Kōrero: Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa

Whārangi 6. Te tuhi me te whakaputa pukapuka

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te tuhi me te whakaputa pukapuka

He wāhi nui tō te Māori rāua ko te tangata whai ki te koiora o Aotearoa; whai anō ka nui te tipu, ka nui te pai o ngā tuhituhinga. Tokomaha rātou i puea ake i ngā tipuranga rerekē hei kaituhi mō Aotearoa, pērā i a Bill Manhire, Patricia Grace, Albert Wendt, Maurice Gee, Margaret Mahy. Kei te hau te rongo mō rātou ki tāwāhi.

Ngā tuhinga, ngā whakaputa pukapuka a te Māori

Hīkaka te iwi Māori ki te nanao ki te pene hei putanga whakaaro, ki te reo Māori, ki te reo Pākehā hoki. Kohikohia ai ngā waiata me ngā kōrero a te Maori. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1920 ka tāngia e Tā Āpirana Ngata a Ngā mōteatea. I ngā tekau tau o 1960, o 1970, ka kitea te wairua auaha i ngā tuhinga i te reo Pākehā a ngā Māori pērā i a Hone Tūwhare, i a Witi Ihimaera mā.

Ngā tāngata whai

I te rau tau 1800, he pai ake ngā tuhinga a ngā Pākehā mēnā e kōrero pono ana rātou; inarā ka kitea tēnei āhuatanga i ngā rātaka me ngā pūrongo o tērā wā. He roa te wā kātahi ka whanake ake ētahi kaituhi Pākehā me ā rātou whiti, pakiwaitara rawe, pērā i a Jane Mander, Ursula Bethell, Frank Sargeson, Allen Curnow, James K. Baxter. I te tekau tau atu i 1930 ka puta tētahi momo tirohanga i waenganui i ngā kaituhi o Aotearoa mō ngā momo tuhituhi o tēnei whenua; ka mau haere tēnei tirohanga i roto i ngā tau, ka pā tōna awe ki te rahi o ngā kaituhi. Mai i taua wā, kua pakari ētahi kaituhi me ā rātou mahi ki te ao, pērā i a Elizabeth Knox.

Ngā taituarā o ngā kaituhi

Whakapau kaha ai te New Zealand Society of Authors (PEN NZ) mō ngā kaituhi whaiutu o Aotearoa i roto i ngā whitiwhitinga me ngā kamupene whakaputa tuhinga, ngā teihana pāho, ngā whare whakaari. I tua atu, ka whiriwhiria e rātou te manatārua, ngā tiringa, aha atu. Ko te Rōpū Kaituhi o Aotearoa (New Zealand Writers Guild) te kanohi mō ngā kaituhi whaiutu i ngā whiriwhiringa mō te pouaka whakaata, reo irirangi, taiwhanga whakaatu, rīpene whakaata, kōpae pāpāho, aha atu. I tēnei wā, neke atu i te e 50 ngā tohu, takuhe, whakataetae hoki mā ngā kaituhi, ā, kei te tokomaha ake ngā akomanga tuhituhi i ngā whare wānanga, i ngā kura tini. He maha ngā maheni kua tū, kua hinga hoki mai i te putanga tuatahitanga o Landfall i te tau 1947, pērā i a Sport me New Zealand Books.

Tauhokohoko pukapuka

Iti noa ngā tauhokohoko pukapuka i Aotearoa. Heoi, ahakoa iti kei te kaha te whakataetae. Ko Ngā Kaiwhakaputa Pukapuka o Aotearoa (Book Publishers Association of New Zealand) e waha nei i ā rātou kaupapa. Kua hokona ētahi o ngā kamupene o Aotearoa pēnei i a Whitcombe & Tombs e ngā kamupene nui o te ao. Ko Booksellers New Zealand kei te whakatenatena i te hokonga o ngā pukapuka o Aotearoa ki tāwāhi, koia hoki te kaiwhakahaere o ētahi whakawhiwhinga tohu mō te tuhituhi. Ko te hui nui rawa atu i te tau ko ngā tohu a Montana mō ngā pukapuka o Aotearoa (Montana New Zealand Book Awards).

Ngā kōrerorero mō te pānui

He nui ngā rōpū pānui pukapuka i Aotearoa. I te nuinga o te wā, e 7 ki te e 12 tāngata kei ia rōpū. Ka hui rātou ia marama ki te inu tahi, ki te kai tahi, ki te kōrerorero mō tētahi pukapuka kātahi anō ka puta. I te tau 1973 ka whakatūria te kaupapa whitiwhiti kōrero (discussion scheme) e ngā rāngai mātauranga o te Huinga Kaimahi (Federation of Workers Educational Associations). Neke atu i te e 640 ngā rōpū puta i te motu kei te hono atu, me te aha, e 56% o ana mema nō waho kē i ngā tāone nui.

Te hunga pānui

Ka ngākau nui te iwi o Aotearoa ki te pānui tuhituhi. E ai ki tētahi rangahau o te tau 2002, e 44% o te hunga pakeke i hoko pukapuka i roto i te whā wiki kua taha, e 39% o rātou kua tae ki tētahi whare pukapuka. Kei reira anō ngā rōpū tautoko pērā i te Kaunihera Pukapuka o Aotearoa (New Zealand Book Council), ngā taiopenga pērā i te taiopenga pukapuka o Listener (Listener Women’s Book Festival), te wiki a New Zealand Post mō ngā kaipānui, kaituhituhi o New Zealand Post (New Zealand Post Readers and Writers Week).

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Nancy Swarbrick, 'Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa - Te tuhi me te whakaputa pukapuka', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-auahatanga-o-aotearoa/page-6 (accessed 11 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Nancy Swarbrick, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005