Kōrero: Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa

Whārangi 1. Te wairua auaha o Aotearoa

Ngā whakaahua

Kei waenganui pū i te tuakiri o Aotearoa, ko te wairua auaha. He wāhanga nui o ngā mahi toi, ko te kōrero mō Aotearoa, tae rawa atu ki te aru i ngā whakaaro toi o ngā iwi o te ao. Ka whiwhi a Aotearoa i te hua o ēnei whitiwhitinga, pērā i ētahi atu whenua ka whiwhi i ngā hua.

Ngā tikanga rerekē

Ka ahu mai ngā mahi toi o Aotearoa i ngā takenga maha: i te iwi Māori, te tangata whenua o tēnei whenua; i ngā Pākehā ka tau i muri i te tau 1840; i ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, o Āhia me Ūropi ka tae mai i muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao.

Ka tautokona ngā mahi toi

He tokomaha ngā tohungatā rongonui o Aotearoa – pērā i te kaitito a Douglas Lilburn, te tohunga tā a Colin McCahon, te kaituhi a Janet Frame. Nā te iti me te tāwhiti o tēnei whenua kāore i nui tēnei mahi i konei. Koirā te take ka wehe te nuinga ki tāwāhi. Heoi, atu i ngā tekau tau 1940 me 1950, ka nui haere ngā tautoko mō ēnei mahi.

Ka mate mō te mahi toi

E ai ki tētahi rangahau i te tau 1999, e $20,700 te utu toharite ā-tau ki te hunga toi whakaari – pūoro, tuhituhi, toi ataata, aha atu; ko te utu toharite mō te motu whānui, e $27,934. E 66% o rātou i utua te $10,000 i te tau mō ā rātou mahi toi. E ai ki te kōrero, ka pēnei te iti o te utu nā te tokoiti o te hunga tautoko; kāore i tino nui ngā mahi pēnei e tuwhera ana; me te iti o ngā āwhina a te kāwanatanga. E ai ki tētahi tohungatā, ‘Mēnā kei tētahi atu whenua tātou, ki te pēnei tō kaha ki te mahi pēnei i a mātou nei…..e kore koe e rongo i te kino o te rawa kore.’1

Ka hōrapa i te tekau tau atu i 1970

Mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1970 kua hua ngā mahi toi i te hunga tautoko, ngā tohunga toi, me te tokomaha atu ka whai oranga i ngā toi. Kua tū ētahi rōpū toi, ko ētahi ka whai āwhina i te kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1998 ka tuwhera Te Papa Tongarewa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Ko Toi Aotearoa te manatū a te kāwanatanga e tautoko ana i ngā mahi toi. Kua rahi ake ngā akomanga me ngā whare whakaako mō ngā kaupapa whakaari, ngā whakaari, kapa haka, kanikani hoki. Kua tū te maha o ngā whare pupuri taonga, ngā whare toi, tae rawa ki ngā tohu toi me ngā takuhe mō te hunga kei te pihi ake i ngā kaupapa toi. Kua tūtū ngā huihui whakaatu i ngā kaupapa toi, atu i ngā waiata ōkawa (chamber music) ki ngā ‘mau noa’. Ko te huihui rongonui rawa atu, ko te Hui Toi o Aotearoa ki te Ao ka tū ia rua tau. I hua ake te whakahaerenga i te tau 1984 ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ā, nō te tau 1986 ka tū te ahurei tuatahi. 

Ahurea me te tuakiri

Ko te take i kaha te tipu o ngā mahi toi ki Aotearoa, nā te rerekē o te ōhanga me te hapori. Mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1970, kua tino rerekē a Aotearoa. Kua whenua tuwhera, kua tangatanga ngā here o mua, kua kanorau hoki te iwi, kua kaha ake ngā hononga ki ngā whenua o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa me Āhia. Mārama te kitea o tēnei i ngā kaupapa toi; ngā kaupapa ka kitea i te pouaka whakaata, te wāhi ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i roto i ngā pūoro o ēnei rā, ngā tauira rerekē o te tekau tau atu i 1980. Ko tētahi anō pikinga, ko ngā toi Māori. Kua piki anō te kaha o ngā toi Māori tūturu me ngā toi Māori o tēnei ao.

Kawea ngā kaupapa toi

He kaiwaiata, kaikanikani a Mika. E whā ngā wā kua tū a ia me tana rōpū Torotoro ki te hui ahurei o Edinburgh. Ko tā rātou momo kanikani, waiata, he nunumitanga o te kapa haka, hip hop, funk me te kanikani whati.

Te hari i te toi o Aotearoa ki te ao

Atu i te tekau tau o 1970, kua nui ake ngā toi o Aotearoa kua hau ki te ao. I puta te rongo mō ngā tangata toi o Aotearoa i noho ki tāwāhi, pēnei i te kaituhi kōrero poto a Katherine Mansfield, te tohungatā a Frances Hodgkins, te kaiwhakairo a Len Lye, te kaiwaiata whakaari pūoro a Kiri Te Kanawa. Heoi, tatū ki ngā tau tata ki muri, kāore i tino whānui te rongo ki tāwāhi mō ngā toi me ngā tohunga auaha toi o Aotearoa. Heoi, kua ekea ngā taumata o te ao e te hunga hanga kiriata, tuhituhinga, toi ataata, tauira, toi whakaari, pūoro o Aotearoa. I ēnei rā, ka kitea ngā mahi toi o Aotearoa ki ngā hui toi nui puta noa te ao.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Sarah Boyd, ‘Suffering for their art.’ Dominion Post, 27 March 2004, E1. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Nancy Swarbrick, 'Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa - Te wairua auaha o Aotearoa', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-auahatanga-o-aotearoa/page-1 (accessed 17 October 2019)

Story by Nancy Swarbrick, published 8 Feb 2005