Kōrero: Muaūpoko

Whārangi 2. Ngā whakaekenga a ngā iwi me te Pākehā

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

1800 – 1840: Te nōhanga ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara

Kia taka ki te tau 1800, e noho tahi ana a Ngāi Tara me iwi kē atu ki ōna whenua ki roto o Te Whanganui-a-Tara – a Ngāti Apa, a Rangitāne, a Ngāti Kahungunu, a Ngāti Hāmua, a Ngāti Ira. nō konei raupatutia ētahi o ngā pito whenua o Ngāi Tara; ko ētahi whenua i nōhia ngātahitia me ētahi atu huānga iwi, pēnei i a Ngāti Māmoe, he iwi whakaheke anō i a Toi. Ahakoa rā, i pupuri a Muaūpoko ki te nuinga o ōna whenua.

Atu i 1819, ka tīmata ngā whakaekenga o ngā iwi o te tai tokerau ki roto o te tonga ki te apo rawa. Nō te tau 1822, ka tae atu te heke nui o Ngāti Toa rātou ko Te Āti Awa, ko Ngāti Mutunga, ko Ngāti Tama ki te takutai o Kapiti.

I te tuatahi, i pōhiritia e Muaūpoko a Ngāti Toa. Heoi, nō te patunga o tētahi wahine nō Muaūpoko, ka tū te riri. Ko te utu, ko te patunga o te whānau o Te Rauparaha i Papaitonga. Nō konei, ka kino rawa atu te mauāhara o Ngāti Toa ki a Muaūpoko. Ā, nō te taunga o te mana o Ngāti Toa ki ngā rohe o Te Whanganui-a-Tara, o Kapiti, kua whāiti te noho a Muaūpoko ki Horowhenua me Manawatū.

Hei maunga mō te rongo

He taonga rongonui te aroha ki te tangata.

He rangatira a Rongo nō Ngāi Tara. Ko tōna hiahia, kia whakamutu te riri ki te iwi o Rangitāne. Ka whakatika ia i tana kokoti whakamoe, ka noho ia, tāna kotahi i runga i te huarahi tērā ka puta mai te hoariri. Ka whakatakotoria e Rongo he peka mānuka ki mua i te kaingārahu o te hoariri, he tohu kia puta mai ana toa. Whai muri, ka puta ko ngā pononga me ngā kete mātaitai. Nō te kitenga atu o te rangatira o te hoariri i tēnei, ka nanao ia ki te mānuka. Ka houhia te rongo mutunga kore ki waenganui i ngā iwi e rua nei. Mai i tērā wā, kua noho haumi a Ngāi Tara rāua ko Rangitāne, kua tū hoki te kupu ‘rongo’ hei tohu mō te māriretanga.

Ngā pāhekoheko me te Pākehā

I te tau 1839, ka tīmata te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company) ki te hoko whenua ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara mai i ngā rangatira o ngā iwi o reira. Kīhai tētahi āpiha kotahi i kōrero ki a Muaūpoko mō ēnei hokonga whenua, ā, kīhai hoki a Muaūpoko i whiwhi i tētahi wāhanga o ngā whenua i rāhuitia ki te Māori. He pērā anō mō ngā whenua ki Kapiti, i hokona e iwi kē, kāore he kōrero ki a Muaūpoko. Ka tū ngā mahi nei hei kaupapa nui i ngā kerēme o Muaūpoko ki Te Rōpu Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi.

I te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka taka a Muaūpoko ki roto i ngā pakanga whenua, i raro i tō rātou rangatira i a Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui (ki te Pākehā, ko Meiha Kemp). Ki tā Te Keepa, he kaupapa tēnei e taea ai e te iwi te ranaki i ōna mate o mua. Kia tau ngā puehu o ngā pakanga, ka whai utu ia mā Te Kōti Whenua Māori, e hoki mai ai ētahi o ngā whenua o Muaūpoko ki Horowhenua. Ko ētahi o ngā whenua nei i hokona i te tekau tau atu i 1880 mō te rerewē, hei kāinga hoki mō ngā tāngata whai. He nui ngā tautohetohe i roto i te iwi mō te mana o ēnei whenua; ka kawea ēnei tautohetohe ki ngā kōti, kia noho ki reira mō tētahi wā roa; ka tae rā anō ki te whare paremata, ki reira kōrerohia ai, ā, i te tau 1896, ka whakatūria he Kōmihana Roera hei whakawā i te take nei. He aha te aha, ka riro tonu ngā whenua o Muaūpoko hei utu i ngā whakanekeneke nei. Ko ētahi whenua i riro hei utu i ngā whakahaere o te Kōmihana.

Ko te utu mō ngā mahi a te rōia a Te Keepa, ko te roto o Papaitonga ki Horowhenua.

Pērā i ētahi atu iwi i ngā rau tau 1800 me 1900, he pānga kino o ngā murunga whenua, ngā mahi ahuwhenua me te noho Pākehā ki te iwi o Muaūpoko. Heoi, i tēnei wā kei te whakatikatikahia ētahi o ngā hapanga ā-ture i pā ki te iwi.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Darren Reid, 'Muaūpoko - Ngā whakaekenga a ngā iwi me te Pākehā', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/muaupoko/page-2 (accessed 8 August 2020)

He kōrero nā Darren Reid, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 1 Feb 2015