Kōrero: Ngā ariā mō te pūtakenga mai o te Māori

Whārangi 2. 1840–1930: te ariā Aryan

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā pūtaiao whakataurite

I te takiwā o te wāhanga tuarua o te rau tau atu i 1800, ka anga ngā whakaaro mai i ngā taketakenga Semitic Hūrae ki ngā taketakenga Aryan, Caucasian. Kātahi ka whakapaetia kāore ngā pūtake o te Māori ki Īhipa, ki Kirihi rānei, engari ko Īnia kē te motu taketake ake o ngā tāngata Poronihiana. I hua mai te ariā nei i ngā mātauranga pūtaiao e haere kaha ana i Ingarangi i taua wā – te whakataurite i ngā mātauranga wetereo, whakapono, pūrākau hoki.

Ko tētahi o ngā whakatutukinga ahurewa o tērā wā ko te whai māramatanga i ngā tuituinga ā-hītori me te whanaketanga o ngā reo. I tīmata mai tēnei i a William Jones i te tau 1786. I whakapaetia e ia ngā tūhonotanga i waenganui i ngā reo o Ūropi me te reo Sanskrit, arā, te reo taketake ake o Īnia. Nā te kāwai tangata wetereo i hura te momo reo Indo-European.

I te rau tau 1800 ka tohu ngā pūkenga whai mana pērā i te kaiwetereo o Oxford a Max Müller ki te whakahirahira o te tomokanga o ngā iwi Aryan o mua ki roto o Īnia. Ko ngā reo me ngā tikanga whakaaro Īniana te pūtake i tipu mai ai a Kirihi me Roma, tae atu ki ngā hapori o Uropi o tēnei wā. Ka whakaōrite a Müller i te hītori ā-reo, ki te hītori ā-tāngata. I whakapono a ia he hekenga tahi tō ngā iwi o Ūropi me Īnia i te kāwai Aryan. Nō konei ka makaia anō te Māori ki roto i te rārangi iwi i whakaarohia i heke mai i ngā iwi tawhito o te Aryan. Nā tētahi o ngā kaiwhakaū o te mātauranga tikanga tangata a Edward Taylor i whakawhānui ōna tātaritanga ki ngā mātauranga pūtaiao tangata me ngā mātauranga wetereo. Nā whai anō ka whakapae a ia arā anō ngā maramara taunaki i roto i ētahi tikanga whakaaro tāngata nō ngā tau tōmua o te koiora tangata.

Ngā toenga Sanskrit

Atu i te wā i a Kāpene Kuki, ka whakatauriterite ngā kaikōrero i ngā mātauranga wetereo, whakapono hoki o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Heoi nō te putanga mai o ngā mātauranga whakatauriterite pūtaiao, ka nahanaha ngā tātaritanga. Taro kau ake ka kitea e ngā pūkenga ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ngā hononga i waenganui i te momo reo o Malayo-Polynesian me te reo Indo-European. Ka whakapaetia kīhai i nui rawa ngā taunaki Sanskrit i ngā reo o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa; ā, heoi, kikī ana ngā tikanga, pakiwaitara, whakapono hoki a ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i ngā taunaki o te tikanga whakaaro Aryan.

He kaiwetereo, he pūkenga hoki a Edward Tregear i tae mai ki Aotearoa i te tau 1863. Nāna te whakapae ko ētahi o ngā iwi Aryan kōrero Sanskrit (te reo taketake ake o Īnia) i kōrerohia e Muller, i paneke mā ngā moutere ririki o te tonga mā rāwhiti o Āhia, ka puta atu ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, tae rawa ake ki Aotearoa nei. Ka whakatau a ia kei roto i te reo, ngā pūrākau, tikanga hoki a te Māori ngā taunaki o ngā taonga tuku iho a te iwi Aryan-Īniana. Nā, ka maharatia ka puta ngā kōrero muna mō ngā tikanga whakaaro o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i ēnei tīwhiri, ā, ka whai mārama anō hoki ki te āhua i puea mai te tikanga whakaaro Aryan.

Ka whānui te takoto o te ariā o te Aryan, Caucasian rānei ki roto i ngā pūkenga o Aotearoa o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa hoki, tatū rawa mai ki te tekau tau atu i 1930.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

K. R. Howe, 'Ngā ariā mō te pūtakenga mai o te Māori - 1840–1930: te ariā Aryan', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-aria-mo-te-putakenga-mai-o-te-maori/page-2 (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by K. R. Howe, published 8 Feb 2005