Kōrero: Ngā ariā mō te pūtakenga mai o te Māori

Whārangi 1. 1770–1840: ngā tau tōmua

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā Pākehā tuatahi

Nō te taenga tuatahi o te Pākehā ki roto o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ka mīharo rātou ki te mea kua nōhia te nuinga o ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ka tīmata anō ā rātou whakaaroaro, ko wai ēnei iwi, i ahu mai i hea, ka mutu, nā te aha rātou i tae ai ki te takiwā pāmamao nei. Ko te tahuritanga anō tērā o te ao Pākehā ki te tātari i te kaupapa nei.

Ngā hōparatanga a Kuki

Nō ngā haerenga e toru a Kāpene Hēmi Kuki ki roto o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ka huraina, ka whakamaherehia hoki e ia te takiwā, nō muri ka rangona ko Poronihia: arā ko ngā motu o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, tae atu ki Aotearoa. Nā Kuki anō i hura te momo reo o Malayo-Polynesian (i ēnei rā e karangahia ana ko Austronesian). Nā rātou ko ōna kaimātai pūtaiao i kite ngā āhuatanga ōrite o ngā hanga ā-tinana, ā-tikanga, ā-kōrero paki, ā-reo anō hoki o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, tae atu ki te Māori. E tohu ana ngā taurite, nō mua tata ka nōhia taua takiwā.

Te whakaingoa i te Māori

Nō te takiwā o Poronihia ngā tāngata tuatahi o Aotearoa. Nā rātou i whakawhanake o rātou tikanga whakaaro ake, me te whakaara i ngā rōpū e kīia ana, he iwi. Nā te noho motuhake mō ngā rau tau maha, me te noho mātotoru i roto i ō rātou ake hapori, kīhai i tapaina he kārangaranga ingoa whānui mō ngā iwi nei. Heoi nō te tekau tau atu i 1830, i muri i te taenga mai o te Pākehā, ka tīmata te kawe haere i te kupu ‘Māori’, ā, whakamahia anō ai te kupu ‘Pākehā’ hei ingoa mō te tauiwi.

Kei roto anō i ngā kitenga a Kuki te whakaaro i takea mai ngā iwi o ngā moutere i te pito uru o te ao – i ‘Mareia’, takiwā o te ‘Taha Rāwhiti o Īnia’ rānei; Nā te kore kite i ētahi āhuatanga ōrite ki ngā iwi o Ahitereiria me te Taha Tonga o Amerika, kīhai aua whenua i whakaarotia he whenua ērā i ahu mai ai te Māori. I ēnei rā e whakaaehia tonu ana te tirohanga nei.

Te Kariki, ngā iwi o Poronihia, te hunga rere i te au o te wā

I muri mai i a Kuki ka whai mai ko ngā kaikōrero Pākehā hōu, ā, he rerekē rawa atu o rātou whakaaro ki ō Kuki. I whai rātou i te ariā rongonui o te wā – arā, ō rātou ake pūtakenga mai i te ao tawhito o Kirihi. I te taenga o te kaihōpara Wīwī a Dumont d’Urville, ka ‘whakataurite poka noa’ a ia i ngā taone, ngā whenua me ngā āhuatanga tangata o Aotearoa ki ērā o Kirihi. Nāna anō i whakarite ngā waka taua a te Māori ki ērā o ngā ‘toa o Troy’.

Taka tonu ki te rau tau 1900, i te ora tonu te ariā i ahu mai te Māori, tae atu ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, i Ūropi, i te taha uru o Āhia rānei. Ka tauiratia te noho o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ki te āhuatanga noho o ngā iwi o te ao tawhito o Ūropi. Whāia ka puta ngā whakatau a ētahi kaikōrero, e hoki whakamua ana rātou i te au o te wā kia kite i te āhua i noho ai ō rātou tīpuna. Heoi anō, nā ngā māramatanga o ēnei rā kua kitea i puta mai ngā iwi tuatahi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i te takiwā o te taha tonga o te moana o Haina, heoi anō, i whanake te tikanga whakaaro a ngā iwi o Poronihia ki roto tonu i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Ngā mihingare me ngā iwi ngaro

Ko te whakamāramatanga ā-hītori o ngā mihingare Karaitiana i tīkina mai i te Paipera, arā hei uri ngā tāngata katoa o te ao nō Noa whai muri i te Waipuke Nui. Ki tā rātou, i heke mai ngā ‘tūmomo mohoao’ tae atu ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, i te tama mōkai a Noa, i a Shem; engari ko ngā ‘mohoao ware’, arā, ngā tāngata whenua o Papua me Ahitereiria i takea mai i tana tama meamea i a Ham.

Tērā pea ko te mihingare a Samuel Marsden te tangata tuatahi kia whakatakoto kōrero mō te takenga mai o te Māori i te iwi Hūrae, Semitic (ko ngā uri o Shem te tikanga) rānei. Nā tōna kite i te whai kaha o te Māori ki ngā mahi tauhokohoko, ka puta tana whakatau mō te Māori arā, ‘sprung from some dispersed Jews [i puta mai i ētahi Hūrae kua korara]' 1. Ki tā tērā atu mihingare a Thomas Kendall, kei roto ngā ariā o te Kawenata Tawhito i ngā whakapono o te Māori, tae atu ki ōna toi whakairo. Whāia nō tana pānui i te Encyclopaedia Britannica ka tūhuratia e ia ngā ariā Pythagorean i te mātauranga ao nui mārama a te Māori. Ka whakapae a ia i ahu mai rātou i Īhipa, engari ehara i te Hūrae. Heoi ko te kōrero i kawea haerehia e te nuinga o te hunga mihingare ki Aotearoa me ngā motu o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ko te ariā i ahu mai ngā iwi o Poronihia i tētahi o ngā iwi korara o Iharaira. He kōrero tēnei i whakaponohia e te Māori hei whakamana i te whakapae, he iwi oati rātou nō te Atua.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. J. R. Elder, ed., The letters and journals of Samuel Marsden, 1765–1838. Dunedin: Coulls Somerville Wilkie and A. H. Reed, for Otago University Council. 1932, pp. 219–220. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

K. R. Howe, 'Ngā ariā mō te pūtakenga mai o te Māori - 1770–1840: ngā tau tōmua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-aria-mo-te-putakenga-mai-o-te-maori/page-1 (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by K. R. Howe, published 8 Feb 2005