Kōrero: Ngā heke i te Wai Nui

Whārangi 4. Atu i te Uru ki te Rāwhiti i Poronihia

Ngā whakaahua

Te pueanga ake o te ahurea o Poronihia ki te Uru

E 3000 tau ki muri (1000 BC) ka kitea te pueanga ake o te ahurea me te reo o Poronihia i te taha uru o te moana. Ka huri haere ngā matapaia Lapita kia hua ake ko ngā matapaia noa o ngā tīpuna o ngā Māori. Arā anō ngā rereketanga e pā ana ki ngā mea hōu me te āhua o tā rātou noho.

Te takoto o ngā moutere me ngā heke

E rua ngā momo moutere kei Poronihia: ngā moutere pūkawa raurarahi (continental) me ngā moutere aumoana (oceanic). Takoto ai ngā moutere pūkawa raurarahi ki Poronihia ki te uru, ko ngā moutere aumoana takoto ai ki Poronihia ki te rāwhiti. Ki te tirohia ngā mahere whenua, ka kitea tētahi rārangi ko te Andesite Line, e wehe ana i ngā momo moutere nei. Ko ngā moutere aumoana kei te taha rāwhiti o te rāina nei.

Ko ngā moutere pūkawa raurarahi, koia nei ngā toenga o ngā whenua rahi kua toremi ki te takere o te moana. He kanorau ngā momo kōhatu, he mōmona ake te whenua, he pai ake hei kāinga noho mō te wā roa.

Ko ngā moutere aumoana, ko ērā ngā taumata o ngā maunga puia. He moutere ikeike rānei, he moutere pāpaku rānei, he moutere roke kanae (atoll) rānei ēnei moutere. Nā te iti o ngā momo kōhatu, ngā oneone me ngā rawa, he uaua ka tū he kāinga ki ēnei moutere.

I te wā ka tīmata ngā tāngata o Poronihia ki te heke whakaterāwhiti, ka nōhia tuatahitia e rātou ngā moutere pūkawa raurarahi. Ko ēnei moutere ko ngā moutere katoa o Āhia ki te Tonga mā Rāwhiti, Ahitereiria, Melanesia, ngā moutere kei te pito uru o Micronesia (a Palau, a Yap, ngā Marianas hoki) me Poronihia (a Tonga, a Futuna, a Uvea).

Kia tae ki te e 1500BC kua nōhia kētia a Micronesia ki te Uru – me kī i te wā i nōhia e ngā tāngata Lapita Ngā Moutere o Bismarck. I te wā 1200–1000 BC ka nōhia a Melanesia rāua ko Poronihia ki te Uru e ngā tauhōu. I nōhia a Hāmoa i tēnei wā tonu, e tata ana hoki ki Whītī me Tonga.

Kia hipa rā anō te e 1000 tau kātahi anō ka nōhia e te tangata a Micronesia ki te rāwhiti rāua ko Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti.

Te heke ki Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti

Nā ngā rangahautanga pūtaiao i tohu ki te mea, kāore he tangata i Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti mō te e 1000 tau i muri mai i te taenga o ngā tāngata Lapita ki Poronihia ki te Uru. Heoi, i te takiwā o te tau 0 AD, ka tīmata te horapa o te tangata ki ngā moutere o Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti; ko ngā moutere tata i nōhia tuatahitia. Kei te tohea tonu te wā i nōhia tuatahitia ai Ngā Moutere o Kuki ki te Tonga me Ngā Moutere o Tahiti. Ko te āhua nei, kia tae ki te tau e 700 AD, kua nōhia katoatia a Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti. Hāunga, e tohu ana ngā kōrero ki te mea nō mua noa atu i tēnei wā ka nōhia te moutere o Te Pito o te Henua (Rapa Nui, Easter Island).

Te āhua o te whakanoho

I tua atu i te tūpuhi o ngā moutere aumoana i te rāwhiti, arā atu anō pea ētahi whakamāramatanga mō te take i roa te wā kātahi anō ka tīmata te heke a ngā tāngata ki Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti.

Tērā pea kia nui rā anō ngā pūkenga, ngā mōhiotanga, kātahi anō ka taea te whakawhiti moana uriuri. Kāore pea tēnei i te tika, i te mea kāore he rerekētanga o ngā hau, o ngā rangi i te uru ki ērā kei te rāwhiti o Poronihia. Ko tētahi anō titiro, tērā pea i nōhia ngā moutere o te rāwhiti i tēnei wā, i te mea kei ētahi o aua moutere ngā tohu ki te mea i reira te tangata – ngā ngahere i whakawāteatia, te kaha horo o te whenua ki ētahi atu wāhi. Waihoki, kāore i te mōhiotia mēnā nā te tangata ēnei mahi, nā te aha kē rānei.

He tawhiti atu, he pāmamao atu te tū o ngā moutere aumoana ki ērā ngā moutere pūkawa raurarahi. Ki te haere whakaterāwhiti koe, ka nui haere te moana, ka iti haere te whenua tērā ka kitea. Ahakoa te mea he tata atu ētahi o ngā moutere aumoana pēnei i ngā moutere o Rarotonga hei kāinga noho, tērā pea nā te uaua o te whai oranga ki aua moutere kāore i nōhia mō tētahi wā roa. Ahakoa te iti o te kai me te rawa ki ēnei moutere, ka haere tonu ngā hurahanga.

Ko ngā tāngata o Poronihia ngā uri whakaheke o te iwi Lapita; i taea e rātou ngā mātauranga e ora ai te noho ki ngā moutere pāmamao. I kaha anō rātou ki te hoehoe i ngā moutere kia kitekite i a rātou anō.

I tūhuratia te taha rāwhiti o Poronīhia e ngā iwi o te taha uru o Poronīhia, ā, nā whai anō, nā ngā iwi o te taha rāwhiti o Poronīhia, i tūhura i a Aotearoa. I whanake tēnei iwi, ā, e mōhiotia ana rātou ko te Māori. Ko Hawaiki te kāinga tawhito o te Māori, kei te taha rāwhiti o Poronīhia.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Geoff Irwin, 'Ngā heke i te Wai Nui - Atu i te Uru ki te Rāwhiti i Poronihia', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-heke-i-te-wai-nui/page-4 (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by Geoff Irwin, published 8 Feb 2005, reviewed & revised 8 Feb 2017