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Ideas of Māori origins

by  K. R. Howe

Hei uri te Māori nō te Kariki me te iwi o Īhipa? He iwi ngaro rātou nō ngā Iwi Korara o Iharaira – ko Īnia tō rātou kāinga taketake ake? I tae mai rātou i roto i te tāruru waka nui? Mai anō i ngā tūtakitanga tōmua ki te Māori, kua mīharo ngā pūkenga o te ao Pākehā ki te takenga mai o te tangata whenua o Aotearoa. He nui nga ariā i puta ake – ko te nuinga he pōhēhē noa iho, he hē rānei.  I huraina i ngā rangahau pūtaiao o nanahi tata nei ngā taunaki hōu e pā anō ai ki te ahunga mai o te Māori i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.


1770s–1840s: early ideas

Ngā Pākehā tuatahi

Nō te taenga tuatahi o te Pākehā ki roto o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ka mīharo rātou ki te mea kua nōhia te nuinga o ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ka tīmata anō ā rātou whakaaroaro, ko wai ēnei iwi, i ahu mai i hea, ka mutu, nā te aha rātou i tae ai ki te takiwā pāmamao nei. Ko te tahuritanga anō tērā o te ao Pākehā ki te tātari i te kaupapa nei.

Ngā hōparatanga a Kuki

Nō ngā haerenga e toru a Kāpene Hēmi Kuki ki roto o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ka huraina, ka whakamaherehia hoki e ia te takiwā, nō muri ka rangona ko Poronihia: arā ko ngā motu o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, tae atu ki Aotearoa. Nā Kuki anō i hura te momo reo o Malayo-Polynesian (i ēnei rā e karangahia ana ko Austronesian). Nā rātou ko ōna kaimātai pūtaiao i kite ngā āhuatanga ōrite o ngā hanga ā-tinana, ā-tikanga, ā-kōrero paki, ā-reo anō hoki o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, tae atu ki te Māori. E tohu ana ngā taurite, nō mua tata ka nōhia taua takiwā.

Te whakaingoa i te Māori

Nō te takiwā o Poronihia ngā tāngata tuatahi o Aotearoa. Nā rātou i whakawhanake o rātou tikanga whakaaro ake, me te whakaara i ngā rōpū e kīia ana, he iwi. Nā te noho motuhake mō ngā rau tau maha, me te noho mātotoru i roto i ō rātou ake hapori, kīhai i tapaina he kārangaranga ingoa whānui mō ngā iwi nei. Heoi nō te tekau tau atu i 1830, i muri i te taenga mai o te Pākehā, ka tīmata te kawe haere i te kupu ‘Māori’, ā, whakamahia anō ai te kupu ‘Pākehā’ hei ingoa mō te tauiwi.

Kei roto anō i ngā kitenga a Kuki te whakaaro i takea mai ngā iwi o ngā moutere i te pito uru o te ao – i ‘Mareia’, takiwā o te ‘Taha Rāwhiti o Īnia’ rānei; Nā te kore kite i ētahi āhuatanga ōrite ki ngā iwi o Ahitereiria me te Taha Tonga o Amerika, kīhai aua whenua i whakaarotia he whenua ērā i ahu mai ai te Māori. I ēnei rā e whakaaehia tonu ana te tirohanga nei.

Te Kariki, ngā iwi o Poronihia, te hunga rere i te au o te wā

I muri mai i a Kuki ka whai mai ko ngā kaikōrero Pākehā hōu, ā, he rerekē rawa atu o rātou whakaaro ki ō Kuki. I whai rātou i te ariā rongonui o te wā – arā, ō rātou ake pūtakenga mai i te ao tawhito o Kirihi. I te taenga o te kaihōpara Wīwī a Dumont d’Urville, ka ‘whakataurite poka noa’ a ia i ngā taone, ngā whenua me ngā āhuatanga tangata o Aotearoa ki ērā o Kirihi. Nāna anō i whakarite ngā waka taua a te Māori ki ērā o ngā ‘toa o Troy’.

Taka tonu ki te rau tau 1900, i te ora tonu te ariā i ahu mai te Māori, tae atu ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, i Ūropi, i te taha uru o Āhia rānei. Ka tauiratia te noho o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ki te āhuatanga noho o ngā iwi o te ao tawhito o Ūropi. Whāia ka puta ngā whakatau a ētahi kaikōrero, e hoki whakamua ana rātou i te au o te wā kia kite i te āhua i noho ai ō rātou tīpuna. Heoi anō, nā ngā māramatanga o ēnei rā kua kitea i puta mai ngā iwi tuatahi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i te takiwā o te taha tonga o te moana o Haina, heoi anō, i whanake te tikanga whakaaro a ngā iwi o Poronihia ki roto tonu i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Ngā mihingare me ngā iwi ngaro

Ko te whakamāramatanga ā-hītori o ngā mihingare Karaitiana i tīkina mai i te Paipera, arā hei uri ngā tāngata katoa o te ao nō Noa whai muri i te Waipuke Nui. Ki tā rātou, i heke mai ngā ‘tūmomo mohoao’ tae atu ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, i te tama mōkai a Noa, i a Shem; engari ko ngā ‘mohoao ware’, arā, ngā tāngata whenua o Papua me Ahitereiria i takea mai i tana tama meamea i a Ham.

Tērā pea ko te mihingare a Samuel Marsden te tangata tuatahi kia whakatakoto kōrero mō te takenga mai o te Māori i te iwi Hūrae, Semitic (ko ngā uri o Shem te tikanga) rānei. Nā tōna kite i te whai kaha o te Māori ki ngā mahi tauhokohoko, ka puta tana whakatau mō te Māori arā, ‘sprung from some dispersed Jews [i puta mai i ētahi Hūrae kua korara]' 1. Ki tā tērā atu mihingare a Thomas Kendall, kei roto ngā ariā o te Kawenata Tawhito i ngā whakapono o te Māori, tae atu ki ōna toi whakairo. Whāia nō tana pānui i te Encyclopaedia Britannica ka tūhuratia e ia ngā ariā Pythagorean i te mātauranga ao nui mārama a te Māori. Ka whakapae a ia i ahu mai rātou i Īhipa, engari ehara i te Hūrae. Heoi ko te kōrero i kawea haerehia e te nuinga o te hunga mihingare ki Aotearoa me ngā motu o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ko te ariā i ahu mai ngā iwi o Poronihia i tētahi o ngā iwi korara o Iharaira. He kōrero tēnei i whakaponohia e te Māori hei whakamana i te whakapae, he iwi oati rātou nō te Atua.

Footnotes
  1. J. R. Elder, ed., The letters and journals of Samuel Marsden, 1765–1838. Dunedin: Coulls Somerville Wilkie and A. H. Reed, for Otago University Council. 1932, pp. 219–220. › Back

1840s–1930s: the Aryan theory

Ngā pūtaiao whakataurite

I te takiwā o te wāhanga tuarua o te rau tau atu i 1800, ka anga ngā whakaaro mai i ngā taketakenga Semitic Hūrae ki ngā taketakenga Aryan, Caucasian. Kātahi ka whakapaetia kāore ngā pūtake o te Māori ki Īhipa, ki Kirihi rānei, engari ko Īnia kē te motu taketake ake o ngā tāngata Poronihiana. I hua mai te ariā nei i ngā mātauranga pūtaiao e haere kaha ana i Ingarangi i taua wā – te whakataurite i ngā mātauranga wetereo, whakapono, pūrākau hoki.

Ko tētahi o ngā whakatutukinga ahurewa o tērā wā ko te whai māramatanga i ngā tuituinga ā-hītori me te whanaketanga o ngā reo. I tīmata mai tēnei i a William Jones i te tau 1786. I whakapaetia e ia ngā tūhonotanga i waenganui i ngā reo o Ūropi me te reo Sanskrit, arā, te reo taketake ake o Īnia. Nā te kāwai tangata wetereo i hura te momo reo Indo-European.

I te rau tau 1800 ka tohu ngā pūkenga whai mana pērā i te kaiwetereo o Oxford a Max Müller ki te whakahirahira o te tomokanga o ngā iwi Aryan o mua ki roto o Īnia. Ko ngā reo me ngā tikanga whakaaro Īniana te pūtake i tipu mai ai a Kirihi me Roma, tae atu ki ngā hapori o Uropi o tēnei wā. Ka whakaōrite a Müller i te hītori ā-reo, ki te hītori ā-tāngata. I whakapono a ia he hekenga tahi tō ngā iwi o Ūropi me Īnia i te kāwai Aryan. Nō konei ka makaia anō te Māori ki roto i te rārangi iwi i whakaarohia i heke mai i ngā iwi tawhito o te Aryan. Nā tētahi o ngā kaiwhakaū o te mātauranga tikanga tangata a Edward Taylor i whakawhānui ōna tātaritanga ki ngā mātauranga pūtaiao tangata me ngā mātauranga wetereo. Nā whai anō ka whakapae a ia arā anō ngā maramara taunaki i roto i ētahi tikanga whakaaro tāngata nō ngā tau tōmua o te koiora tangata.

Ngā toenga Sanskrit

Atu i te wā i a Kāpene Kuki, ka whakatauriterite ngā kaikōrero i ngā mātauranga wetereo, whakapono hoki o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Heoi nō te putanga mai o ngā mātauranga whakatauriterite pūtaiao, ka nahanaha ngā tātaritanga. Taro kau ake ka kitea e ngā pūkenga ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ngā hononga i waenganui i te momo reo o Malayo-Polynesian me te reo Indo-European. Ka whakapaetia kīhai i nui rawa ngā taunaki Sanskrit i ngā reo o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa; ā, heoi, kikī ana ngā tikanga, pakiwaitara, whakapono hoki a ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i ngā taunaki o te tikanga whakaaro Aryan.

He kaiwetereo, he pūkenga hoki a Edward Tregear i tae mai ki Aotearoa i te tau 1863. Nāna te whakapae ko ētahi o ngā iwi Aryan kōrero Sanskrit (te reo taketake ake o Īnia) i kōrerohia e Muller, i paneke mā ngā moutere ririki o te tonga mā rāwhiti o Āhia, ka puta atu ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, tae rawa ake ki Aotearoa nei. Ka whakatau a ia kei roto i te reo, ngā pūrākau, tikanga hoki a te Māori ngā taunaki o ngā taonga tuku iho a te iwi Aryan-Īniana. Nā, ka maharatia ka puta ngā kōrero muna mō ngā tikanga whakaaro o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i ēnei tīwhiri, ā, ka whai mārama anō hoki ki te āhua i puea mai te tikanga whakaaro Aryan.

Ka whānui te takoto o te ariā o te Aryan, Caucasian rānei ki roto i ngā pūkenga o Aotearoa o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa hoki, tatū rawa mai ki te tekau tau atu i 1930.


1840s–early 20th century: Māori tradition and the Great Fleet

Ngā kōrero tuku iho

Atu i te tau 1840, tokomaha ngā tāngata kohikohi i ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori. Heoi, kīhai i kitea e rātou etahi kōrero mō te wā i ū mai rātou, ko wai i tae mai, tokohia rānei ngā waka i tae mai, i ahu mai rānei ngā waka nei i tēhea muka o Poronihia.

Heoi, arā anō ngā wāhi i whakaae ai rātou. Ko tētahi mea e whakaae ana ngā kōrero tuku iho, mō ngā wāhi i tau mai ai ngā waka, ā, ko ētahi o ngā waka rangona ai ō rātou ingoa ki ētahi ake takiwā. I taua wā i maharatia nō roto i ngā rau tau ki mua kaua nō ngā mano tau ki mua, te ūnga mai o ngā waka nei. Tērā anō te kōrero, he iwi mohoao i konei i mua i te Māori, ā, nō te taenga mai o te Māori ka eketia te iwi rā.

Hawaiki – te kāinga tūturu

I kōrero te Māori ki ngā Pākehā tōmua, i rere mai ō rātou tīpuna i te kāinga tūturu i Hawaiki tatū rawa ki Aotearoa nei. Ko tā rātou kī atu, kei te raki-mā-rāwhiti atu i Aotearoa a Hawaiki. I ēnei rā e whakaponotia nuitia ana i ahu mai ngā waka nei i ngā moutere o Rarotonga me Tahiti.

He kaiwhakamārama hōu: ko Te Mete (S. Percy Smith)

Nā te āranga mai o ngā uiui mō te pūtake mai o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa tae atu ki te Māori i ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1800, ka tīmata te rongohia o te tuakiri o Aotearoa. Hei whakatinana i tērā ka puta ngā kōrero whakarekareka mō te hītori o tēnei motu me tētahi whakamāramatanga ngāwari mō te pānga o te ao Pākehā ki runga i te Māori.

Nā Te Mete te momo hītori nei mō Aotearoa i whakatinana. He kairūri matua a ia, ā, ko ia anō tētahi o ngā kaiwhakaū, ētita (rāua tahi ko Edward Tregear) hoki o Te Rōpū Poronihia. I ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1800 me ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900, nā Te Mete i ‘whakapaipai’ te āhua o ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori kia ngāwari ai, kia whai mārama anō hoki ai ki te taringa, me te kanohi Pākehā.

Te Heke Nui

E ai ki a Te Mete, nō te takiwā o te tau 750 AD ka huraina a Aotearoa e te kaihōpara o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa e Kupe. I taua wā kīhai he tangata o konei; ā kia taka mai ki ngā tau 1000-1100 AD, ka tae mai ngā kaitoro o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, i a Toi rāua ko Whātonga. Nō tā rāua taenga ka kitea e rāua kua nōhia kētia te whenua e tētahi iwi mohoao e kīia ai he Moriori. Kia tatū rawa mai ki te tau 1350 AD ka tae mai te ‘Tāruru Nui’. E whitu ngā waka – ko Aotea, ko Kurahaupō, ko Mataatua, ko Tainui, ko Tokomaru, ko Te Arawa, ko Tākitimu – koinei ngā waka kawe i te Māori i te takiwā o Tahiti ki Aotearoa nei. Nā tēnei iwi whatutoto, pakanga, ahuwhenua hoki i whakamate te iwi Moriori.


1880s–1970s: Moriori origins; the Great Fleet

Ngā ariā tōmua mō te Moriori

Nō te pokapū o te rau tau atu i 1800 kua kitea he kōiwi moa e takoto ana i te taha o ngā whao o te tangata. Nō konei ka pupū ake ngā pātai mēnā nā te Māori te moa i patupatu, mēnā nā tētahi iwi tōmua ake rānei te moa i patu. Ā, mēnā he iwi i konei i mua i te taenga mai o te Māori, ko wai rātou, ā, i aha rātou?

Hei tā te kaitātai aro whenua a Julius von Haast, he iwi Palaeolithic te iwi nā rātou i patu te moa. Nā ngā kōrero a Te Mete (S. Percy Smith) mō te Tāruru Nui ka puta he whakamārama noa i ahatia rātou, ā, nōnahea hoki tēnei āhuatanga i tū: he iwi mohoao, haere, patupatu moa ngā iwi taketake ake o Aotearoa (Palaeolithic Moriori) i whakangarohia, i ekehia hoki e tētahi iwi kaha ake, matatau hoki ki te ahuwhenua (Neolithic Māori).

Te tautoko i te whakataiwhenua

Mai anō i te wā i a Kāpene Kuki ko te whakapono ka mate ngā tāngata o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i te tūtakitanga ki te Pākehā, ahakoa te mea kāore he taunaki e tautoko ana i tēnei.

I te wāhanga tuarua o te rau tau 1800 ka puta te ariā a Charles Darwin mō te kunenga e mea ana – nā runga i ngā ture tonu o te taiao ka mate ā-moa ngā iwi ngoikore pēnei i ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Nō te whakaputanga o ngā tatauranga o te tau 1896 ka kitea kei raro rawa te taupori Māori e putu ana (e 42,000). Koinei te tokoiti rawa o te Māori atu i te tīmatanga o te whakataiwhenuatanga. Nō konei, ki tā te Pākehā tirohanga, ka whai tikanga te whakangarotanga a te Pākehā i te Māori nā te whakangarotanga a te Māori i te iwi Moriori. Nā te ariā o te Tāruru Nui i whakamana te whakataiwhenuatanga me te whakamatenga tūturu pea o te Māori e te Pākehā. Kei ngā whakaahua a Charles Goldie e whakaaturia ana te nohopuku o te tangata Māori e whakarehurehu ana ki te pō.

Te whakaritenga o te Aryan

He pai kia tirohia ngā kōrero a Te Mete mō te Tāruru Nui i roto i te horopaki whānui mō ngā Aryan. Kei roto i āna kōrero i tētahi hītori roa, mōrearea hoki mō te iwi Māori, iwi Pākehā hoki. Me tana kī taketake mai ai ngā iwi e rua nei i te tātai kotahi, ahakoa tawhito. Heoi, ko te rangatiratanga o Aotearoa – ka riro i ngā tāngata whai Pākehā – ā, e hanga hōu ana rātou i tētahi motu, mō rātou, mō te ao whānui hoki. I whakapono ngā Pākehā nei o te tonga he momo tāngata hōu rātou i heke i ō rātou tīpuna o Ingarangi. Nō ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau atu i 1800, i tirohia a Aotearoa pēnei i te taiwhanga pūtaiao hapori o te ao, arā, te wāhi i whānau mai ai te rau tau 1900.

Ka memeha te ariā mō te Tāruru Nui

I āwhinatia a Te Mete e ngā pūkenga o te mātauranga Māori pēnei i a Te Pēhi. Nāna ngā kōrero mō te Moriori i whakamōmona, arā, he iwi mohoao i takea kē mai i Meranīhia. Ka whakaaehia te ariā o te Tāruru, Nui e te Māori, me te Pākehā. Ā, nā te pūkenga tonu o te ao Māori, nā Te Rangihīroa, i whakapae nā tōna toto Poronihia i pā mai ai ngā māramatanga o te matakite ki a ia mō ngā mātauranga o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Heoi i tohe tonu ia nō te kāwai tangata o te Aryan te Māori, tērā pea i ahu mai i te Waenganui Rāwhiti (Middle East), ā, tērā tonu pea i noho ki tētahi takiwā ki Īnia. Ka tautoko a ia i te ariā o te Tāruru Nui. Ka tautoko ia i ngā kōrero mō Kupe rātou ko Toi, ko Whātonga me ā rātou tūhuratanga i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Heoi anō, ka whakahē a ia i te kōrero ko te Moriori te iwi tuatahi ki Aotearoa.

Nāwai ā, ka huri te kōrero a Te Mete hei pūrākau. Kia taka mai ki te tekau tau atu i 1970 kei te akongia tonuhia ngā kōrero a Te Mete ki te Pākehā me te Māori. Me kī kua whai pakiaka āna kōrero ki roto i te ahurea whānui o Aotearoa.


1920s–2000: new understanding

Ka waimeha te pūrākau mō te Moriori

Tokorua ngā kaimātai tikanga tangata o Aotearoa i tohe i te ariā e mea ana i konei te Moriori i mua i te Māori – ko H. D Skinner, i te tekau tau atu i 1920, ā, ko Roger Duff i te tekau tau atu i 1940. I whakapae rāua ko ngā tāngata tuatahi o tēnei motu – ngā iwi patu moa, i puta mai i Poronihia tonu. Nā ana kerikeritanga ki te tāhuna o te awa o Te Wairau, ka kitea e Duff ngā taunaki pono, arā, he iwi Māori tōmua aua iwi whaiwhai moa. Ko tana whakamārama mō te rerekē o ngā taputapu i kitea i ngā papanga i kerikeria ki ngā wāhi whaipara tangata e mea ana, nā te Māori katoa aua taputapu i hanga, e whakaatu ana i te pakaritanga o te ahurea o te Māori, ehara i te taunaki mō tētahi iwi tōmua ake i te Māori ki Aotearoa.

E whai ake nei ko te māramatanga o ēnei wā; ko ngā tāngata o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ngā iwi tuatahi kia noho ki Aotearoa i te takiwā o te rau tau atu i 1200. I te takiwā o te rau tau atu i 1400, ka rere ētahi tāngata ki Wharekauri, e 800 kiromita te pāmamao. Ka motu ngā here ki Aotearoa, ka tipu ā rātou tikanga whakahaere. I te tekau tau atu i 1830 ka tae atu ētahi Māori ki Wharekauri mā runga i tētahi kaipuke Pākehā. Koinei te tūtakitanga tuatahi a ngā iwi kiritata e rua nei mō ngā tau e 300 te roa. Ko te ingoa kārangaranga o ngā iwi o Wharekauri ko te Moriori – tā rātou whakahua i te kupu Māori.

Te whakahē i te ariā o te Tāruru Nui

I tautoko tonu a Skinner rāua ko Duff i te kōrero a Te Mete (S. Percy Smith) mō ngā kaihōpara tōmua o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa – mō Kupe (750 AD), mō Toi rāua ko Whātonga (1000–1100) – me te Tāruru Nui i te takiwā o te tau 1350.

I te tekau tau atu i 1950 ka hua tētahi tikanga hōu mō te tātari i te pakeke o tētahi mea (pēnei i te rākau, te angaanga, te kōiwi) mai i ngā wāhi whaipara tangata. Ko te tikanga o te radiocarbon dating ko te tiro i te tawhito o ētahi para mā te kite i te nui o te isotope carbon-14 e toe ana i roto i te para. Nā ngā taunaki hōu nei, ka puta te whakatau he tōmua noa atu te taenga mai o te Māori – i te takiwā o te tau 800 AD. Ko te radiocarbon dating tētahi o ngā tūmomo mātauranga rangahau i whakahē i te kōrero mō te Tāruru Nui.

I te tekau tau atu i 1960 ka wetewetea e te kaimātai momo tangata e David Simmons te ariā o Te Mete mō te Tāruru Nui. I whakaaturia e ia ngā mahi mūrere a Te Mete ki te raweke i ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā whakapapa a te Māori, kia hua ko te kōrero e pai ana ki a ia. Hei tauira, i whakapono a Te Mete he tika katoa ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori. Ko te nuinga o ngā kōrero nei he whakapapa, tīmata mai ana i te ūnga o tētahi waka. Mā te uta i te 25 tau ki runga i ngā ingoa o te whakapapa ka kitea te tawhito o ngā tau o tētahi kōrero. Heoi ko te mate, kīhai ngā kōrero ā-iwi i tīmata i te wā kotahi. Nā reira ka tahuri ia ki te whakaōrite i ngā kōrero nei. Nō konei ka hua mai a 1350 AD mō te tau tae ai te Tāruru Nui ki Aotearoa.

Whāia, ahakoa te whakapae a Te Mete he tika katoa ngā kōrero i whakamahia e ia, he rangirua ētahi o ana whiriwhiringa. Ko tētahi o ngā tāngata whāngai korero ki a ia ko Te Whatahoro Jury. Ko te whakapae a Te Whatahoro i ako ia ki roto i ngā kura wānanga a Te Mātorohanga i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Heoi, ehara i te mea he tūturu ngā akoranga katoa a Te Whatahoro. I iriiritia a ia hei Mōmona, i āwhina a ia ki te whakamāori i te Puka Mōmona (kei roto e kī ana ko ngā iwi o Poronihia tētahi o ngā Iwi Korara o Iharaira). He mema anō hoki ia nō te Rōpū Poronihiana, ā, he tino tata a ia ki a Te Mete i roto i ā rāua mahi. Ko ia tonu tana kaitohutohu ki ngā tikanga Māori. Nō mua tata nei kua kitea i tū anō a Te Whatahoro mō te rōpū tōrangapū Māori a Te Kotahitanga. Mārama te kitea, kei raro kē ana mahi kohikohi kōrero tuku iho i te maru o Te Kotahitanga. Ka whakamahia a Te Whatahoro e Te Mete, ka whakamahia hoki a Te Mete e Te Whatahoro.

Tāpiri atu ki te kōrero tito mō te Tāruru Nui, ko te whakamāramatanga tito a Te Mete e mea ana, ko Kupe te kaihōpara tuatahi i tae mai i te tau 750 AD. Kīhai a Kupe i rongonuitia ki roto i ngā kōrero tuku iho; nō muri rawa a ia, nō te rau tau 1300. Whāia nāna katoa ngā kōrero mō Toi rāua ko Whātonga. Ka whiriwhiri ia i ngā kōrero e tautoko ana i āna ariā, ka whakatahangia e ia ngā kōrero e whakahē ana i ana ariā.

I te tekau tau atu i 1960 ka whakahēhia anōtia te ariā mō te Tāruru Nui e te tumu kōrero e Andrew Sharp. Ko tāna i whakapae, kīhai i ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa te mātauranga mō te haere i runga i te moana uriuri. E ai ki a Sharp, i ahu mai ngā tāngata hura i Aotearoa i te taha rāwhiti o Poronihia, i tūpono noa mai ki konei. He tirohanga tēnei i tautohetia, engari i whāia e te rahi i taua wā.

Te Tāruru Nui, he tohu nui

Tere kē te iwi Pākehā ki te whakamahi i ngā taonga me ngā tikanga a te Māori, hei tohu tuakiritanga. Ka kite rātou he hua i roto i tēnei ina tauhokohoko ai a Aotearoa ki tāwāhi, ina tipu ai ngā mahi wae tāpoi. Ka manaakitia ngā tikanga Māori pēnei i te haka me te koru. I tua atu ka tīkina ngā kōrero mō ngā waka i heke ki Aotearoa ka hurihia kia hua ko te Tāruru Nui.

Te tirohanga o ēnei rā

Atu i te paunga o te rau tau 1900, he maha ngā tūmomo rangahau mō te takenga mai o te Māori. Otirā ko te radiocarbon dating ki ngā wāhi whaipara tangata tērā, ko te tātaritanga o ngā pungarehu mai i ngā puia tērā, ko te tātaritanga pītau ira mai i ngā wāhine Māori me te kiore o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa tērā, ko te tāraitanga hōutanga o ngā waka tere moana o Poronihia hoki tērā.

I nāianei e whakaponohia ana i nōhia tuatahitia a Aotearoa e tētahi iwi nō te taha rāwhiti o Poronihia – mai i te takiwā o Rarotonga me Tahiti; i āta heke rātou i runga i ngā waka rerekē, i ngā hekenga maha, ā, nō te takiwā o te whakamutunga o te rau tau 1200 tae ai rātou ki Aotearoa.

Ahakoa te kaha o ngā taunaki pūtaiao e tautoko ana i ngā whakamārama nei, ka panoni pea ngā whakamārama nei ki te puta mai ētahi taunaki hōu. Waihoki ki ngā ariā katoa e pā ana ki te pūtakenga mai o te Māori, he whakaaturanga ngā ariā ki ngā mātauranga me ngā māramatanga o taua wā. E whai tonu ana ētahi i te ariā o te Tāruru Nui – kāore te tangata e tumeke ki tēnei – otirā koinei te mātauranga i whāngaia ki roto i ngā kura mō ngā tekau tau maha.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: K. R. Howe, 'Ngā ariā mō te pūtakenga mai o te Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-aria-mo-te-putakenga-mai-o-te-maori/print (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by K. R. Howe, published 8 Feb 2005