Kōrero: Ngā haumi a iwi

I ngā rau tau 1800 me 1900 ka riro ngā whenua me ngā takutai ohu kaimoana a te Māori. Heoi nā te matanga o ngā whakahaerenga, me te whakahokinga o ngā rawa ā-iwi ki ngā iwi, ka haere kaha ngā pakihi Māori i ngā tau tōmua o tēnei mano tau – nō te tau 2006 neke atu i te $16 piriona te nui o ngā rawa a Ngāi Tāua.

He kōrero nā Edward Ellison
Te āhua nui: Te inu waina ki te māra waina o Tohu

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā tauhokohoko me te raupatu

I te rau tau 1800 ka tere urutau te Māori i ōna mahi tuopu me te Pākehā. He nui ngā iwi ka hoko i ō rātou mīti, huawhenua hoki ki ngā tāone tipu, ā, ka hoko kai me te harakeke ētahi.

Atu i te pokapū o te rau tau 1800 ka riro ngā whenua a te Māori. He nui ngā whenua haumako ka riro i te rau o te patu. Nō konei ka haumate ngā iwi. Ka haere tonu ngā rironga ki roto i te rau tau 1900.

Ngā whakataunga tiriti

Nō te tau 1975 ka whakatūria te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti e te kawanatanga kia āta tirohia ngā takahanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nō te tau 1985 ka tirohia e te rōpū ngā amuamu Māori e pā ana ki te ngaro o te whenua. Nō te tau 1987, ka whakatau te Kōti Teitei me titiro te Karauna ki ngā kokoraho whenua a te Māori e whakawhitihia ana ki ngā kamupene a te Karauna. Kua kitea ētahi nawe e heria ana ki te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti, me te whakatau kia whakahokia ngā whenua me ngā takutai ki ngā iwi. Ko ngā whakataunga nunui, pērā i tā Tainui, i tā Ngāi Tahu, neke atu i te $100 miriona.

I te tau 2004 kō atu i te 5 ōrau o ngā whenua o tēnei motu i roto i ngā ringaringa Māori, heoi he whenua tūpuhi te nuinga.

Ngā haumi a iwi

I ētahi wā he maha rawa ngā kaipupuri whenua Māori, ā, ka kore e whai hua. I ngā tau tōmua o te mano tau 2000, ko te toharite ko te 59 heketea me ngā kaipupuri whenua e 73 te tokomaha. Mā ngā kaporeihana me ngā kaitiakitanga whenua, kua pai ake te whakahaere a te Māori i ōna whenua. Hei tauira nā te Lake Taupo Forestry Trust i whakakotahi mai i ngā heketea e 31,000 mai i ngā rōpū 60 te tokomaha. E mahi ngātahi ana te kaitiakitanga me te Karauna i roto i ngā mahi paina.

Ngā mahi ika

I roto i ngā whakataunga 1989 me 1992, hautoru o ngā ahumoni hī ika o Aotearoa i whakahokia ki ngā iwi. Ka whakatūhia te komihana hei whakakuhu haere i te Māori ki te ahumahi ika, me te whakarato i ngā rawa ika ki ngā iwi. Nō te tau 2004 ka whakatauhia rawa tēnei. E $300 miriona te rahi o ngā rawa ka whakahokia ki ngā iwi, ā, e $300 miriona i tukuna ki te kamupene Māori ko Aotearoa Fisheries Limited.

Te haumi Māori

Kua ako ngā kaiwhakangao ā-iwi ki te whakawehe i ngā whakahaerenga ā-iwi me ngā whakahaerenga ahumoni ā-iwi. Heoi he nui kē atu te pakihi Māori i te mahi moni noa iho. He nui ki a rātou te pupuri whenua ki ō rātou rohe ake, me te whakatū i ngā pakihi e whai hua ai te iwi me te taiao. He nui hoki ki ngā kaiwhakangao Māori te whai hononga ki ētahi atu pakihi Māori hei whakawhanake ake i te ohanga Māori.

E tū ana a Ngāi Tahu Holdings ki Te Waipounamu e whai moni ana ki ngā whakaherenga rawa, hī ika, tāpoi hoki mō Ngāi Tahu. I te tau 2008, e $644 miriona tōna wāriu. Ko tētahi atu whakahaerenga ko Tainui Group Holdings, e $496 miriona te wāriu.

I te tau 2006, e $16.5 piriona te wāriu o te rawa Māori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Edward Ellison, 'Ngā haumi a iwi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-haumi-a-iwi (accessed 16 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Edward Ellison, i tāngia i te 11 Mar 2010