Kōrero: Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa

Whārangi 5. Te kiriata me te pāpāho

Ngā whakaahua

Kiriata

Ko ētahi mahi pārekareka rawa atu ki te taupori o Aotearoa ko te mātaki pouaka whakaata, rīpene whakaata, kōpae whakaata rānei. E ai ki tētahi rangahau i te tau 2002, e 40 % o te taupori ka whai i ēnei kaupapa i roto i te whā wiki. He nui ake ngā kiriata o Aotearoa i ēnei rā, ka nui hoki te iwi ki tāwāhi ka mātaki i ngā kiriata o Aotearoa.

Mahi nui whakaharahara

I te tau 2004, ka riro te nuinga o ngā hōnore o ngā tohu Oscars ki te tuatoru o ngā whakaaturanga o The lord of the rings. Ehara tēnei i te kiriata tuatahi ka whiwhia ki ngā tohu e 11, ka whiwhia rānei ki te katoa o ngā tohu i kuhu ia, engari ko The return of the king te kiriata tuatahi ka whiwhi tahi i ngā hōnore e rua nei. E ai ki a Guinness, koinei te kiriata tere ake kia kohi i te e $US 1 piriona i ngā tīkiti hoko. Whāia, ko The fellowship of the ring te kiriata nui rawa te rīpene latex i mahia e tētahi kiriata (neke atu i te e 1,600 putu).

Te ahumahi kiriata

Nō te whakakuhuna o ngā kiriata whai oro (speaking movies) i te tekau tau atu i 1920, ka tīmata te ahumahi kiriata o Aotearoa. I te tau 1941 ka whakatūria te National Film Unit hei hanga motuhenga. Hāunga tērā, tokoiti noa ngā kiriata roa i hangaia i mua i te tekau tau atu i 1970. I te tau 1978 ka whakatūhia e te kāwanatanga te Tūmū Whakaata Taonga (New Zealand Film Commission), hei tohatoha i ngā tahua āwhina ki ngā kaihanga kiriata. Atu i te tekau tau o 1980, ka maha ake ngā kiriata i hangaia.

He tirohanga ki te ao

Nō te tau 1993 ka whakanuia e te ao tētahi kiriata nō Aotearoa, arā, The Piano, ka whiwhia ki te Oscar ki Hollywood, te Palme d’Or i te hui ahurei kiriata ki Cannes; ko Jane Campion tōna kaiwhakahaere. Ināianei ko Whale rider rāua ko The lord of the rings e kake ana ki ngā taumata o te ao. E hau ana te rongo mō ngā kaiwhakahaere kiriata a Lee Tamahori rātou ko Peter Jackson mā, tae atu ki ngā kaiwhakaari pērā i a Sam Neill, a Kerry Fox mā.

Te mea tūturu

Ko tētahi take i manakohia a Whale rider, ko tana titiro ki te ao Māori. E kōrero ana a Whale rider mō Paikea, te tipuna nui o Ngāti Porou, i tae mai ki Aotearoa mā runga tohorā. I mahia a Whale rider i Whāngārā i Te Tai Rāwhiti. He uri whakaheke nō Paikea te tokomaha o ngā tāngata tāpiri (extras).

Te manaaki, te whakatairanga kiriata

Ko ngā rōpū kiriata me ngā taiopenga kiriata e whakaatu ana i ngā tūmomo mahi toi, motuhenga hoki. Ko Ngā Kaitiaki o ngā Taonga Whitiāhua (New Zealand Film Archive) me te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga (Archives New Zealand) e kohikohi ana, e tiaki ana i ngā waihotanga tawhito o Aotearoa.

Te whanaketanga o te reo irirangi me te pouaka whakaata

Ko te pāpāho te ara pai rawa mō te whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro me te auaha ahurea i waenganui i te iwi whānui. I te tau 1922 ka tae te reo irirangi ki Aotearoa; nō te tau 1960 ka tīmata te pouaka whakaata. I te tekau tau o 1970 ka tūtū ngā pouaka whakaata, ka kuhuna ngā pouaka whakaata whai tae. I tērā wā, ka nui haere te whakaaturia o ngā kaupapa o Aotearoa me ngā momo soap opera; me kī, ngā hōtaka tōmua o te momo o Shortland Street.

Ka nui atu ngā rerekētanga me ngā kōwhiringa

Nō te whakakorenga o ngā ture ārahi a te kāwanatanga i te tekau tau atu i 1980, ka nui ake ngā teihana pouaka whakaata me ngā reo irirangi, tae rawa ki ngā pouaka whakaata whaiutu. I te tau 2004, e toru ngā teihana pouaka whakaata nui, kore utu i Aotearoa, ētahi teihana whaiutu; neke atu i te e 200 ngā reo irirangi. E rua ngā pūnaha reo irirangi kāore e arumoni, ko National Radio rāua ko Concert FM.

Ngā ratonga mā te hapori

Ko te whāinga matua o Irirangi ā-Motu, kia pāpāho i ngā mahi a ngā tāngata o Aotearoa ki ngā reo irirangi, ngā pouaka whakaata, tae atu ki ngā pouaka whakaata whaiutu. Koinā tonu te take ka tū te Reo Tātaki o Aotearoa (TVNZ) hei kamupene a te Karauna i raro i tōna ake tūtohinga. Ko tētahi atu whāinga, ko te pāho i ngā kaupapa Māori. Otirā, e 21 ngā reo irirangi Māori, kotahi te ratonga pūrongo ā-motu i roto i te reo Māori, kotahi te teihana pouaka whakaata Māori. Kua tīmatahia e ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, o ētahi atu wāhi, ā rātou ake reo irirangi, ka whai wāhi hoki ā rātou kaupapa ki ngā reo irirangi tūmatanui o te motu.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Nancy Swarbrick, 'Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa - Te kiriata me te pāpāho', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-auahatanga-o-aotearoa/page-5 (accessed 27 June 2019)

Story by Nancy Swarbrick, published 8 Feb 2005