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Marutūahu tribes

by  Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal

I puea ake ngā iwi e rima o ngā takiwā mai i Tāmaki-makau-rau ki Moehau, i ngā tama tokorima a Marutūahu. Heke ana i ngā rau tau, ka tipu tētahi uru tapu ki Waihīhī, hei tohu ki te mōmona o ngā whenua o Hauraki. Arā atu ngā taonga a te iwi i ēnei rā: te mauri o Marutūahu, te whare whakairo o Hotunui e tū ana ki te Whare Pupuri Taonga o Tāmaki-makau-rau.


Origins

Ngā iwi

Ko ngā iwi o Marutūahu, ko Ngāti Rongoū, Ngāti Tamaterā, Ngāti Whanaunga, Ngāti Maru, Ngāti Pāoa. Noho ai ngā iwi nei ki te rohe o Hauraki. Heke katoa ai rātou i a Marutūahu, tētahi tipuna nō ngā iwi o Tainui.

Te tipuna a Marutūahu

Ka noho a Hotunui, te matua o Marutūahu ki Kāwhia. I reira, ka whakapaengia e tōna hunaonga, e Māhanga i tāhae purapura kūmara a Marutūahu. Ahakoa kāore i kitea te tika, te hē rānei o taua whakapae, i wehe a Hotunui ki te rohe o Hauraki noho ai. I mua i tōna wehenga ka puta tana kōrero ki tana wahine e hapū ana, ‘Ki te puta he tamāhine, whakaingoatia ki a Paretūahu. Ki te puta he tāne, whakaingoatia, ko Marutūahu.’

Ka haere atu a Hotunui ka noho ki Whakatīwai, kei te taha tonga o te pae o Hauraki. I a ia i Hauraki, ka pā ngā whakawhiunga o te rawakore. Ka hipa ngā marama, ka whānau mai tā rāua tama ko tana wahine, ka whakaingoatia ko Marutūahu. Kia pakeke te tamaiti nei, ka maranga ia ki te tai rāwhiti, ki te rangahau kei hea ake tōna matua. I tana taenga ki te taha uru o te rohe o Hauraki, ka tūtaki ia ki tōna matua, ka kite ia, kua tūkinotia ia mō tētahi wā roa. Ka whakatakariri a Marutūahu, ka mārō tana whai kia eke anō te mana o tōna matua. Ka pakanga ia ki ngā iwi tangata whenua, ka riro mai ngā whenua o Whakatīwai. Ko ngā paenga o te takiwā nei, ko Te Tāpapakanga-o-Puku ki te raki, ko Kaiaua ki te tonga.

Ko Hauraki te Whenua:

E tohu ana te pepeha nei i te mana motuhake o ngā iwi o Marutūahu:

Ngā puke ki Hauraki ka tārehua.

E mihi ana ki te whenua
E tangi ana ki te tangata.

Ko Moehau ki waho
Ko Te Aroha ki uta.

Ko Tīkapa te moana
Ko Hauraki te whenua
Ko Marutūahu te tangata.

Ngā tamariki a Marutūahu

Ka tū te pā o Marutūahu ki Whakatīwai, ka moea e ia ētahi wāhine teina tuakana. Tokorima ngā tamariki i puta – Tamatepō, Tamaterā, Whanaunga, Te Ngako, Tāurukapakapa. Nō muri ka tū ngā tamariki nei hei tipuna taketake o ngā iwi o Marutūahu, ka hora ō rātou mana ki te whenua atu i Mahurangi i te raki ki Katikati kei te takiwā o Ngā Kurī a Whārei. Ko ngā rohe whenua i taka ki raro i te mana o ngā iwi o Marutūahu, ko Tāmaki-makau-rau, Te Hapū-a-Kohe, Piako, Ōhinemuri, Wairoa, Moehau (Coromandel), Whangamatā. I ēnei rā, e mau tonu ana ngā here o ngā uri o Marutūahu ki te rohe whānui nei e mōhiotia ai, ko Hauraki. Kei ngā wāhi o te rohe ōna marae.


Ngāti Rongoū, Ngāti Tamaterā and Ngāti Whanaunga

I tū ngā tamariki a Marutūahu ki ngā riri raupatu i te rohe o Hauraki. Hau ana te rongo mō te toa o Whanaunga rāua ko tōna tuakana a Tamaterā i roto i ngā riri. Nō te matenga o Marutūahu, nā Tamaterā tōna tūranga rangatira i whakakapi, ka whakahipangia tōna tuakana a Tamatepō. Koinei te take i tutū te puehu i waenganui i a Tamaterā rāua ko Whanaunga. Nā ngā kōwhetewhete ki waenganui i ngā tūpuna tokotoru nei i tū motuhake ai tēnā me tēnā o ngā iwi e toru nei.

Ngāti Tamaterā

I te pikinga o Tamaterā ki te tūranga o tō rātou matua, ka mauāhara a Whanaunga ki a ia. Koinei te take i wehe atu ai a Tamaterā kia noho ki ngā takiwā o Ōhinemuri, o Katikati, o Whakatāne. Nō te moenga o Tamaterā i te tuahine o tōna whāea, kātahi ka riri rawa atu te whānau. I tua atu, nā Tamatera ētahi o ngā taonga a tōna matua a Marutūahu i heri.

Ko Ngāti Tamaterā te iwi matua o ngā iwi o Marutūahu. Waihoki, kua roa kē ōna uri e ārahi ana i ngā kaupapa mō ngā iwi katoa o Marutūahu. Otirā, ko ētahi o ngā rangatira tōmua o te iwi ko Taharua, ko Taiuru, ko Tāwhaki, ko wai atu; kua tapaina ētahi o ngā hapū mō rātou. Taka rawa ki te rau tau 1800, ko ētahi o ngā rangatira whakahau o te iwi ko Whataangaanga Tūpaea, Tūterangiānini, Tukukino Te Ahiātaewa, Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia.

Ngāti Whanaunga

I te haerenga o Tamaterā, ka tū te mana o Whanaunga ki ngā takiwā whakateuru o Hauraki. I waenganui pū rātou ko tōna iwi a Ngāti Whanaunga i ngā pakanga e riro ai ngā whenua o Hauraki. E toitū tonu ana te mana o Ngāti Whanaunga ki Moehau, ki ētahi moutere kei te moana o Tīkapa, tae rawa atu ki ngā whaitua ki te uru. Ko ētahi o ngā hapū whai mana o te iwi ko Ngāti Karaua, ko Ngāti Pākira. Ko ngā rangatira whakahirahira o Ngāti Whanaunga i te rau tau 1800 ko Te Hōreta Te Taniwha rāua ko Hōri Ngākapa Te Whanaunga.

Ngāti Rongoū

Ko Ngāti Rongoū ngā uri whakaheke o Tamatepō, te mātāmua a Marutūahu. I ahu mai te ingoa o Rongoū i a Rongomai, te mokopuna tuarua a Marutūahu. I te matenga o Marutūahu, ka heke te mana o te kāwai o Tamatepō; kia taka rawa ki te wā i a Rongomai, kātahi anō ka piki haere tō rātou mana. Nō konei puea ake ai a Ngāti Rongoū hei iwi. E whakanui ana te ingoa o te iwi i te whakatūnga o Ngāti Rongoū hei iwi.


Ngāti Maru and Ngāti Pāoa

Ngāti Maru

He rahi ngā kōrero mō te tūnga ake o Ngāti Maru hei iwi. E whai ake nei he whakamārama nā Taimoana Tūroa:

I te hokinga o Tamaterā (te tama tuarua a Marutūahu) ki Whakatīwai ... ka moea e ia tōna whāea whāngai, a Hineurunga ... Koinei te take i noho ana teina, a Te Ngako rāua ko Tāurukapakapa hei tama whāngai māna. I te moenga o Te Ngako i te tamāhine a Tamaterā, i a Pareterā, ka puta ko tā rāua tama ko Kahurautao. I te moenga o Kahurautao i te mokopuna a Tamaterā, i a Hineterā, kātahi ka whīwhiwhi rawa atu. Nō te pakeketanga o tā rāua tama a Rautao, ka tīmata ngā kōrero nui mō Ngāti Maru. 1

I puea tuatahi mai te tuakiritanga o Ngāti Maru i te wā i a Rautao. I whai mana a Rautao rātou ko tōna iwi i tana ranaki i ngā mate o tōna tuakana rāua ko tōna matua ki te rohe o Tāmaki. Nō te matenga o Ureia, te taniwha kaitiaki o Hauraki i ngā wai o Manukau, ka whakaekea anōtia e rātou te rohe o Tāmaki.

Nō muri ka huakina te riri ki te tai tokerau, ki te iwi o Ngāpuhi. Heoi, nā te maha rawa atu o ngā waka taua kei ngā wai o Tīkapa, ka whakaingoatia aua wai ko ‘ngā tai whakarewa kauri’, e tohu ana ki te rākau kauri i tāraia mai ai ētahi o aua waka. Kia tae ki te rau tau 1800, kei te haere tonu ngā pakanga ki ngā iwi o te tai tokerau. Ko te riri nui whakaharahara i tū i te whakapaenga o te pā o Te Tōtara (e pātata ana ki Pārāwai, Thames) e Hongi Hika mā o Ngāpuhi.

I te rau tau 1800, ka tū a Hauāuru Taipari hei rangatira mō Ngāti Maru. Hei whakanui i te moenga o tana tama a Wiremu Hōtereni Taipari ki te puhi o Ngāti Awa, ka whakairohia tētahi whare whakairo, ko Hotunui te ingoa.

Ngāti Pāoa

I ahu mai a Pāoa i te pū o Waikato, hei teina ia nā Mahuta. Ka whānau mai he tamariki i a rāua ko tana wahine matua a Tauhākari. Nā te kore e tareka e ia te manaaki i tōna tuakana a Mahuta i tana taenga ohoreretanga ki tōna kāinga, ka pā te whakamā ki a Pāoa, ka neke ia i tōna kāinga i Taupiri kia haere ki te rohe o Hauraki noho ai. I Hauraki, ka moe ia i a Tukutuku, te mokopuna a Tamaterā. Tokorua ā rāua tama. Nā whai anō kei Waikato, kei Hauraki anō a Ngāti Pāoa e manaakitia ana.

Kei waenganui i ngā rohe o Waikato, o Hauraki ngā whenua papatipu o te iwi, e totoro atu ai i te pito uru o ngā mānia o Hauraki, tae rawa ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. I nōhia anōtia e Ngāti Pāoa ētahi o ngā moutere ki Tīkapa, pēnei i a Waiheke. Ko Haora Tīpa Te Koinaki tētahi o ngā rangatira whai mana o Ngāti Pāoa i te rau tau 1800.

Footnotes
  1. Taimonana Tūroa. Te takoto o te whenua o Hauraki – Hauraki landmarks. Auckland: Reed, 2000, p.64. › Back

Marutūahu icons

Marutūahu te mauri

He rite te tipuna a Marutūahu ki ētahi atu rangatira arā, he nui āna taonga hei tohu ki tōna rangatiratanga. Ko tētahi o ēnei taonga, he whakapakoko pakupaku nei e kīia ai he mauri, pēnei i te kūmara tōna rahi. Whakamahia ai te mauri nei e Marutūahu hei tohu ki tana mana ki ngā whenua o Hauraki. Ko tētahi wāhi i whakahaerehia ētahi karakia pēnei, ko ētahi toka kei te pito whakateraki o Waiheke. Koinei anō te wāhi takina ai ngā karakia i ngā waka a Tainui rāua ko Te Arawa i tō rāua hekenga tuatahi ki Aotearoa.

Ka puritia te mauri rā ki te moutere o Repanga (Cuvier Island), heoi nō te pikinga o Tamaterā ki te tūranga o tōna matua, ka tangohia e ia te mauri i taua wāhi. Te āhua nei i heria e ia te mauri rā ki Katikati, ki Whakatāne hoki. Mea rawa ake, ka ngaro taua taonga, i puritia rāneitia e ngā iwi o Mataatua. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1890, kitea anōtia ai i te iwi o Te Whānau-ā-Apanui. I te mutunga iho, ka whakanōhia te taonga nei ki te Whare Pupuri Taonga o Tāmaki-makau-rau.

Te whare whakairo a Hotunui

I tua atu i te whenua, ko te kura nui rawa ki ngā iwi o Marutūahu, ko te whare whakairo o Hotunui, e tū ana i ēnei rā ki te Whare Pupuri Taonga o Tāmaki-makau-rau. He mea whakairo a Hotunui e ngā tohunga o Ngāti Awa i te tau 1878. I tōna otinga, ka kohaina te whare hei taonga i te moenga o Mereana Mokomoko o Ngāti Awa ki a Wīrope Hōtereni Taipari o Ngāti Maru. He tauira whakamīharo tēnei o ngā mahi whakairo i te rau tau 1800. I te hekenga o ngā tau ka whakarērea, ka nōhia te whare e te pūngāwerewere. E tū pai ai te whare nei mō ngā rā maha kei mua i te aroaro, nō te tau 1929 nekehia ai ia, atu i Pārāwai (Thames) ki te Whare Pupuri Taonga o Tāmaki-makau-rau.

Te tipu aute

I whakamahia te tipu aute ki Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa hei whatu tapa; nā te waka a Tainui te tipu nei i kawe ki Aotearoa. Nō muri ka whakanōhia te aute hei tohu mō te mōmona me te mana nui o ngā whenua o Hauraki. I kawea mai te aute e ētahi o ngā waka i heke mai i Hawaiki, ka whakamātauria tōna tipu ki tēnei whenua hōu. Kotahi anake te uru aute i ora, kei Waihīhī. I te paenga o te waka o Tainui ki taua wāhi, ka makere te wahine a Mārama rātou ko tōna tira, ka whakatōngia te aute ki reira. Kaha te tupu o taua aute. I whakaingoatia tēnei wāhi ko Te Uru-aute-o-Māramatahanga. I whakatupuria te aute ki te taha o te tūahu i whakatūria i te ūnga mai o Tainui.

E ai ki a Tukumana Te Taniwha, he kaumātua o Ngāti Whanaunga e ora ana i te wāhanga tuatahi o te rau tau 1900, e tipu tonu ana te uru aute rā i ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau1900. Ina rā te whakataukī e tohu ana i tōna nui:

Haere mai ki Hauraki, he aute tē awhea.

I whakaputaina te kōrero nei e Wīrope Hōtereni Taipari i tana pōwhiri ki ngā iwi o Waikato i te whakatuwheratanga o te wharenui o Hotunui.


Resources of the Hauraki region

Te moana o Tīkapa

Ka nui ngā rawa o te rohe o Hauraki - o te moana, o te whenua, o raro i te whenua. Mai anō i te taenga tuatahi o ngā iwi o Tainui ki te takiwā, he pakanga mō ngā rawa te umanga nui. He pātaka kai a Tīkapa, he wāhi nui mō te mahi kaimoana, mō te hī ika i ngā takutai, i ngā wai hōhonu hoki. I ngā wā o mua, he maha ngā riri ki te iwi o Ngāpuhi mō ngā ara moana o te rohe, mō te mana ki te hī i ngā ika pērā i te whāpuku. He rite tonu ngā wā ka pakangatia ngā moutere o te rohe. Nā whai anō, i nōhia ētahi moutere mō tētahi wā, ka whakarērea. I ēnei rā, he mea nui ki ngā iwi o Marutūahu te tiaki i ngā wai o Tīkapa. E whai wāhi nui ana te iwi ki ngā whakawhitiwhitinga kōrero mō ngā whakaritenga o te Hauraki Gulf Maritime Park.

Ngā mahi hao ika me te tiaki i te moana o Tīkapa

He umanga nui ki ngā iwi o Marutūahu te pāmu moana. Ko ngā umanga pēnei i te pāmu kuku i te whanga o Manaia, te take i kuhu ai ngā iwi o Hauraki ki ngā kaupapa ā-motu e pā ana ki ngā take pāmu kaimoana. I te rau tau 1800, nā te rangatira o Ngāti Tamaterā, nā Tanumeha Te Moananui te kerēme i whakatakoto mō te takutai me te papa moana atu i te tāone o Pārāwai (Thames). He tauira tēnei ki te mea, mai anō ā, taka rawa ki ēnei rā, kua puta ngā kōrero a Marutūahu e pā ana ki te moana. Kua tae te kerēme a Hauraki mō ngā rawa o te moana ki mua i te aroaro o Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Te koura (gold) me te papa rākau

Nō te tau 1852 kitea ai te koura ki te kōawa o Kapanga ki Moehau. Hau ana te rongo mō tenei ki te motu, ki tāwāhi hoki. Nō konei, ka tīmata ngā raruraru ki waenganui i ngā Māori o Hauraki. Ko ētahi o ngā rangatira pēnei i a Te Hira Te Tuiri, te rangatira o Ngāti Tamaterā rāua ko tōna uri a Mere Kuru, i ātete i te kuhunga o ngā kaikeri koura, i ātete anō hoki i te rironga o ngā whenua.

Ngā pou e whā o Hauraki

I te whakatūnga o te Kīngitanga i ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau atu i 1850, ka oatitia e ngā iwi ō rātou maunga, hei pou mō te Kīngitanga. Ka oati e ngā iwi ō ratou maunga o Hauraki hei pou, arā, a Kohukohunui rāua ko Rātāroa kei te taha uru o Pārāwai (Thames), Moehau rāua ko Te Aroha kei te taha rāwhiti. Ko Kohukohunui (ko Wharekawa rānei) te maunga o Ngāti Whanaunga; ko Rātāroa te maunga o Ngāti Pāoa; ko Te Aroha te maunga o Ngāti Maru; ko Moehau te maunga o Ngāti Tamaterā.

I ngā tau tōmuri o te rau tau 1800 me ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900, he wāhi nui whakaharahara te rohe o Hauraki mō te keri koura. I ngā tau tōmuri hoki o te rau tau 1900, i tīmata anō ngā mahi keri koura. Ka mārama haere ngā tāngata ki ngā whakawhiunga o te mahi keri koura pēnei i te murunga whenua, te tūkinotanga o ngā wāhi tapu. Kei te mārama anō hoki ngā iwi ki ngā take whakahaere, tiaki hoki i ngā wāhi nui, pēnei i te maunga o Moehau.

Ko ngā papa rākau anō tētahi rawa i kaingākautia e te Pākehā, whai anō ka tīmata ngā mahi kani kauri ki Moehau i ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800. Kia tae ki te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao i te tau 1914, kua kore kē taua rawa ki te rohe. Ahakoa kua rāhuitia ētahi whenua o te rohe hei whenua tāpui, ruarua noa ngā kauri e toe ana.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō ngā iwi o Marutūahu (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ko 1901 te tau whakamutunga rawa i pātaihia ai te Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou. Heoi kāore i pātaihia kia whakatakotohia ngā iwi maha.

Ngāti Maru

  • tatauranga o 1901: 1,350
  • tatauranga o 1991: 384
  • tatauranga o 2001: 2,604
  • tatauranga o 2006: 3,375
  • tatauranga o 2013: 3,768

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 1,230
  • Waikato: 1,185

Ngāti Pāoa

  • tatauranga o 1991: 1,695
  • tatauranga o 2001: 2,397
  • tatauranga o 2006: 3,375
  • tatauranga o 2013: 3,456

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 1,440
  • Waikato: 966

Ngāti Tamaterā

  • tatauranga o 1991: 903
  • tatauranga o 2001: 1,866
  • tatauranga o 2006: 2,460
  • tatauranga o 2013: 2,577

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Waikato: 1,152
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 618

Ngāti Whanaunga

  • tatauranga o 1991: 177
  • tatauranga o 2001: 399
  • tatauranga o 2006: 588
  • tatauranga o 2013: 624

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 294
  • Waikato: 177

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, 'Marutūahu tribes', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-iwi-o-marutuahu/print (accessed 26 January 2020)

He kōrero nā Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017