A national anthem is a patriotic song that is often performed on important occasions, such as international sporting events or national celebrations. Along with a country’s flag and its coat of arms, the national anthem is a symbol of national identity that is recognised worldwide.
The sovereign (king or queen) has the right to declare a song a national anthem. New Zealand has two national anthems:
- ‘God save the Queen’ (or ‘God save the King’), which is also the British national anthem, became the national anthem when New Zealand was made a British colony in 1840.
- ‘God defend New Zealand’ was composed in the 1870s, and became a national anthem in 1977.
Both songs have Māori versions, composed in the 19th century.
History of ‘God defend New Zealand’
The words to ‘God defend New Zealand’ were originally a poem by journalist Thomas Bracken, published in 1876. A competition to compose the best tune for the words was won by John Joseph Woods. The song was translated into Māori in 1878, and was called ‘Aotearoa’.
Over the years many people lobbied for ‘God defend New Zealand’ to be made an official national anthem – partly because ‘God save the Queen’ is British and does not mention New Zealand. In 1976 a petition was presented to Parliament, and the song became a national anthem in 1977.
In the 2000s people often sang a verse in Māori and then a verse in English.
Some people have criticised ‘God defend New Zealand’ for using old-fashioned language and for its religious focus. However, no widely acceptable replacement has been found, and the anthem is not an issue for most people.