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Creative life

by  Nancy Swarbrick

Mai anō i te tekau tau o 1970, kua kaha te puta a Aotearoa i ngā auahatanga o ngā kaituhi, kaihanga kiriata, kaiwhakairo, kaihoahoa auaha, kaiwaiata, arā atu. Nā tō rātou māia me te hōhonu o tā rātou titiro, kei te hau te rongo mō rātou ki te motu, ki te ao.


New Zealand creativity

Kei waenganui pū i te tuakiri o Aotearoa, ko te wairua auaha. He wāhanga nui o ngā mahi toi, ko te kōrero mō Aotearoa, tae rawa atu ki te aru i ngā whakaaro toi o ngā iwi o te ao. Ka whiwhi a Aotearoa i te hua o ēnei whitiwhitinga, pērā i ētahi atu whenua ka whiwhi i ngā hua.

Ngā tikanga rerekē

Ka ahu mai ngā mahi toi o Aotearoa i ngā takenga maha: i te iwi Māori, te tangata whenua o tēnei whenua; i ngā Pākehā ka tau i muri i te tau 1840; i ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, o Āhia me Ūropi ka tae mai i muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao.

Ka tautokona ngā mahi toi

He tokomaha ngā tohungatā rongonui o Aotearoa – pērā i te kaitito a Douglas Lilburn, te tohunga tā a Colin McCahon, te kaituhi a Janet Frame. Nā te iti me te tāwhiti o tēnei whenua kāore i nui tēnei mahi i konei. Koirā te take ka wehe te nuinga ki tāwāhi. Heoi, atu i ngā tekau tau 1940 me 1950, ka nui haere ngā tautoko mō ēnei mahi.

Ka mate mō te mahi toi

E ai ki tētahi rangahau i te tau 1999, e $20,700 te utu toharite ā-tau ki te hunga toi whakaari – pūoro, tuhituhi, toi ataata, aha atu; ko te utu toharite mō te motu whānui, e $27,934. E 66% o rātou i utua te $10,000 i te tau mō ā rātou mahi toi. E ai ki te kōrero, ka pēnei te iti o te utu nā te tokoiti o te hunga tautoko; kāore i tino nui ngā mahi pēnei e tuwhera ana; me te iti o ngā āwhina a te kāwanatanga. E ai ki tētahi tohungatā, ‘Mēnā kei tētahi atu whenua tātou, ki te pēnei tō kaha ki te mahi pēnei i a mātou nei…..e kore koe e rongo i te kino o te rawa kore.’1

Ka hōrapa i te tekau tau atu i 1970

Mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1970 kua hua ngā mahi toi i te hunga tautoko, ngā tohunga toi, me te tokomaha atu ka whai oranga i ngā toi. Kua tū ētahi rōpū toi, ko ētahi ka whai āwhina i te kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1998 ka tuwhera Te Papa Tongarewa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Ko Toi Aotearoa te manatū a te kāwanatanga e tautoko ana i ngā mahi toi. Kua rahi ake ngā akomanga me ngā whare whakaako mō ngā kaupapa whakaari, ngā whakaari, kapa haka, kanikani hoki. Kua tū te maha o ngā whare pupuri taonga, ngā whare toi, tae rawa ki ngā tohu toi me ngā takuhe mō te hunga kei te pihi ake i ngā kaupapa toi. Kua tūtū ngā huihui whakaatu i ngā kaupapa toi, atu i ngā waiata ōkawa (chamber music) ki ngā ‘mau noa’. Ko te huihui rongonui rawa atu, ko te Hui Toi o Aotearoa ki te Ao ka tū ia rua tau. I hua ake te whakahaerenga i te tau 1984 ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ā, nō te tau 1986 ka tū te ahurei tuatahi. 

Ahurea me te tuakiri

Ko te take i kaha te tipu o ngā mahi toi ki Aotearoa, nā te rerekē o te ōhanga me te hapori. Mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1970, kua tino rerekē a Aotearoa. Kua whenua tuwhera, kua tangatanga ngā here o mua, kua kanorau hoki te iwi, kua kaha ake ngā hononga ki ngā whenua o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa me Āhia. Mārama te kitea o tēnei i ngā kaupapa toi; ngā kaupapa ka kitea i te pouaka whakaata, te wāhi ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i roto i ngā pūoro o ēnei rā, ngā tauira rerekē o te tekau tau atu i 1980. Ko tētahi anō pikinga, ko ngā toi Māori. Kua piki anō te kaha o ngā toi Māori tūturu me ngā toi Māori o tēnei ao.

Kawea ngā kaupapa toi

He kaiwaiata, kaikanikani a Mika. E whā ngā wā kua tū a ia me tana rōpū Torotoro ki te hui ahurei o Edinburgh. Ko tā rātou momo kanikani, waiata, he nunumitanga o te kapa haka, hip hop, funk me te kanikani whati.

Te hari i te toi o Aotearoa ki te ao

Atu i te tekau tau o 1970, kua nui ake ngā toi o Aotearoa kua hau ki te ao. I puta te rongo mō ngā tangata toi o Aotearoa i noho ki tāwāhi, pēnei i te kaituhi kōrero poto a Katherine Mansfield, te tohungatā a Frances Hodgkins, te kaiwhakairo a Len Lye, te kaiwaiata whakaari pūoro a Kiri Te Kanawa. Heoi, tatū ki ngā tau tata ki muri, kāore i tino whānui te rongo ki tāwāhi mō ngā toi me ngā tohunga auaha toi o Aotearoa. Heoi, kua ekea ngā taumata o te ao e te hunga hanga kiriata, tuhituhinga, toi ataata, tauira, toi whakaari, pūoro o Aotearoa. I ēnei rā, ka kitea ngā mahi toi o Aotearoa ki ngā hui toi nui puta noa te ao.

Footnotes
    • Sarah Boyd, ‘Suffering for their art.’ Dominion Post, 27 March 2004, E1. › Back

Visual arts and crafts

He tikanga mai anō

Hoki rā anō te hītori o ngā toi ataata me ngā mahi toi ki ngā tau e 700 ki mua, ki te taenga tuatahitanga a te Māori ki Aotearoa i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ka kawea mai e rātou ō rātou toi whakairo, ō rātou toi raranga. I te taenga mai o te Pākehā me āna toi, ka whai pakiaka ia ki tēnei whenua, me te titiro tonu ki nga nekeneke o te ao toi ki tāwāhi. Nō ngā tau tata nei kātahi anō ka arongia whānuitia ngā pūtakenga e rua o ngā toi ataata me ngā mahi toi o Aotearoa.

Te whakaaro nui ki ngā mahi toi

Nā tētahi tiro whānui o te tau 2002 i tohu ki te mea e 36% o te taupori o Aotearoa i hoko tētahi mahi toi taketake i roto i te e 12 marama ki muri, e 48% i tae ki tētahi taiwhanga whakaatu, whare taonga rānei. He maha ngā taiwhanga whakaatu – tūmatanui, tūmataiti hoki – ki Aotearoa, e hāngai ana ki ngā hiahia o tēnā, o tēnā whaitua o te motu. He nui ngā tautoko mō ngā tāngata toi pērā i ngā tohungatā a John Reynolds, a Bill Hammond, a Peter Robinson; ngā kaiwhakairo a Neil Dawson, a Jacqueline Fraser mā; te kaitango whakaahua a Anne Noble; te tohunga toi kōata a Ann Robinson.

Ngā Taiwhanga Toi

Kei ngā tāone matua o te motu ngā taiwhanga toi nui pērā i te Taiwhanga Whakaatu o Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland Art Gallery), te Taiwhanga Tāone o Te Whanganui-a-Tara (City Gallery), te Taiwhanga Whakaatu o Ōtautahi (Christchurch Art Gallery), te Taiwhanga Whakaatu o Ōtepoti (Dunedin City Art Gallery). Ko Te Papa Tongarewa i Te Whanganui-a-Tara kei te pupuri i te kohinga taonga toi o te motu. Kua roa e tū ana ētahi taiwhanga whakaatu pērā i te whare taonga o Suter i Whakatū (Suter art museum). Ahakoa tērā, he maha tonu ngā whare toi, pērā i te whare taonga o Dowse ki Te Awakairangi me te taiwhanga whakaatu o Govett-Brewster ki Ngāmotu i whakatūria i roto i te e 30 tau kua pahure. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1960 ka huaki ngā taiwhanga hoko taonga; kua maha ēnei momo whare i ēnei rā. Kei te whakamahia te ipurangi hei hoko mahi toi.

Te whanake i te hunga toi

Kei a Toi Aotearoa ngā pūtea āwhina i te hunga toi; te hunga whakatū whakaaturanga, tūmahi hoki; te hunga haere ki tāwāhi mahi ai. Kei reira anō ngā rōpū tautoko i ngā tāngata toi, pērā i a Photoforum me te New Zealand Society of Potters. Kei ngā whare wānanga, ngā kuratini, ngā pūtahi, ngā kura tūmataiti e akohia ana ngā mātauranga toi. Ko te putanga toi rongonui rawa ki Aotearoa, ko Art New Zealand. Kei roto te nui o ngā tuhinga a pā ana ki te toi.

Te auaha motukā

Koinei te ‘Trekka’, te mahinga toi a Michael Stevenson mō te Venice Biennale o te tau 2003. E whakaatu ana tēnei mahi i ngā āhuatanga e paihere ana i a Aotearoa ki te ao. Ka hangaia te waka nei te Trekka kia ōrite tōna hanga ki tō te jeep. Ko ētahi wāhanga o te Trekka nō Aotearoa, ko te anga (chassis) nō Czechoslovakia, ko te mīhini nā te kamupene Skoda. Ka hangaia tēnei motukā i ngā tekau tau o 1960, o 1970, i te wā kīhai i tino rahi ngā motukā hōu ki Aotearoa. Ka tū whakahīhī a Aotearoa mō tēnei waka, he whakaaturanga mō te tohungatanga, mō te tū motuhake o Aotearoa. I tū anō te Trekka hei tohu mō ngā wawata o te motu mōna anō. Heoi, nā te mea i ahu katoa mai te hoahoanga me ngā wāhanga mō tēnei motukā i tāwāhi, he tohu te Trekka ki te whirinakitanga tonutanga a te ōhanga me ngā toi o Aotearoa ki ngā whenua ki tāwāhi.

Toi Māori

Mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1970, kei te nui haere ngā toi Māori. I taua wā ka whakatūria Ngā Puna Waihanga, he rōpū whakahui i ngā tāngata toi Māori. Ko ētahi o ngā tohunga o tēnei rōpū ko Ralph Hotere, ko Para Matchitt, ko Robyn Kahukiwa, ko ngā tauhōu pēnei i a Michael Parekōwhai rāua ko Shane Cotton. Ko tētahi kaupapa nui whakaharahara ko te whakaaturanga o Te Māori ki te ao whānui i te tau 1984. Nā Te Māori tuwhera ai ngā kanohi o te ao, o Aotearoa tonu, ki ngā toi o te Ao Māori. E tautokona ana ngā toi a te Māori e Toi Māori Aotearoa, he rōpū o ngā tāngata toi. Ko toi iho te waitohu manaaki i ngā mahi, i ngā taonga a ngā tāngata toi Māori.

Tirohanga nui

Kei te hau te rongo ki tāwāhi mō ngā mahi toi o Aotearoa. I roto i ngā tekau tau tata kua taha, kua nui haere te awe o te Sydney Biennale me te Asia-Pacific Triennale i runga i ngā mahi toi o Aotearoa. Heoi, nō te tau 2001 rā anō kātahi anō ka uru a Aotearoa ki roto i te Venice Biennale. Nō te tau 2004 ka tuwhera ki Amerika te whakaaturanga nui rawa atu o ngā toi hōu o Aotearoa me Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.


Design and fashion

He tikanga auaha whai kiko

Tērā tētahi kōrero nui e mea ana i taketake mai ngā tauiratanga (design) o Aotearoa i tōna matatau ki te hanga mea whai kiko mai te iti noa iho. Heoi, he tika tonu te kōrero ka toko ake ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa i te taiao, i ngā papanga e wātea ana, i ngā papanga iti rānei te utu. Me kore ake te korowai hei kākahu i a ia, te pā hei mahi ika hei whāngai i a ia, kua mate kē te Māori i te mātao, i te kore kai. Heoi, i tua atu i te oranga ka tareka i ēnei taonga; tukuna ihotia ai ēnei hei taonga kura i roto i ngā whakatipuranga. Nāwai rā ka auahatia e te Pākehā āna anō taonga ātaahua, whai kiko – te ipu putiputi Crown Lynn, me te tūru ‘Curvesse’.

Whanaketanga o ngā tauira (design) o Aotearoa

Tatū ki te tekau tau atu i 1980, i tauirahia te nuinga o ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa - ahumahi, roto taiwhanga, taonga kahurangi, kākahu - i ngā ia o tāwāhi. Whāia, nā te pāmamao o Aotearoa ki te ao, nā ngā aukati hoko a ētahi whenua, ka tipu he momo tauira tūturu o Aotearoa. Ko ētahi auahatanga hōu i puta mai, ko ngā pūkaha Hamilton mō ngā waka (jet boat); te motupaika o John Britten; ngā kākahu me ngā tau uwhi tuarā (backpack); taputapu mō te noho ki waho (outdoors). He whakaaturanga katoa ēnei taputapu i te wairua auaha o Aotearoa.

Tae rawa ki te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1990, kua whai wāhi nui ngā whakairo, ngā tohu a te Māori, a ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, a Aotearoa whānui tonu ki roto i ngā tauira me ngā hoahoanga o Aotearoa. Taro kau ake, ka puea ake tētahi momo tauira kīia ai, ‘Pacific minimalism’. Ka whakatūria te Designers Institute of New Zealand i te tau 1991 ki te whakatairanga i ngā momo tauira – graphic, spatial, industrial, fashion, craft; i whakatūria anō hoki ia hei whakahaere hei ako hoki i ēnei take.

Hoko ki te ao

Kua whānui te titiro o Aotearoa ki ngā tauira ahumahi, kua titiro ki tāwāhi ki ngā auahatanga ki reira. Kua angitū ētahi kamupene nā te arotahi ki te kiritaki, te nanao ki ngā hangarau hōu, te whakangao moni ki ngā mahi rangahau, te hanga rautaki hokohoko hoki. Ko ngā taonga kua hangaia mō ngā mahi noa o ia rā - pūrere horoi maitai, tūru, pahi, aha atu. Ko ētahi o ngā whanaketanga kāore anō kia māhia. E whakatairanga ana te tari kāwanatanga a Design Industry Taskforce i ngā whanonga mō te tauira i te taha o ngā kamupene o Aotearoa hei aha, hei whakapiki ake i te rahi o ngā rawa ka hokona ki tai. Ko te ahumahi rorohiko, ipurangi hoki kei te rongo i ngā nekeneke o te ao.

Ko te pae tawhiti kia tata

Kei runga noa atu a Aotearoa mō te tauira pere rua (yacht). Ko Amerika te kāinga o Bruce Farr, tohunga ki te tauira pere rua. I whānau mai ia ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. He maha ngā whakataetae puta i te ao kua riro i ngā pere rua nāna i tauira. Atu i te tau 1981, kua reihi ngā pere rua o Farr ki ngā whakataetae taiāwhio te ao. Ka wikitōria aua waka i ngā tau 1981, 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998.

Ngā ia o ngā hoahoa (fashion)

I ngā rā ki mua, tino kūare a Aotearoa ki ngā nekeneke o te ao hoahoa ki tāwāhi. Nā te tawhiti o Aotearoa i ngā pokapū hoahoa o te ao, tērā te wā, kotahi tau te tōmuri o te taunga o ngā hoahoa hōu. Nā te āhuarangi me te nui o ngā mahi ki waho, ka nui atu te aro ki te pai o te kuhu o te kākahu, tērā i te pai o te āhua. Nā te noho tonu o te iwi o Aotearoa, tāpae atu ki te nui o ngā hākinakina ki waho, ka hāngai ngā kākahu ki ērā āhuatanga; hei tauira, ko te momo koti / poraka, te Swanndri me ngā hū rekereke (jandals). I hua anō hoki ngā mau kākahu heahea rawa atu – te mau ‘tarau poto’ me ngā ‘tōkena roa’ ; nui te kitea o ēnei kākahu i ngā tari mahi i te tekau tau o 1950 ahu atu ki te tekau tau o 1980.

Ko wai ka whai, ko wai ka ārahi

Mai anō, ka rapuhia e ētahi ngā hoahoa o tāwāhi. I ngā tekau tau o 1960, o 1970, nā ngā tohu hoahoa ā-tau a Benson & Hedges i tīmata te whakatairangatanga o ngā mahi hoahoa kākahu ki Aotearoa. Hāunga, ka toro whakawaho tonu te ao hoahoa ki rāwāhi mō ngā oranga. Nāwai ā, ka huri te ao. Ka tū te wiki mō ngā hoahoa ki Rānana (London Fashion Week) i te tau 1999; tokowhā ngā kaihoahoa o Aotearoa i whakanuia mō te rawe rawa atu o ā rātou mahi - a World, a Nom D, a Zambesi, a Karen Walker. Kīia ai ā rātou mahi ‘ahakoa pōuri, koi ana’.

Ahumahi hoahoa

Kei te whai hua anō te ahumahi hoahoa o Aotearoa i te ōhanga o te ao whānui. Kua makuru te tipu o ngā akomanga hoahoa ki ngā kuratini. Ka tū a Tāmaki-makau-rau, a Te Whanganui-a-Tara, a Ōtepoti hei pokapū mō te ahumahi hoahoa ki Aotearoa. Kitea ai kei ngā tāone nui ngā ‘kōhanga’ mō te hoahoa me ngā toi. I tīmataria te wiki o te ao hoahoa o Aotearoa (New Zealand Fashion Week) i te tau 2000 hei whakaatu i nga kaihoahoa me ā rātou mahi.


Architecture

Ngā awe

He nui te wāhi o ngā hoahoanga o tāwāhi ki ngā hoahoanga o Aotearoa. I tā rātou taenga ki Aotearoa i te pokapū o te rau tau e 1800, ka hiahia ngā Pākehā ki ngā momo hanga whare i mahue atu ki Peretānia. Nāwai ā, ka whāia ngā momo hoahoanga o Ūropi, o Amerika. Kia tīkina ētahi tauira pai o ngā momo hoahoanga mai tāwāhi; te momo o te Gothic o ngā tekau tau 1840-60, e kitea māramatia ai i ngā mahi a Benjamin Mountfort rāua ko Frederick Thatcher mai Ingarangi; te momo o te tekau tau atu i 1930, e arotahi ana ki te ātaahua o te whare, aha rānei kei te hangaia; nā ngā tohunga hoahoanga mai i Ūropi pēnei i a Ernst Plischke ēnei mahi.

Heoi, mai anō i te tīmatanga, ka huri haere ngā hoahoanga o tāwāhi kia rite ki te taiao o tēnei whenua te āhua. Hei tauira, nā te mātotoru o te ngahere, ka nui te mahia o te papa rākau. Ka matatau haere ngā tāngata hoahoanga ki te āhuarangi, te whiti o te rā, tae rawa ki te āhua o te noho o te iwi o Aotearoa. He awe nui ngā hanga tūturu o Aotearoa – pēnei i te whare Māori – ki runga i ngā tokona whakaaro o ngā tāngata hoahoanga.

Te whare Māori

Hei ārai i te makariri, ka hangaa e te Māori tōna whare kia tapawhā; kia pakupaku iho te tatau; kia roa te tuanui e takoto ai he mahau; ko ngā takuahi ki waenganui; ko ngā wāhi moe ki ngā pakitara o te whare. He pēnei tonu te hanga o ngā wharenui o ēnei rā. Ka kitea te tauira o te whare Māori ki ētahi atu momo whare kua hangaia.

Te hēte

Me pakari te tū o ngā whare o ngā Pākehā tōmua ka tika; ō rātou hēte kuti hipi, miraka kau hoki. Ka mahia ō rātou whare ki ngā papanga o te taiao. Nā tēnei āhua ka puta ko te momo whare bach / crib rānei. Kāore noa iho e nui te utu mō ngā papanga hei hanga i ēnei momo whare – he fibrolite, he haeana kōwakawaka, he papa rākau hangarua noa iho.

Te tiaki i ngā whare tawhito

I te tau 1954 ka whakatūria te Pouhere Taonga (New Zealand Historic Places Trust) hei tiaki i ngā wāhi nui tae atu ki ngā whare tawhito. (I te tau 2014, tapaina anōtia ko Heritage New Zealand.) Ahakoa tana kaha, kia tae rā anō ki te paunga o te rau tau 1900, kātahi anō ka kitea whānuitia te wāhi nui o aua whare, aua wāhi nui. Nui ngā whare tawhito i turakina i te tekau tau atu i 1980, i te wā e tino kaha ana ngā tauhokohoko hanga whare; ka turakina ngā whare tawhito kia pai te whakatū whare hōu. Ahakoa tōna tikanga, mā te Ture Whakahaere Rawa (Resource Management Act) 1991 ngā whare tawhito e tiaki i ngā tutetute o te ao hurihuri, kāore tonu he whakamarumaru tūturu mō rātou. Heoi, kei te rongo i te ia o ngā whakaaro e huri ana: hei tauira, kei te muia te hui toi o Ahuriri i te wae tāpoi.

Te whakaako hoahoanga

Kei te kaha te hoahoanga ki Aotearoa. Ko ētahi whare tūmatanui nō ngā rā tata nei ka whakatūhia ko te Academy of Performing Arts i te whare wānanga o Waikato (nā Warren & Mahoney); te taunga waka rererangi o Te Whanganui-a-Tara (nā Craig Moller), te taiwhanga toi o Adams i te whare wānanga o Wikitōria i Te Whanganui-a-Tara (nā Ian Athfield); te taiwhanga pāngarau, tatauranga, pūtaiao rorohiko ki te whare wānanga o Waitaha (nā Architectus). Kei te whakaakongia te hoahoanga ki ngā whare wānanga o Wikitōria, o Tāmaki, o Wairaka (Unitec). Ko te Rōpū Hoahoanga o Aotearoa (New Zealand Institute of Architects) te rōpū ngaio ā-motu. Ko tā rātou mahi he hāpai i te ngaiotanga i roto i ngā mahi hoahoanga mā te whakawhiwhi tohu ia tau. Kei ngā maheni pērā i te Architecture New Zealand ka kitea ngā ariā mō te hoahoanga.


Film and broadcasting

Kiriata

Ko ētahi mahi pārekareka rawa atu ki te taupori o Aotearoa ko te mātaki pouaka whakaata, rīpene whakaata, kōpae whakaata rānei. E ai ki tētahi rangahau i te tau 2002, e 40 % o te taupori ka whai i ēnei kaupapa i roto i te whā wiki. He nui ake ngā kiriata o Aotearoa i ēnei rā, ka nui hoki te iwi ki tāwāhi ka mātaki i ngā kiriata o Aotearoa.

Mahi nui whakaharahara

I te tau 2004, ka riro te nuinga o ngā hōnore o ngā tohu Oscars ki te tuatoru o ngā whakaaturanga o The lord of the rings. Ehara tēnei i te kiriata tuatahi ka whiwhia ki ngā tohu e 11, ka whiwhia rānei ki te katoa o ngā tohu i kuhu ia, engari ko The return of the king te kiriata tuatahi ka whiwhi tahi i ngā hōnore e rua nei. E ai ki a Guinness, koinei te kiriata tere ake kia kohi i te e $US 1 piriona i ngā tīkiti hoko. Whāia, ko The fellowship of the ring te kiriata nui rawa te rīpene latex i mahia e tētahi kiriata (neke atu i te e 1,600 putu).

Te ahumahi kiriata

Nō te whakakuhuna o ngā kiriata whai oro (speaking movies) i te tekau tau atu i 1920, ka tīmata te ahumahi kiriata o Aotearoa. I te tau 1941 ka whakatūria te National Film Unit hei hanga motuhenga. Hāunga tērā, tokoiti noa ngā kiriata roa i hangaia i mua i te tekau tau atu i 1970. I te tau 1978 ka whakatūhia e te kāwanatanga te Tūmū Whakaata Taonga (New Zealand Film Commission), hei tohatoha i ngā tahua āwhina ki ngā kaihanga kiriata. Atu i te tekau tau o 1980, ka maha ake ngā kiriata i hangaia.

He tirohanga ki te ao

Nō te tau 1993 ka whakanuia e te ao tētahi kiriata nō Aotearoa, arā, The Piano, ka whiwhia ki te Oscar ki Hollywood, te Palme d’Or i te hui ahurei kiriata ki Cannes; ko Jane Campion tōna kaiwhakahaere. Ināianei ko Whale rider rāua ko The lord of the rings e kake ana ki ngā taumata o te ao. E hau ana te rongo mō ngā kaiwhakahaere kiriata a Lee Tamahori rātou ko Peter Jackson mā, tae atu ki ngā kaiwhakaari pērā i a Sam Neill, a Kerry Fox mā.

Te mea tūturu

Ko tētahi take i manakohia a Whale rider, ko tana titiro ki te ao Māori. E kōrero ana a Whale rider mō Paikea, te tipuna nui o Ngāti Porou, i tae mai ki Aotearoa mā runga tohorā. I mahia a Whale rider i Whāngārā i Te Tai Rāwhiti. He uri whakaheke nō Paikea te tokomaha o ngā tāngata tāpiri (extras).

Te manaaki, te whakatairanga kiriata

Ko ngā rōpū kiriata me ngā taiopenga kiriata e whakaatu ana i ngā tūmomo mahi toi, motuhenga hoki. Ko Ngā Kaitiaki o ngā Taonga Whitiāhua (New Zealand Film Archive) me te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga (Archives New Zealand) e kohikohi ana, e tiaki ana i ngā waihotanga tawhito o Aotearoa.

Te whanaketanga o te reo irirangi me te pouaka whakaata

Ko te pāpāho te ara pai rawa mō te whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro me te auaha ahurea i waenganui i te iwi whānui. I te tau 1922 ka tae te reo irirangi ki Aotearoa; nō te tau 1960 ka tīmata te pouaka whakaata. I te tekau tau o 1970 ka tūtū ngā pouaka whakaata, ka kuhuna ngā pouaka whakaata whai tae. I tērā wā, ka nui haere te whakaaturia o ngā kaupapa o Aotearoa me ngā momo soap opera; me kī, ngā hōtaka tōmua o te momo o Shortland Street.

Ka nui atu ngā rerekētanga me ngā kōwhiringa

Nō te whakakorenga o ngā ture ārahi a te kāwanatanga i te tekau tau atu i 1980, ka nui ake ngā teihana pouaka whakaata me ngā reo irirangi, tae rawa ki ngā pouaka whakaata whaiutu. I te tau 2004, e toru ngā teihana pouaka whakaata nui, kore utu i Aotearoa, ētahi teihana whaiutu; neke atu i te e 200 ngā reo irirangi. E rua ngā pūnaha reo irirangi kāore e arumoni, ko National Radio rāua ko Concert FM.

Ngā ratonga mā te hapori

Ko te whāinga matua o Irirangi ā-Motu, kia pāpāho i ngā mahi a ngā tāngata o Aotearoa ki ngā reo irirangi, ngā pouaka whakaata, tae atu ki ngā pouaka whakaata whaiutu. Koinā tonu te take ka tū te Reo Tātaki o Aotearoa (TVNZ) hei kamupene a te Karauna i raro i tōna ake tūtohinga. Ko tētahi atu whāinga, ko te pāho i ngā kaupapa Māori. Otirā, e 21 ngā reo irirangi Māori, kotahi te ratonga pūrongo ā-motu i roto i te reo Māori, kotahi te teihana pouaka whakaata Māori. Kua tīmatahia e ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, o ētahi atu wāhi, ā rātou ake reo irirangi, ka whai wāhi hoki ā rātou kaupapa ki ngā reo irirangi tūmatanui o te motu.


Writing and publishing

Te tuhi me te whakaputa pukapuka

He wāhi nui tō te Māori rāua ko te tangata whai ki te koiora o Aotearoa; whai anō ka nui te tipu, ka nui te pai o ngā tuhituhinga. Tokomaha rātou i puea ake i ngā tipuranga rerekē hei kaituhi mō Aotearoa, pērā i a Bill Manhire, Patricia Grace, Albert Wendt, Maurice Gee, Margaret Mahy. Kei te hau te rongo mō rātou ki tāwāhi.

Ngā tuhinga, ngā whakaputa pukapuka a te Māori

Hīkaka te iwi Māori ki te nanao ki te pene hei putanga whakaaro, ki te reo Māori, ki te reo Pākehā hoki. Kohikohia ai ngā waiata me ngā kōrero a te Maori. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1920 ka tāngia e Tā Āpirana Ngata a Ngā mōteatea. I ngā tekau tau o 1960, o 1970, ka kitea te wairua auaha i ngā tuhinga i te reo Pākehā a ngā Māori pērā i a Hone Tūwhare, i a Witi Ihimaera mā.

Ngā tāngata whai

I te rau tau 1800, he pai ake ngā tuhinga a ngā Pākehā mēnā e kōrero pono ana rātou; inarā ka kitea tēnei āhuatanga i ngā rātaka me ngā pūrongo o tērā wā. He roa te wā kātahi ka whanake ake ētahi kaituhi Pākehā me ā rātou whiti, pakiwaitara rawe, pērā i a Jane Mander, Ursula Bethell, Frank Sargeson, Allen Curnow, James K. Baxter. I te tekau tau atu i 1930 ka puta tētahi momo tirohanga i waenganui i ngā kaituhi o Aotearoa mō ngā momo tuhituhi o tēnei whenua; ka mau haere tēnei tirohanga i roto i ngā tau, ka pā tōna awe ki te rahi o ngā kaituhi. Mai i taua wā, kua pakari ētahi kaituhi me ā rātou mahi ki te ao, pērā i a Elizabeth Knox.

Ngā taituarā o ngā kaituhi

Whakapau kaha ai te New Zealand Society of Authors (PEN NZ) mō ngā kaituhi whaiutu o Aotearoa i roto i ngā whitiwhitinga me ngā kamupene whakaputa tuhinga, ngā teihana pāho, ngā whare whakaari. I tua atu, ka whiriwhiria e rātou te manatārua, ngā tiringa, aha atu. Ko te Rōpū Kaituhi o Aotearoa (New Zealand Writers Guild) te kanohi mō ngā kaituhi whaiutu i ngā whiriwhiringa mō te pouaka whakaata, reo irirangi, taiwhanga whakaatu, rīpene whakaata, kōpae pāpāho, aha atu. I tēnei wā, neke atu i te e 50 ngā tohu, takuhe, whakataetae hoki mā ngā kaituhi, ā, kei te tokomaha ake ngā akomanga tuhituhi i ngā whare wānanga, i ngā kura tini. He maha ngā maheni kua tū, kua hinga hoki mai i te putanga tuatahitanga o Landfall i te tau 1947, pērā i a Sport me New Zealand Books.

Tauhokohoko pukapuka

Iti noa ngā tauhokohoko pukapuka i Aotearoa. Heoi, ahakoa iti kei te kaha te whakataetae. Ko Ngā Kaiwhakaputa Pukapuka o Aotearoa (Book Publishers Association of New Zealand) e waha nei i ā rātou kaupapa. Kua hokona ētahi o ngā kamupene o Aotearoa pēnei i a Whitcombe & Tombs e ngā kamupene nui o te ao. Ko Booksellers New Zealand kei te whakatenatena i te hokonga o ngā pukapuka o Aotearoa ki tāwāhi, koia hoki te kaiwhakahaere o ētahi whakawhiwhinga tohu mō te tuhituhi. Ko te hui nui rawa atu i te tau ko ngā tohu a Montana mō ngā pukapuka o Aotearoa (Montana New Zealand Book Awards).

Ngā kōrerorero mō te pānui

He nui ngā rōpū pānui pukapuka i Aotearoa. I te nuinga o te wā, e 7 ki te e 12 tāngata kei ia rōpū. Ka hui rātou ia marama ki te inu tahi, ki te kai tahi, ki te kōrerorero mō tētahi pukapuka kātahi anō ka puta. I te tau 1973 ka whakatūria te kaupapa whitiwhiti kōrero (discussion scheme) e ngā rāngai mātauranga o te Huinga Kaimahi (Federation of Workers Educational Associations). Neke atu i te e 640 ngā rōpū puta i te motu kei te hono atu, me te aha, e 56% o ana mema nō waho kē i ngā tāone nui.

Te hunga pānui

Ka ngākau nui te iwi o Aotearoa ki te pānui tuhituhi. E ai ki tētahi rangahau o te tau 2002, e 44% o te hunga pakeke i hoko pukapuka i roto i te whā wiki kua taha, e 39% o rātou kua tae ki tētahi whare pukapuka. Kei reira anō ngā rōpū tautoko pērā i te Kaunihera Pukapuka o Aotearoa (New Zealand Book Council), ngā taiopenga pērā i te taiopenga pukapuka o Listener (Listener Women’s Book Festival), te wiki a New Zealand Post mō ngā kaipānui, kaituhituhi o New Zealand Post (New Zealand Post Readers and Writers Week).


Music

Pūoru e manakotia ana

I ngā tekau tau o 1920 o 1930, ka tae ngā pūoru blues, jazz, country mai i Amerika; nō te tau 1955 ka tae mai te rock and roll. Kua puta ki te ao ētahi o ngā tohunga kaiwaiata o ēnei tūmomo pūoru, inā; te kaiwhakatangi piana a Mike Nock, te kaiwaiata a Bic Runga, ngā rōpū pēnei i a Split Enz, The Muttonbirds, The Datsuns. Nā te wāhi nui o te pūoru ki te iwi o Aotearoa, i te tau 2000 ka whakatūria e te kāwanatanga te Kōmihana Ahumahi Pūoru o Aotearoa (New Zealand Music Industry Commission) hei whakatairanga i ngā pūoru o Aotearoa.

Te ahumahi tango pūoru

E ai ki tētahi rangahau i te tau 2002, i roto i te 12 marama i taha, e 75% o te taupori ka whakarongo pūoru i runga reo irirangi, e 33% o te iwi ka haere ki ngā taiopenga me ngā rā pūoru. Taea noatia ai ngā pūoru o tāwāhi i runga reo irirangi, kōpae waiata, pouaka whakaata, rīpene whakaata, ipurangi rānei. Atu i te tekau tau o 1940 ka whanake te ahumahi tango pūoru o Aotearoa. I tino rongonui te kamupene o Flying Nun mō tā rātou whakatairanga ki Peretānia me Amerika i ngā rōpū whakatangitangi o Ōtepoti, pērā i The Cleans rātou ko The Chills.

Ngā pūoru a te Māori, ngā pūoru a Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

Nā ngā kaiwaiata o te ao Māori pērā i a Howard Morrison, Tui Teka, Dalvanius Prime, Moana Maniapoto, Hinewehi Mohi mā, i whanake tētahi momo pūoru Māori i whai wāhi nui ki te whakaoranga o te reo Māori. Nō muri ka whakatūria te Māori Music Industry Coalition. Kua puea mai he oro o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ake, ka tauirahia i ngā waiata a Ardijah, a Che Fu, a Nesian Mystik, a wai atu. I te tau 2004 ka riro te rahi o ngā tohu o ngā whakataetae pūoru o Aotearoa (New Zealand Music Awards) i a Scribe, he uri nō Hāmoa.

Ngā pēne nanakia

He rite tonu te tau o ngā tikanga a iwi kē ki Aotearoa pērā i ngā mahi nanakia a ngā pēne. Tērā tētahi wā e noho ana te pēne Shihad ki tētahi mōtera i Kirikiriroa. Nāwai ā, ka hanga pōuri rātou i te mea, kāore anō rātou kia whiu pouaka whakaata ki waho, pērā i ngā pēne nanakia ki tāwāhi. Ka whakamārama atu a Tame Larkin te kaipatu taramu, kāore ō rātou pūtea mō ērā mahi. Ka wānangahia te take nei, ko te whakatau, he pai ake te porowhiu i te tāina (toaster). Nā Phil Knight te kairarapi kutā te tāina i porowhiu ki waho. Tata tonu ka wāhia tētahi waka Mercedes.

Ngā tikanga tuku iho

Kua roa e whāia kahatia ana ngā pūoru folk, ā, kei te hōrapa ngā karapu hāpai i tēnei momo pūoru. Kei te whanake hoki te pūoru world. Ko tētahi o ngā pūoru tuatahi o rāwāhi kia tau ki Aotearoa ko ngā pūngawī (pipe band) o Koterana. He maha ngā rōpū pūngawī kei te motu. He maha anō ngā manene e heri mai ana i ā rātau ake pūoru. Pērā i te rōpū a Many Hands, e nunumi ana i ngā pūoru o tō rātou ake iwi ki ētahi o te ao hōu, kia puea he oro rerekē.

Ngā whiwhinga tohu me ngā taiopenga

He maha ngā hui whakawhiwhi tohu, whakanui i te jazz, folk, ā-iwi (ethnic), taiwhenua (country), arā atu. Ko ētahi o ēnei hui whakawhiwhinga tohu kua tū mō te wā roa. Mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1970, ka tū ngā taiopenga pūoru nui pērā i a Sweetwaters, Nambassa me te Rā Nui (The Big Day Out). Ia tau ka tū te marama pūoru o Aotearoa (New Zealand Music Month). He maha ngā tohu o te ahumahi pūoru ka whakawhiwhia ki ngā tohu pūoru o Aotearoa (New Zealand Music Awards).

Ngā pūoru tūroa (classical music)

Tokoiti o te iwi ka aro ake ki ngā pūoru tūroa (classical). E ai ki tētahi rangahau o te tau 2002, e 11% o te taupori i tae ki te mātaki i tētahi whakaaturanga pūoru tūroa, ā, e 26% i whakarongo ki taua momo waiata i runga reo irirangi i roto i te e 12 marama ka taha. Tokomaha ngā kaiwhakatangi tūroa i tau ki Aotearoa whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. I taua wā anō ka tīmata te whai a ētahi o Aotearoa pēnei i a Maurice Till (piana) me Michael Houstoun (piana) mā i taua momo pūoru hei oranga, hei mahi mā rātou. I mua, nā te aroha, nā te ngākau nui ngā kaupapa neke ai. Hei tauira, he maha ngā rōpū waiata tira, ā, kei te maha o ngā tāone puta i te motu ngā pēne parāhi.

Waiata

Tokomaha ngā kaiwaiata o Aotearoa kei te rongonui ki tāwāhi, pērā i a Donald McIntyre, Malvina Major, Kiri Te Kanawa, Jonathan Lemalu. Rahi rātou i puta i te whakataetae Mobil Song Quest (ināianei ko te Lexus Song Quest). Ko te Ōpera ā-Motu o NBR (NBR National Opera) me ngā rōpū ā-rohe kei te whakahaere i ngā whakaaturanga whaiutu o te motu. Ko te kāhui waiata tira o Aotearoa (New Zealand Choral Federation) te kaihonohono i ngā hapori, ngā rōpū rangatahi, ngā rōpū waiata o ngā whare karakia i ngā mahi waiata tira.

Ngā pūoru whakatangitangi

I te tau 1946 ka tū te New Zealand Symphony Orchestra (NZSO); i te tau 1987 ka whakatūhia te Chamber Orchestra a te NZSO. He tira pūoru whaiutu kei Tāmaki-makau-rau, kei Te Whanganui-a-Tara, kei Ōtautahi. I te tau 1945 ka tū te Chamber Music New Zealand ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ko tā rātau, he karanga i ngā rōpū nui o te ao ki Aotearoa, he whakatairanga hoki i ngā whakaari nui pērā i te New Zealand String Quartet i whakatūria i te 1987. Arā anō ētahi kei te whai i ngā waiata tōmua a te Pākehā. Otirā, e whāia kahatia ana ngā pūoru tawhito o te ao Māori. Ko Hirini Melbourne rāua ko Richard Nunns ētahi tohunga o ngā pūoru tawhito o te Māori.

Tito waiata

Ko Douglas Lilburn te kaitito waiata rongonui tuatahi o Aotearoa, i puta ake i ngā tau tekau tau atu i 1940. He awe nui tō ngā pūoru a te Māori rātou ko ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Mai i te tau 1991, ka tū te Pokapū mō ngā Pūoru o Aotearoa (Centre for New Zealand Music) (SOUNZ) ki te whakatairanga i ngā mahi a ngā kaitito pērā i a Jack Body, Gillian Whitehead, Gareth Farr, John Psathas.


Performing arts

Ngā whakaari

Nā ngā kamupene o Amerika, o Ingarangi, o Ahitereiria ngā whakaari tuatahi i mau ki Aotearoa i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1860. Heoi, i pōturi te whanaketanga o ēnei whakaaturanga. Tatū ki te tekau tau atu i 1950, kātahi ka tū he kamupene whakaari ngaio. Hāunga tērā, mai anō kua tū ngā karapu whakaari, ngā whare toi whakaari, ngā rōpū ōpera puta noa i te whenua.

Ngā whakaari ngaio

Ko te whare whakaari o Downstage i Te Whanganui-a-Tara te whare whakaari ngaio tuatahi o Aotearoa, ka tū i 1964. I te tekau tau atu i 1970 ka whakatūria ko te Court ki Ōtautahi, ko Centrepoint ki Te Papa-i-ōia, ko Circa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ko Fortune ki Ōtepoti. Tāpirihia atu te kamupene toi whakaari o Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland Theatre Company), koinei ngā kamupene ngaio nui o te motu. Ko ētahi atu whakaari ka puta mā ngā tamariki, mā te hunga rangatahi, mā te iwi Māori. Ka kaha ngā mahi a Theatresports, te whakaari katakata.

Ngā mahi o muri

E tautokona ana ngā whakaari ngaio e te New Zealand Association for Theatre Craft, Design and Technology. Ko Toi Whakaari, ko te kura whakaari o Aotearoa (New Zealand Drama School), ko ngā pūtahi whakaako, ko rātou kei te whakaako i te hunga ka kuhu ki ngā mahi toi whakaari. Ko ngā tāngata rongonui pēnei i a Michael Hurst, Miranda Harcourt, Jacob Rajan mā ētahi i puta i Toi Whakaari. Ko Playmarket tētahi pokapū āwhina i ngā kaituhi whakaari kia whanake ai ā rātou whakaaturanga. Ko Greg McGee (Foreskin’s lament), Roger Hall (Conjugal rights), Briar Grace-Smith (Purapurawhetū) ētahi i āwhinatia.

Ngā kanikani

Mai i te tekau tau 1840 ka kaha ngā tautoko ki ngā momo kanikani pēnei i te folk me te ballroom. Nō muri ka hau ngā momo kanikani pēnei i te rock and roll, te kanikani rārangi (line dancing), te Ceroc. Tū roa ana ngā karapu kanikani pērā i ērā o Koterana, o Airana, ā, kei reira hoki ngā rōpū ā-motu hei tautoko i a rātou. Kei te aro nui hoki te taupori ki ngā momo kanikani mai tāwāhi pērā i ērā o Āhia me te tonga o Amerika pērā i te tango mai Āketina.

Te kanikani hei whakaaturanga whakaari

Ahakoa ngā whakaakoranga mō ngā kanikani hītekiteki me ngā kanikani o te ao hōu i mua i te tau 1950, kāore he tuwheratanga mō ngā tohunga kanikani kia whai oranga. Ko te Rōpū Kanikani Hītekiteki Roera o Aotearoa (Royal New Zealand Ballet) te kamupene ngaio tuatahi o Aotearoa, i whakatūhia i te tau 1953. Whakaako ai rātou i ngā kanikani hītekiteki me ngā kanikani o te ao hōu. Ko tētahi o ngā tohunga kanikani kua puta ki te ao i tēnei kura, ko Tā Jon Trimmer. Kei reira anō ētahi kamupene mō ngā kanikani hōu, pērā i a Footnote Dance Company (whakatūhia i 1985), i a Black Grace (1995), Mau Dance (1995), Touch Compass (1997), i a Atamira Dance Collective (2000). Ia tau ka tū tētahi taiopenga kīia ai ko Tempo – Te Hui Ahurei mō te kanikani ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. Kei te whakaakongia te kanikani ki ētahi whare whakaako pērā i te kura ako kanikani o Aotearoa (New Zealand School of Dance) me te kura a te whare wānanga o Wairaka mō ngā toi whakaari me ngā kiriata (UNITEC’s School of Performing and Screen Arts) ā, e tautokona ana e te rōpū ā-motu, a Kanikani Aotearoa (Dance New Zealand, DANZ).

Kapa Haka Tekau-mā-rua (Super 12)

Kei te hau te rongo mō ngā whakataetae whutupaoro Tekau-mā-rua, arā, te Super 12, i waenganui i ngā whenua o Aotearoa, o Ahitereiria, o te tonga o Āwherika. Heoi, arā anō tētahi whakataetae Super 12 kāore i te mōhiotia whānuitia, ko te Super 12 mō ngā kapa haka. Ka tū tēnei whakataetae ia Kirihimete ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. Nō te tau 2001 ka tīmata. E 12 ngā rōpū, e 12 ngā tāngata kei ia kapa, me oti ngā mahi i roto i te e 12 meneti. Me puta te wairua auaha i roto i ngā mahi a tēnā kapa, a tēnā kapa i runga i te papa tū waewae.

Kapa haka

Ko te kapa haka te toi whakaari ahurei ki te Māori. Ka whai wāhi te haka, te poi, te waiata-ā-ringa, te waiata koroua, ki tēnei toi whakaari. Ka nui ngā tautoko a te iwi Māori mō ēnei mahi, ā, kei te hōrapa ngā kapa haka ki ngā whare kura, kura tini, wāhi mahi puta i te motu.

Ko ētahi o ngā kapa haka rongonui ko Waihīrere o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa rāua ko Te Waka Huia o Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ko ētahi o ngā kaiako rongonui ko Ngāpō (Bub) rāua ko Nan Wehi, ko Pita Sharples, ko Te Hue Rangi, ko Tihi Puanaki. Ka tīmata ngā whakataetae kapa haka ā-motu i te tau 1972, i raro i ngā whakahaere a te Rōpū mō ngā Whakataetae Kapa Haka ā-Motu (Aotearoa Traditional Māori Performing Arts).


How to cite this page: Nancy Swarbrick, 'Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-auahatanga-o-aotearoa/print (accessed 20 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Nancy Swarbrick, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005