Kōrero: Ngā heke i te Wai Nui

Whārangi 1. Ngā kaumoana tuatahi o te ao

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ko Poronihia te moana tuatahi kia hoea, kia nōhia e te tangata. Ko ngā tāhū kōrero mōna e hāngai ana ki ngā heke. Ko Aotearoa te whenua pāmamao rawa; koia te whenua rahi whakamutunga kia taea e te tangata.

Me kī, e rua ngā momo heke.

Ngā heke tuauri: Āhia ki Poronihia Tata

Taea noatia te whai i ngā ara moana o ngā tāngata tuatahi i tae ki Poronihia mai i Āhia. Ko te tino oranga o ngā tāngata o te wā tūāuriuri whāioio (e 50,000–25,000 BC), ko te whai kararehe me te toro kai. I haere rātou mā runga mōkihi, ka marara ki ngā moutere rarahi o Āhia ki te Tonga mā Rāwhiti. Nāwai ā, ka tau rātou ki Ahitereiria me Papua Nūkini. I aua wā onamata he whenua kotahi a Ahitereiria rāua ko Papua Nūkini.

Ka tae rā anō ēnei iwi tawhito ki te rohe moana e kīia ai ko Melanesia, kei te pito tonga o Ngā Moutere Horomona. Kaha kē rā rātou ki te noho i ngā whenua rerekē rawa atu, mai i ngā moutere mahana, haumākū o te raki, ki ngā wāhi hukapapa o Tasmania i te tonga, atu i te takutai ki uta, mai i ngā ngahere haumākū ki te koraha.

Mōhiotia ai tēnei takiwā ko Poronihia Tata. Kei a ia ko Papua Nūkini, ko Ngā Moutere o Bismarck, Ngā Moutere o Admiralty, Ngā Moutere o Horomona.

Te Marei ki te Māori: te hononga o ngā reo

Ka ahu katoa mai ngā reo o Poronīhia i te momo reo o Austronesian. Koinei te reo i hōpara whānuitia i te ao – mai i te whenua o Madagascar tae rā anō ki Rapanui. Kei ngā reo o ngā moutere o Poronīhia Tata ahu atu ki ngā reo tawhito o ngā moutere o te taha tonga mā-rāwhiti o Āhia, rangona ai ngā kupu mō te waka, te rā me te hoe. I takea mai ngā kupu Māori o te waka me te rā, tae atu ki ngā kupu Malay a te wangka me te layar, i te pūtake kotahi.

Ngā heke o ngā wā tata: ki Poronihia Tawhiti

Kia tae ki te 1000 BC, ka tīmata te heke a te tangata ki Poronihia Tawhiti. Ko tēnei rohenga moana kei te rāwhiti me te tonga o Poronihia Tata, ko ngā takiwā ki roto, ko ngā moutere o Melanesia kei kō atu o Ngā Moutere Horomona, ko Micronesia, ko Poronihia. Ko te nuinga o ngā moutere o konei he ririki noa iho, he iti noa ngā rawa kai ka kitea, he tawhiti rawa hoki te haere mā runga mōkihi noa.

Hāunga tērā, i te matatau ngā tāngata heke ki ētahi mātauranga, ki te mahi kai hoki. Kīia ai rātou ko ngā tāngata Lapita. Kua taunga rātou ki te hoe i te moana uriuri. Whai muri i te roanga atu o ngā mano tau e ako ana rātou ki te tārai waka me te kau i te moana i Poronihia Tata, ka huri ngā kaumoana matatau ki te hura i te moana uriuri mā runga i ngā waka pai ake.

Ka rere whakaterāwhiti ngā waka nei, atu i ngā wai pārū ki Poronihia Tawhiti. Ko ngā utanga i runga i ō rātou waka ko ā ratou kararehe me ā rātou tipu, e whai oranga ai rātou i ō rātou kāinga hōu.

Te taenga ki Amerika ki te Tonga

Ka tae rā anō ngā kaumoana nei ki Amerika ki te Tonga. I tō rātou hokinga ki Poronihia Tawhiti, ka whakahokia e rātou te kūmara me tētahi momo hue. Nā ngā rangahautanga a ngā kaimātai pūtaiao i ētahi kūmara i te moutere o Mangaia i te Kuki Airani i tohu ki te mea, kua tae noa atu ngā kaumoana nei ki Amerika ki te Tonga i te tau e 1000 AD.

Te iwi Viking me ngā tāngata o Poronihia

E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho o Tiorangi (Iceland), i tae ngā Viking o Greenland ki Labrador, ka nōhia te whenua o Newfoundland. He rite ngā āhuatanga i pā ki ngā Viking ki ērā ka pā ki ngā tāngata o Poronihia, inarā, i haere rātou i ō rātou rōpū iti ki te pito rā anō o te whenua, ka kite rātou i ētahi whenua nui kua nōhia kētia e te tangata. Kāore he tino nui ngā kerikeringa mātai whaipara tangata o ēnei rā hei whakamārama i ēnei haerenga a rātou.

Ki Aotearoa, ki Rēkohu (Wharekauri)

I te rau tau 1200, ka hoe ngā tīpuna ki Aotearoa, mā te tātai i ngā tohu huarere. Ko ēnei tāngata ngā tīpuna o ngā Māori o Aotearoa. I tēnei wā ka tae anō rātou ki ngā moutere tawhiti o Norfolk me Kermadec.

No muri rawa mai ka kitea e ngā Māori te moutere o Wharekauri (Rēkohu), e rua rau tau pea ki mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Geoff Irwin, 'Ngā heke i te Wai Nui - Ngā kaumoana tuatahi o te ao', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-heke-i-te-wai-nui/page-1 (accessed 14 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Geoff Irwin, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, reviewed & revised 8 Feb 2017