In the early days of New Zealand settlement, communities were isolated – when disaster struck they had to cope on their own. Today, earthquakes, floods and volcanic eruptions can cut communications, close roads and railway lines, and shut airports. Communities cannot assume that other people will be able to come to their rescue in an emergency. Self-reliance is still a major goal of civil defence.
The 1991 Resource Management Act made local authorities responsible for handling natural hazards in their area. Because there are 86 local authorities, the 2002 Civil Defence Emergency Management Act requires neighbouring regions to pool civil defence resources. For large-scale disasters the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management co-ordinates national assistance.
Goals of emergency management
The goals of local emergency management in New Zealand are sometimes summed up as the four Rs: reduction, readiness, response and recovery.
- Reduction – local authorities must analyse potential hazards in their region and take steps to reduce the risk of injury and death, damage, and social and economic disruption.
- Readiness – staff in local emergency services must be trained to deal with dangers, and the general public made aware of ways to stay safe during emergencies and how to cope on their own.
- Response – actions taken before, during and after a disaster to save lives and property include declaring a civil defence emergency, evacuating areas, closing roads, and requisitioning anything useful. Local authorities can impose night-time curfews to prevent looting, and they have priority on communication networks.
- Recovery – activities taken to restore the community to normal functioning. Many authorities encourage local businesses to plan recovery actions.
National civil defence
The 1929 Murchison and 1931 Napier earthquakes made the country aware of the need for a national organisation to assist during major emergencies. The 1932 Public Safety Conservation Act, passed after riots had occurred in major cities, allowed the government to declare a state of emergency when public safety or public order was likely to be threatened. There were no provisions, however, for organisations to plan for disasters.
The Emergency Precautions Scheme was set up in the shadow of the Second World War. Volunteers were organised and trained to deal with air raids, fires, poison-gas attacks and earthquakes. Interest in civil defence diminished after the Second World War, but was renewed with fears of nuclear war.
Ministry of Civil Defence
The Ministry of Civil Defence was set up in 1959, and by the mid-1960s the ministry’s focus was on natural-hazard emergencies.
In 1999, it became the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, to reflect a new emphasis on making preparations to lessen the effects of a disaster. The ministry works with central and local governments, emergency services, and the utilities that maintain services such as water, power, gas, transport and telecommunications.
During local civil defence emergencies, the ministry has a National Crisis Management Centre that assists communities with expert advice and transmits information to government and local agencies. In the event of a nationwide emergency, it can manage the entire response.
The centre is designed to function in the event of a major earthquake or power failure – it has earthquake protection, emergency power, a water supply, air-filtering equipment, and computer and telecommunications systems. It is fully equipped with a cafeteria, sleeping accommodation, and first aid and other facilities for staff, and it is kept in a continuous state of readiness.