te Kura Tiwhikete i te tau 1945, kātahi ka kore tērā tūāhua.

I muri mai i te pakanga

I muri i te tau 1945 ka mātotoru ake te iwi Māori me te hunga Māori noho tāone hoki. Ka huhua noa ake ngā tamariki kura auraki i ērā o ngā kura Māori (nō te tau 1947 ka tīmata te karangatanga ‘Māori schools). I te tau 1955 kua kake te maha o ngā kura Māori ki te 166, heoi nō tērā wā e whakamahere ana te tari mātauranga ki te whakawhiti i te mana whakahaere o ngā kura ki ngā poari mātauranga ā-rohe. Ka whakahē ngā kāinga Māori i runga i te whakaaro, nō rātou tonu ērā kura. Ka whakapuaki ngā kaitaunaki kura Māori i te meka he momoho ake tēnei tikanga kura mō te Māori i tērā o te kura auraki. Heoi i te tau 1961 ka tūtohu te Pūrongo o Hunn ki ngā ngoikoretanga a te Māori i roto i te pūnaha mātauranga, ā, ka whakahau kia whakawhenumitia te Māori ki roto ki ngā kura Pākehā. Tae rawa ki te tau 1969 ka whakawhitiria te kura Māori whakamutunga ki ngā ringaringa o ngā poari mātauranga ā-rohe.

Footnotes
  1. Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1862, A-51, wh. 38. Back
  2. I takoto ki John Barrington, Separate but equal?: Māori schools and the Crown, 1867–1969. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Victoria University Press, 2008, wh. 191–192. Back

Māori church boarding schools

Te Whatunga kura

Ko ngā kura hāhi ngā kura nui mō te Māori, tae noa ki te tekau tau 1940. I hua ake ēnei kura hei kura mīhana, ā, ko Tīpene ki Tāmaki-makaurau tērā (Mihinare, tau waihanga 1844), ko te Kāreti o Wesley ki Tāmaki-makaurau tērā (Metoriti, tau waihanga 1844), ko te Kāreti o Te Aute ki Te Matau-a-Māui tērā (Mihinare, tau waihanga 1854). Ko Hukarere (Mihinare, tau waihanga 1875) me Wikitōria ki Tāmaki-makaurau (Mihinare, tau waihanga 1875) ērā, i huakina hei kura tuāhine mō Te Aute me Tīpene.

Ko ētahi atu kura hāhi Māori ko:

  • Te Kāreti o Waerenga-a-Hika ki Tūranganui (Mihinare, 1856)
  • Te Kura Kōtiro Māori o Hato Hōhepa ki Ahuriri (Katorika, 1867)
  • Ko Te Kāreti o Hikurangi ki Wairarapa (Mihinare, 1903)
  • Ko Te Kāreti o Turakina ki Marton (Perehipitiriana, 1905)
  • Ko Te Kāreti Māori o Ōtaki (Mihinare, 1908)
  • Ko Te Kāreti Kōtiro Māori o Te Waipounamu ki Ōtautahi (Mihinare, 1909)
  • Ko Hato Petera ki Tāmaki-makaurau (Katorika, 1928)
  • Ko Hato Paora, ki Feilding (Katorika, 1948).

Te tunu kai me te horoi

Ehara ko ngā āpiha Pākehā anake i tautoko i ngā akoranga ā-ringa o ngā kura hāhi. I te tau 1903, i muri i te tīmatanga o ētahi karāihe rēhita (e takatū ana i ōna tauira mō te whare wānanga) ki Hukarere, ka puta te whakatakē a Māui Pōmare i te ngaio rawa o ngā kura hāhi: ‘Whakaakona ngā whaea kia mōhio ki te pai o te tāpu, o ngā kākahu mā, mahana hoki, o ngā kai tika, ā, ka tere piki te ora o te iwi Māori; hei aha te whakaako i te rangatahi ki te tuitui, ki te reo Rātini, ki a Euclid anō hoki.’1

Te kaupapa karahipi a te kāwanatanga

Mai i te tekau tau 1880 ki ngā tau o 1920 i tukuna e te kāwanatanga ētahi moni āwhina paku ki ngā toki o ngā kura Māori kia tae ki te kura tuarua. Ko aua āwhina he karahipi rua tau te roa. He tohu tēnei nō te whakaaro o tērā wā, he pai noa iho te Māori mō ngā mahi ā-ringa pērā i te ahuwhenua. Nā te mea he taumata 1-4 (tau 3-6) anake ngā kura Māori, i noho tonu tērā rua tau mō te karahipi ki te kura tuatahi tonu (tau 7-8, pae takawaenga).

Te akoranga tautōhito me ngā mahi ā-ringa

I te tekau tau 1890, i raro i te awe o John Thornton, ka hua i a Te Aute Kāreti ētahi o ngā whakawehiwehi o te ao Māori, pērā i a Āpirana Ngata rātou ko Te Rangihīroa, ko Māui Pōmare ko Tūtere Wī Repa. Nā te Ture Tohutohu ā-Ringa o 1900 ka akiakitia ngā āpiha kia tautoko i ngā whakangungu ā-ringa ki ngā kura hāhi, me te whakahau me whakauru ngā kaipupuri karahipi ki ngā akoranga ahuwhenua. Ki tā ngā mātua Māori kāore hoki he hua o te tuku i ā rātou tamariki ki te kura, ako ai ki ngā mahi ahuwhenua.

Te mātauranga ahuwhenua

I te tau 1906 ka whakatewhatewha te kōmihana karauna me ako hoki a Te Aute i te ahuwhenua, me te whakapaku i ngā akoranga ngaio. Ka ātetehia tēnei whakaaro e te tumuaki e Thornton. Ahakoa i whakauru rawa a Te Aute i ētahi akoranga ahuwhenua, kīhai i tino pārekarekatia. Heoi, arā tonu ngā kura i hāpai i ngā mātauranga ahuwhenua. Ko te whakatūnga tērā o te Kura Ahuwhenua Māori ki Heretaunga (Moromona, 1912), ā, ko te nekenga o Wesley (i te tau 1922) me Tīpene (i te tau 1931) tērā, ki te taiwhenua e āhei ai te whakarato i ngā mātauranga ahuwhenua. I te tekau tau 1920 ka whakaroahia ake te karahipi ki te toru tau.

Ngā tau whīroki – mai i te tekau tau 1930

I te tekau tau 1930 ka rongo ngā kura Māori i te kino o te paheketanga ohaoha me ētahi atu tūponotanga. I te tau 1931 ka tāoroorohia te Kura Ahuwhenua Māori me Te Aute i te rū nui o Te Matau-a-Māui i kati rawa ai te kura ahuwhenua. Nā te weranga o Hikurangi (1932) me Waerenga-a-Hika (1937) i te ahi ka kati ērā kura, ā, nā ngā take pūtea i kati ai Te Kāreti Māori o Ōtaki i te tau 1938.

Nō te tīmatanga o te Kura Tiwhikete (whakamātautau ā-motu) ki ngā kura Māori ā-rohe i te tau 1945 ka heke haere ngā whakaurunga ki Te Aute me Hukarere. I runga i te hekenga ki ngā tāone ka nui ake ngā tauira Māori ki ngā kura tuarua kāwanatanga. I waenganui i ngā tau o 1969 me 1992 ka tūtakina ngā tatau o Hukarere, ahakoa i tuwhera tonu ngā rūma mō ngā tauira noho o te Kura Tuarua mō ngā Kōtiro o Ahuriri. Waihoki i te tekau tau 1980, ka whakamahia Te Kura Kōtiro Māori o Te Waipounamu hei wāhi noho, ā, nō te tau 1990 ka tōia katoatia ōna whatitoka. Ko te toenga atu o ngā kura hāhi ka whakahanumia ki ngā kura kāwanatanga i ngā tekau tau o 1970 me 1980. Ā, nā te hekenga o ngā tāurunga kura, ka kati a Tīpene (i te tau 2000) me Wikitōria (i te tau 2001).

Footnotes
  1. I takoto ki J. M. Barrington and T. H. Beaglehole, Maori schools in a changing society: an historical review. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: New Zealand Council for Educational Research, 1974, wh. 172–173. Back

Kaupapa Māori education

Ko te whanaketanga nui nei o te mātauranga Māori i te pito o te rautau 1900 ko te haumako o te tipu o ngā kaupapa Māori. Nā te Kōhanga Reo i para te huarahi i ngā tau 1980, kia whai wāhi hoki ko te kura kaupapa Māori i muri mai i a ia.

Te kōhanga reo

Ko te kōhanga reo te urupare Māori ki te haumate o te reo Māori. I te tau 1913 nuku atu i te 90 ōrau ngā tamariki kōrero Māori; tae rawa ake ki te tau 1975, e 5 ōrau noa iho. He kaupapa te kōhanga reo nā te Māori i turuki, kia rumakina rawatia te tamaiti ki te reo, me tōna whānau. I te tau 1982 ka tuwhera te kōhanga reo tuatahi ki Wainuiomata. Kotahi tau i muri mai,100 ngā kōhanga reo ka whakatūria puta noa i te motu.

Te tipu o te kōhanga

Ahakoa kāore i rahi ngā pūtea kāwanatanga kia tae rā anō ki te tau 1990, ka tipu haere tonu te kōhanga reo i ngā tau waru tekau. Te taenga ki te tau 1993, e 819 ngā kōhanga reo, ā, he rahi ake i ngā kura kōhungahunga a te Pākehā. Neke atu i te 14,000 ngā tamariki kōhanga reo, kāti, he haurua o ngā tamariki Māori katoa i whakaurua ki ngā ratonga kōhungahunga puta noa, i tērā wā. Nō te tau 2009 e 464 ngā kōhanga reo ā-motu. Nā ngā ture whakaae me ngā āhuatanga pūtea tēnei whakahekenga. E 60,000 ngā tauira i puta i te kōhanga reo; he take nui tēnei i whanake anō ai te reo Māori hei reo ora.

Te kura kaupapa Māori

He kura kāwanatanga te kura kaupapa Māori, ka whakahaerehia pū i runga i te whakaaro whānau Māori me te ahomatua o te reo Māori. I te tau 1985 ka waihangatia te kura kaupapa Māori tuatahi o Hoani Waititi ki te Uru o Tāmaki-makaurau. Rite tonu ki te kōhanga reo, me kohi pūtea rawa ngā mātua e tū ai ō rātou kura i mua i te whakawhiwhinga ki ētahi tahua kāwanatanga. Ka whai mana te kura kaupapa Māori ki roto ki te Ture Mātauranga o 1989, ā, i te tau 1990 ka tautoko te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga i te whakatūnga o ētahi kura hou.

Te whanaketanga o ngā kura

Ka tipu nui ngā kura Māori i te tekau tau 1990, ā, ka āta haere anō te tipunga i te rautau 2000. I te tau 2009 e 73 ngā kura kaupapa Māori, e 6,000 ōna tauira. Ko te nuinga he kura whakakotahi (tau 1-13), arā, i tīmata hei kura tuatahi kātahi ka pūāwai kia whai wāhanga wharekura. I te tau 2001 ka whakamana te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga i ngā kura teina. He kura ēnei kua tono kia whakamanaia hei kura tuatahi, engari kāore anō kia āta whakamanaia. Ka noho ēnei kura i raro i te maru me te ārahi o tētahi kura kaupapa whai mana, e kīia ana ko te kura tuakana

Altered to reflect the fact these are both primary schools in the arrangement, not secondary schools mentoring primary. Also translated ‘that have applied’..etc in Eng text.. Then split into two sentences for easy reading.

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Ngā wānanga

I whakawhanaketia ngā kura wānanga hei whakatenatena i te reo Māori me te mātauranga Māori, me te whakatairanga ake i te Māori ki ngā mātauranga ao whānui. Ko te nuinga o ngā tauira kāore i ahu tika mai i te kura tuarua.

Te wānanga tuatahi o te ao hurihuri

I whakatūria Te Wānanga o Raukawa ki Ōtaki i te tau 1981 e ngā iwi o Te Āti Awa, o Ngāti Raukawa me Ngāti Toarangatira. I hua mai te wānanga i te rautaki ā-iwi o aua iwi e toru i te tau 1975 hei urupare i te haumate o te reo ki ērā rohe.

Ētahi atu wānanga

I tīmata Te Wānanga o Aotearoa ki te Waipā Kōkiri Arts Centre i te tau 1984, ā, kei ngā whaitua katoa o Aotearoa ōna whare ako ināianei. I te tau 2009 e 21,000 ōna tauira; ko te tuarua tēnei o ngā whare wānanga nui o te motu.

I te tau 1992 ka tuwhera ngā tatau o Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi. Nō te tau 2004 ka whakamanatia a Awanuiārangi ki te kawe i ngā akoranga tākutatanga, he tuatahi mō tētahi whare wānanga taketake o te ao.

I te tau 1993 ka tūtohua e te kāwanatanga ngā wānanga o Raukawa me Aotearoa, ā, i te tau 1997 ka tūtohua ko Awanuiārangi. Whai muri i te take ki te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1998, ka whakatauria ētahi tahua pūtea ki ēnei wānanga hei rongoā mō te korekore o ngā tahua i tō rātou tīmatanga mai.


Other developments, 1970s onwards

Ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga o ngā tekau tau o 1970 me 1980

I te tekau tau 1970 ka tīmata ngā ratonga whakangungu i te Māoritanga mō ngā kaiako me ngā kaupapa whakangungu kaiako reo Māori. I te tau 1975 ka tuwhera ētahi tūnga kaiako rauemi Māori ki te tohutohu i ngā kaiako kura tuatahi i roto i te reo me ngā tikanga Māori.

Te kōhanga me ngā kura

Nā te hohoro o te tipu o te kōhanga reo me te kura kaupapa ka tere mimiti te puna tahua me te iti rawa o ngā kaiako reo Māori. He maha ngā kupu whakahē mō te kounga o te reo i ētahi kaiako, kātahi nei ka ako i te reo. Mai i te tau 1986 ka tonoa ngā kaiārahi i te reo (ngā mea i tipu ake i te reo) ki te taituarā i ngā tauira e whanake ana, i te kōhanga reo ki te kura. I te tau 1992 ka whakaputaina e te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga ko Te Marautanga o Aotearoa, arā, te marautanga ako e hua mai ana i ngā ariā Māori.

Ngā kura kōhungahunga reorua me ngā kura motuhake

Ahakoa ka paheke te rahi o ngā tauira kōhanga reo, ka piki anō ērā o te wāhanga reorua i te takiwā o te tekau tau 2000. Nō te tau 2011, 15 ngā kura motuhake ka waihangatia i raro i te wāhanga 156 o te Ture Mātauranga (i whai wāhanga rumaki ēnei kura). Hāunga te wāhanga reo Māori o ētahi kura, kāore ētahi i whai kounga. Otirā, ka hoki anō ngā akoako a ētahi kia pū anō ai i te tuakiri o ō rātou iwi ake.

Ngā tutukitanga

Kāore e ārikarika ngā pūrongo e whakapuaki ana i te noho rōrā o te Māori ki roto ki te pūnaha mātauranga Pākehā, mai anō i te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900. E ai ki te Pūrongo Reo Māori a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti i te tau 1986, kāre tahi te tamariki Māori i akona tikatia i roto i te pūnaha mātauranga, ka mutu e takahi ana ngā whakahaere o te pūnaha mātauranga i te Tiriti.1 I te tau 1998 ka puta i a Te Puni Kōkiri ōna kitenga mō ngā āhuatanga kāore e kite nuitia i waenganui i te Māori:

  • te uru ki ngā mātauranga kōhungahunga
  • te noho ki te wāhanga whakamutunga o te kura tuarua
  • te wehe mai i te kura tuarua me tētahi tohu
  • te whakauru ki ngā whare takiura, whare wānanga hoki. Ko te nuinga o ngā Māori kei roto i ngā whare wānanga kei ō rātou hōtaka tuarua.

Te angitu o te kauwaka Māori

I te tau 2009 e 22.6 ōrau noa iho ngā tauira Māori ka wehe i te kura tuarua ka āhei ki te kuhu ki te whare wānanga. Mō te Pākehā, e 51.7 ōrau ka puta ki te whare wānanga. E ai ki ngā rangahau, he momoho ake ngā tauira kei ngā kura Māori i ō rātou hoa kei ngā kura Pākehā. Engari i te tau 2010, e 14.6 ōrau noa iho ngā tauira o ngā kura Māori ka whai i ngā kaupapa mātauranga Māori.

Footnotes
  1. I takoto ki Richard Benton, Fairness in Māori education: a review of research and information. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Royal Commission on Social Policy, 1987, wh. 2. Back

Māori education policy

Ngā ture ō mua

I mua i te taenga mai o Tauiwi kei te whānau, te hapū me te iwi te mana whakahaere i te mātauranga. I mua i te whakaekenga mai o te kāwanatanga kua tū kē ngā kura a ngā mihinare ki te ako i ngā tamariki Māori.

Nā Kāwana Hōri Kerei i whakatau ture ki te tautoko i ēnei kura i te tekau tau 1840. Otirā ko te urunga tērā o ngā kaitirotiro kāwanatanga me ngā mātāpono – arā, te ako i te whakapono, te whakangungu ahumahi me te whakamahi i te reo Pākehā. I noho tonu ngā kaupapa whakamutunga e rua ki roto ki te ture mātauranga tae noa ki waenga pū o te rautau 1900.

Ahakoa i kīia he ture whakakotahi i ngā painga o te ao Pākehā me te ahurea Māori, he ture whakawaimeha kē i te ahurea Māori ki roto ki te ao Pākehā. Koinei te ture ārahi tae rawa mai ki ngā tau 1930.

Ture pūnaha kura Māori

Mai i te tau 1867 ka hangaia te pūnaha kura taketake; i hua ake ai te pūnaha ā-motu o ngā kura tuatahi. I te tuatahi, nā te Tari Māori tēnei i whakahaere. I te tau o 1879 ka riro atu te mana whakahaere i ngā kura Māori ki te Tari Mātauranga, ā, ka haere tonu ngā ture o te ako reo Pākehā me ngā akoako mahi ihu oneone. He whāiti rawa ngā huarahi ki te kura tuarua. Nō te tau 1941, ka tāpirihia ngā wāhanga kura tuarua ki ngā kura tuatahi Māori. I aro pū anō ngā kura nei ki te ako i ngā mahi ā-ringa, ā, nō te tau 1945 ka rerekē anō i te tīmatanga o ngā whakamātautau Kura Tiwhikete. Mai i taua tau hoki ka tīmata te noho tāone o te Māori me te ako ki ngā kura Pākehā.

Ngā whakapau kaha o te iwi taketake

Nā ngā whakapau kaha o te hapori me ngā tautoko a te Tari Māori ka whakawhanaketia te kōhanga reo i te tekau tau 1970. Ka māhuri tōtara haere ngā tamariki, kua hīkaka hoki ngā mātua kia haere tonu ngā akoranga mā ngā tamariki ki roto ki te ao Māori. Nā whai anō ko te waihanganga o te kura kaupapa Māori i te tau 1985. I te tau 1989 ka whakamanatia e te ture te kura kaupapa, ā, i te tau 1990 ka tautokotia e te Tāhuhu o Te Mātauranga te whakatūnga o ētahi atu kura hou.

I whanake hoki te kaupapa Māori ki roto ki te wāhanga whare wānanga. I te tau 1981 ka huaki a Te Wānanga o Raukawa ki te ao. He roa te wā kātahi rawa ka tahuatia tēnei wānanga me ērā atu wānanga e rua. Waihoki ko te nuinga o ngā kaupapa reo Māori, ka tōmuri te kuhu haere o te kāwanatanga ki te āwhina.

Te Tau Ruamano

I te rautau 2000 ka waihangatia e te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga a Ka hikitia: managing for success: the Māori education strategy, 2008-2012; arā, te rautaki e tūtohu ana i te whānui o ngā tikanga ako mā te Māori ki roto ki te ao mātauranga. Ka arotahi tēnei rautaki ki ngā putanga momoho mō ngā tauira Māori; reo Māori mai, reorua mai, reo Pākehā mai. I kapi katoa te rautaki i te hunga mai i ngā tamariki nohinohi tae noa ki ngā tauira whare wānanga. E whā ōna hua nui:

  • te mahi tahi o te ākonga Māori ki te rapa huarahi ako ki te angitu
  • kia tuawhiti te ākonga Māori, me te whakakite ki ō rātou mana ahurea motuhake, pūmanawa hoki
  • kia whai wāhi te ākonga Māori ki te ao Māori
  • kia riro i te Māori ngā rākau o te ao hurihuri, e whai wāhi i a ki te motu, me te ao.

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Ross Calman, 'Mātauranga Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/matauranga-maori/print (accessed 18 September 2019)

Story by Ross Calman, published 20 Jun 2012