Skip to main content
Logo: Te Ara - The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Print all pages now.

Tāmaki tribes

by  Rāwiri Taonui

He whenua a Tāmaki e kapi ana i te puia wahangū (dormant volcanoes). Kei ngā kōrero tuku iho a tētahi o ngā iwi, i hangaia ngā puia i te wā i tuku ahi a Mahuika ki te whakamahana i a Mataaho, i te mea kua heria ōna kākahu e tana wahine. Arā anō te kōrero e mea ana, nā ngā karakia a ētahi tohunga i tuku ngā hihi o te rā kia kainga te whenua e te ahi.


Tribal history and places

Ko Tāmaki-makaurau te rohe kei waenganui i ngā ara whakawhiti ki ngā rohe o Te Tai Tokerau, o Waikato, o Moehau, o te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi, ka mutu, he rohe i pakangatia mō ana rawa, ngā taonga kei te whenua, kei te moana hoki. He tokomaha ngā waka matua me ō rātou iwi i noho ki te whenua kei waenga pū i ngā whanga e rua o Waitematā rāua ko Manukau. Ko ētahi iwi kua roa e noho ana ki te rohe; ko ētahi i haere mai, i haere atu; ko ētahi i whakakotahi kia puea ake he iwi hōu.

Ko te ingoa nei a Tāmaki

Nā te tokomaha o ngā iwi kua noho ki te rohe o Tāmaki, he maha ngā kōrero tuku iho mō te ingoa nei. Tērā tētahi kōrero e kī ana, ko Tāmaki te ingoa o te whenua kūiti kei waenganui i ngā whanga o Waitematā, o Manukau. Whāia, ko tētahi kōrero e mea ana, ko te tamāhine a te tipuna a Tāmaki ka moe i a Toitehuatahi, he tipuna taketake nō tēnei motu. Arā anō tētahi kōrero e kī ana, ko Tāmaki he tama nā Maruiwi, he tipuna nō Taranaki. E ai ki ngā iwi o te tonga o Taranaki, ko Tāmaki te ingoa mō tētahi tātai rangatira ka tīmata mai i tō rātou tipuna wahine a Parehuia. Kei ētahi kōrero ka kī ko tēnei ingoa nā te tipuna nei nā Maki, nā tana tamāhine rānei. Arā anō te kōrero, ko te ingoa o Tāmaki i ahu mai i a Kiwi Tāmaki, te rangatira o Te Wai-o-Hua i te rau tau atu i 1700. Ko te kōrero a ngā iwi o Waikato, ko Tāmaki-makaurau te tamāhine a Te Rangi-kia-mata, te rangatira o Ngāti Te Ata, rāua ko tana wahine a Te Huia.

Ko ētahi momo whakahua o te ingoa o Tāmaki ko Tāmaki-nui, ko Tāmaki-makaurau, ko Tāmaki-herehere-i-ngā-waka.

Ngā maunga o Tāmaki

He maha ngā puia kei te rohe o Tāmaki e ngū ana, he maha anō hoki ngā kōrero tuku iho e pā ana ki aua puia. E ai ki tētahi korero, ko te atua a Mataaho i noho ki roto i Te Ipu a Mataaho. Nō te whakareretanga o tana wahine i a ia, i heria ōna kākahu; ka karanga a Mataaho ki te atua a Mahuika. Nō reira i pū mai ai ngā puia o Ngā Huinga-a-Mataaho.

E ai ki tētahi atu kōrero, i hangaia ngā puia i te moenga o Hinemairangi-a-Patupai-a-rehe, nō te pae maunga o Hūnua kei te taha rāwhiti o Tāmaki, ki a Tamaireia, nō te pae maunga o Waitākere ki te taha uru o Tāmaki. Nō te rangatū o te ope taua a Hūnua ki te tiki i a ia, ka aukatia rātou e ngā hihi kaha o te rā, he mea whakaara nā ngā karakia a ngā tohunga o Waitākere. Kātahi ka karawhiua e te tohunga o Hūnua ana karakia, ko te mutunga iho, i pahū te ahi ki te whenua. E whakanuia ana te mahi nei e te ingoa o Te Pakūranga-rā-hihi (te pakanga ki ngā hihi).

Te wai o Hua

Kei tēnā iwi, kei tēnā iwi ōna ingoa mō ngā whanga e rua o Tāmaki. E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a Te Arawa, i tapaina e te tipuna e Tamatekapua te whanga kei te taha raki ki Te Waitematā (he rite nō ngā wai ki te matā). I waiho e ia tētahi kōhatu turua (he momo kōhatu puia) hei mauri ki te takiwā kei konā te tāone o Birkenhead i ēnei rā. E ai ki a Ngāpuhi ko te ingoa o te whanga nei ko Te Wai-o–te-mate, nā te nui o ngā pakanga mō te mana ki taua wāhi.

E ai ki ōna uri, nā Te Arawa te whanga ki te tonga i tapaa ki a Mānuka, nā te pounga o Īhenga i tana pou rāhui ki te whenua e riro ai taua takiwā hei takiwā mōna. E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a Tainui, i tapaina te whanga ko Te Mānukanuka a Hoturoa, nā te teretere mōrearea o ngā tai me ngā tāhuna. Engari kei te motu whānui e mōhiotia ana ko Manukau, nā te mātinitini o te kūaka, o te tōrea ka tau ki ōna whanga ia raumati.


The canoes of Tāmaki

Ngā waka tōmua

Ko ngā waka matua i heke i Hawaiki ka tau ki te rohe o Tāmaki, ko Matawhaorua, ko Matahourua rānei, ko Mataatua, ko Tainui, ko Te Arawa, ko Tākitimu, ko Tokomaru.

Ko ētahi o ngā waka nei i whakawhiti i Te Tō Waka, te kūititanga kei waenganui i te awa o Tāmaki me te whanga o Manukau. Koinei te tōnga waka nui rawa atu i whakamahia e te Māori i mua o te taenga o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa – ka tōia ngā waka atu i te awa o Tāmaki ki te whanga o Manukau. Mai i reira ka rere whakatetonga mā te takutai ki Whāingaroa, ki Kāwhia, tae atu ki Taranaki; ka huri whakateraki rānei ki Te Tai Tokerau; arā atu he huarahi arā ma te tōnga waka ki Waiuku, hou rawa ki te awa o Waikato, tuwhera kau ana te Ika-a-Māui. Ko rātou ka puta atu ki Te Waitematā, ka haere whakaterāwhiti mā Moehau, ka haere whakateraki rānei ki Whāngārei. He nui tonu ngā iwi i tau ki Tāmaki noho ai.

Ngā waka tawhito ake, ngā iwi, ngā raupatu

Whakaheke mai ai ngā iwi tūturu ake o Tāmaki arā, ko Te Wai-o-Hua rāua ko Te Kawerau-a-Maki i ngā waka tawhito, i a Te Wakatūwhenua rāua ko Te Moekākara, i pae ki Leigh, ki te moutere o Kawau. He maha noa atu ngā iwi kua noho ki te rohe o Tāmaki, ārā, ko Ngāti Awa, ko Ngāti Tītahi, ko Ngāi Tāhuhu, ko Ngā Mārama, ko Ngā Uri o Rakataura, ko Ngāti Huarere, ko Ngā Riki, ko Ngā Iwi, arā noa atu. Kei reira anō ngā kōrero e pā ana ki ngā pakanga a Rautao nō Ngāti Maru rāua ko Kapetaua nō Ngāti Pāoa, a Maki o Te Kawerau-a-Maki, a Kāwharu o Tainui, a Tuperiri o Te Taoū o Ngāti Whātua hoki.


The tribes of Tāmaki

Ngāti Pāoa

Ko Pāoa te tipuna taketake o Ngāti Pāoa. I heke ia i Ngāruawāhia kei ngā tahataha o te awa o Waikato, kia tau ki te rohe o Hauraki. I reira ka moe ia i a Tukutuku, he uri nō Marutūahu. Nā ōna uri, nā Ruatao he uri nō Ngāti Marutūahu rāua ko Kapetaua nō Ngāti Pāoa te nuinga o ngā whenua o Tāmaki i raupatu i roto i te maha o ā rāua pakanga. He maha ngā pakanga a Ngāti Paoa ki ngā iwi o Ngāti Whātua rāua ko Te Wai-o-Hua o Tāmaki; ko ngā wāhi pakanga ko Mahurangi me ngā awa o Tāmaki, o Whau. Taka rawa ki te wā o te taenga o te Pākehā, ko Ngāti Pāoa te iwi ki Tāmaki, ki ngā rohe o Pārāwai, o te pae maunga o Hūnua, o te taha rāwhiti o Tāmaki, o te moutere o Waiheke, o te takutai e ahu whakateraki ana ki Whangaparāoa.

Ngāi Tai

He iwi whakaheke a Ngāi Tai i ngā tīpuna o Tainui, i a Taihaua, i a Taikehu, i a Te Kete-ana-taua. Ka noho rātou ki Tāmaki i te haerenga o te waka a Tainui ki Kāwhia. Tērā te wā i roto te iwi i tētahi pūnaha tauhokohoko mā te takutai, ka toro ki ngā wāhi atu i Tāmaki, ki Moehau, ki Aotea, ki te takiwā rawa o Ngāi Tai e noho mai rā i te taha rāwhiti o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. Taka rawa mai ki ēnei rā, kei te toitū tonu aua hononga. Kia taka ki ētahi whakatipuranga, ka ita anō ngā hononga i waenganui i a Ngāi Tai rāua ko Ngāti Tai, i te heke a Raukohekohe rātou ko Motuitawhiti, ko Te Kawenga, ko tō rātou tira atu i Tōrere ki Tāmaki. E mōhiotia ana taua heke ko Te Heke-o-Ngā –Tokotoru. I a rātou i Tāmaki ka moea tahitia e Raukohekohe rāua ko Motuitawhiti a Te Whakatau, te rangatira o ngā iwi o Te Wai-o-Hua, o Ngāi Tai.

Te Wai-o-Hua rāua ko Ngā Oho

I ahu mai te iwi o Te Wai-o-Hua i ngā waka a Te Wakatūwhenua rāua ko Te Moekākara, i te iwi tawhito o Te Arawa i a Ngā Oho-mata-kamokamo-o-Ohomairangi. Tērā te wā ko rātou te iwi nui ki ngā whenua kei waenganui o Tauranga, o Cape Rodney, takiwā ki Leigh. Nō muri iho ka wehe ngā whaitua e toru o te iwi o Ngā Oho; ko Ngā Oho ki Papakura; ko Ngā Riki atu i Papakura ki Ōtāhuhu; ko Ngā Iwi atu i Ōtāhuhu ki Te Raki Paewhenua. Whāia rawa, ka whakakotahi rātou ki raro i te rangatira i a Te Hua-o-kaiwaka, kia tū mai ko Te Wai-o-Hua.

Kia taka ki te rau tau e 1700, ko Te Wai-o-Hua te iwi matua ki te rohe o Tāmaki. Hāunga, i te tau 1741 ka patua te ariki o Te Wai-o-Hua, a Kiwi Tāmaki ki te pakanga o Paruroa, e Waha-akiaki o ngā iwi o Te Taoū rāua ko Ngāti Whātua. Koianei te wa ka riro i a Ngāti Whātua te mana o te pū o Tāmaki-makaurau.

Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei

Heke ai a Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei i te kotahitanga o ngā iwi o Ngāti Whātua, arā, i a Te Roroa rātou ko Te Uri-o-Hau, ko Te Taoū. Heke ai te kotahitanga iwi nei i a Tumutumuwhenua (ko Tuputupuwhenua rānei) i ērā hoki o te waka o Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi. I heke ō rātou tīpuna i Muriwhenua ki te whārua o Waimamaku, ka neke ki te ngahere o Waipoua, ki te whārua o Kaihū, ki te whanga o Kaipara. Ka tae ki aua rohe, ka moe rātou i ngā iwi tōmua ake o taua takiwā. I ngā tau pokapū o te rautau 1700, whai muri i ngā pakanga a Waha-akiaki rāua ko Tuperiri, ka toitū te noho a Ngāti Whātua ki Ōrākei.

Ngāti Te Ata

Ko tētahi atu o ngā ingoa o te iwi o Ngāti Te Ata ko Te Ruakaiwhare, te ingoa o te kaitiaki o te whanga o Manukau. I nōhia e rātou ngā rohe o Waiuku, o te kūrae o Te Awhitū, o ngā pae maunga o Huia me Waitākere.

I takea mai te ingoa o te iwi i te wahine whai mana i a Te Ata-i-Rēhia, he mokopuna nā Te Hua-o-kaiwaka, te tipuna taketake o Te Wai-o-Hua. I tukuna he whenua ki a ia ki Waiuku mō tana awhi i a Ngāti Kahukoka i roto i ā ratou pakanga ki ētahi atu iwi. I moe a Te Ata-i-Rēhia i a Tapuae, he rangatira nō Tainui. I patua a Tapuae i muri tata i tana raupatu i ngā whenua ki ngā taha o te awa o Waikato mai i Taupiri ki te pūaha o Waikato. Nā tāna tama nā Pāpaka tōna mate i ranaki i te rironga tūturutia o ngā whenua o Waiuku ki te iwi o Ngāti Te Ata.

Te Kawerau-a-Maki

Ko Te Kawerau-a-Maki tētahi o ngā iwi tawhito rawa o Tāmaki, i whai mana ki ngā rohe atu i te pae maunga o Waitākere, ahu whakateraki ki Cape Rodney.

Ka whakaheke a Te Kawerau-a-Maki i ngā waka o Tainui, o Te Wakatūwhenua, o Moekākara. E ai ki te kōrero, nā tō rātou tipuna tawhito rawa nā Tiriwa te puia o Rangitoto i kawe i te tātahi o Karekare ki tōna tūranga e tū ana ia ināianei kei te moana o Tīkapa. Ko te ingoa tawhito o te pae maunga o Waitākere ko Te Wao-nui-a-Tiriwa. Koinei te pū manawa o te iwi.

E whakapapa ana te iwi nei i ngā tohunga o te waka o Tainui i a Rakataura rāua ko Hape. E kīia ana he hononga ō rātou ki a Te Kawerau, tētahi iwi ka heke i te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi ki Tāmaki.

Ko Maki te tipuna o te iwi o Te Kawerau-a-Maki, i heke i ngā rohe o Tainui, o Taranaki. I riro i a rātou ko tōna iwi ngā whenua kei waenganui o Tāmaki, o Kaipara. I ahu mai te ingoa ā-iwi i te tama a Maki, i a Te Kawerau-a-Maki, nā te kōwhetewhete i waenganui i tōna matua me te iwi o Ngāti Whātua mō ngā māra kūmara (ko te kupu kawerau te kupu mō ngā here o ngā kete kawe kūmara). Nā te mokopuna tuarua o Maki, nā Te Au-o-te-whenua i whai mana ai te iwi ki ngā whanga o Muriwai, o Manukau.


European contact

Ngā pakanga mau pū

Kino rawa atu ngā pānga o ngā pakanga mau pū i ngā tau 1815 ki te 1840 ki ngā iwi o Tāmaki. Nō te whiwhinga pū o Hongi Hika i āna mahi hokohoko me te Pākehā, i patua kinotia a Ngāti Pāoa e Ngāpuhi ki tō rātou pā ki Mauinaina (Panmure). He nui te iwi i hinga. I patua anōtia a Te Kawerau-a-Maki i te horonga o ō rātou pā ki te tai hauāuru. I te tekau tau atu i 1820, i whakarerea te rohe e ngā iwi ka oma ki roto i te rohe o Tainui.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Tekau mā ono ngā rangatira i haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Waitematā i te 4 o Maehe 1840. Nō te 20 o Maehe, ka hainahia e Āpihai Te Kawau o Ngāti Whātua te Tiriti i te whanga o Manukau. Nō te 9 o Hūrae 1840 i hainahia te Tiriti e ngā rangatira tokowhitu o Ngāti Whātua ki te rohe o Tāmaki. Kia whakaae rawa a Kāwana Wiremu Hopihona ka noho ia ki Tāmaki hei kaitiaki mō te rohe, kātahi anō a Te Āpihai ka haina i te tiriti.

Ngā whenua i riro

Nā te kaha hohoro o te Pākehā ki Tāmaki i ngā tekau tau o 1840, o 1850, tāpae atu ko te nekehanga o te tāone matua mai i Kororāreka, tino nui rawa te hiahiatia o ngā whenua o te rohe. Kia tae ki te tau 1850 ko te nuinga o ngā whenua pai i hokona e te Pākehā. Hauware atu ngā kupu taurangi mō te wehe i ētahi ‘whenua rāhui’ ki te Māori. Kia tae ki te tau 1860, e 40 ōrau o ngā whenua Māori i Tāmaki kua riro kē. I tua atu, i raupatuhia ngā whenua e 40,500 heketea ki te tonga o Tāmaki ki raro i Te Ture mō te Whakanoho i te Hunga Mārie (New Zealand Settlements Act) o te tau 1863.

Taka rawa ki te tau 1936, ki te toharitea, e whā noa iho ngā heketea mō te Māori kotahi ki te rohe o Tāmaki. Ko ngā whenua o Te Kawerau-a-Maki, o Ngāi Tai, o Ngāti Pāoa ki ngā pae maunga o Waitākere, o Hūnua, i riro hei whakatūnga puna wai whāngai i te tāone o Tāmaki; i te mutunga ka hurihia ō rātou whenua hei whenua rāhui ā-rohe. Nō te tau 1951 i panaia a Ngāti Whātua i tō rātou whenua papa tipu ki te whanga o Ōkahu i Ōrākei. Ka wāhia, ka tahuna ngā whare, ngā wharenui. Taka rawa ki te rau tau 1900 i te riro tonu ngā whenua o Ngāti Te Ata me Te Wai-o-Hua ki te whanga o Manukau. I riro ngā whenua i raro i te Ture mō Ngā Mahi Nunui (Public Works Act), mō ngā mahi pēnei i te waihanga i te taunga waka rererangi o Tāmaki, ngā mahi parakaingaki o Māngere, te mira rino ki Waiuku hoki.


Tāmaki tribes today

I ēnei rā e ono ngā iwi o te rohe o Tāmaki: ko Ngāti Paoa ki te moutere o Waiheke; ko Ngāi Tai ki Maraetai; ko Ngāti Whātua ki Ōrākei; ko Te Wai-o-Hua/ Ngā Oho ki Māngere; ko Ngāti Te Ata ki Manukau; ko Te Kawerau-a-Maki ki ngā pae maunga o Waitākere.

Ngā pūrongo me ngā whakatau a Te Rōpu Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

I waenganui i ngā tau o 1985 me 1987 ka tukuna e te Rōpu Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi ana pūrongo e toru e pā ana ki ngā iwi o te rohe o Tāmaki.

E ai ki te pārongo mō Waiheke, tata ki te katoa o ngā whenua o Ngāti Pāoa i riro atu. Nō te tau 1990 ka whai mana tētahi whakataunga e whiwhi ai a Ngāti Paoa ki te teihana o Ngāti Pāoa, tāpae atu ko tētahi pūtea hei hoko kararehe mai.

Ka āta kōrero te pūrongo a Manukau mō ngā whenua i riro i te whanga o Manukau. Nā te pūrongo, ka puea ake ko te Resource Management Act 1991, e aro nui nei ia ki te titiro a te Māori ki ngā take e pā ana ki te taiao. Ko tētahi atu hua i puta ki ngā iwi o Te Wai-o-Hua me Ngāti te Ata, ko te whakamanatanga i a rātou hei rūnanga kaitiaki mō te whanga o Manukau.

Ko te pūrongo mō Ōrākei i kī, kāore i tika te rironga o ngā whenua o Ngāti Whātua, ka kī anō te pūrongo i hē te pana i a rātou i Ōkahu i te tekau tau atu i 1950. I whiwhi paremata te iwi, ka mutu, he wāhi nui tō ratou ki ngā mahi toi, tōrangapū a ngā Māori o Tāmaki. Kua tae ngā kerēme a Ngāi Tai rāua ko Te Kawerau-a-Maki ki mua i te aroaro o Te Rōpu Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Hei ngā rā kei te tū

I ēnei rā, e aro ana ngā kaunihera ā-rohe ki te mana o ngā iwi o Tāmaki, me tā rātou kite anō, he wāhi nui tō ngā iwi i roto i ngā nekeneke o Tāmaki-makaurau hei ngā rā kei te tū. Hei tauira, he tūranga nui tō Te Kawerau-a-Maki i te papa manuhiri o Arataki, te kūaha ki te pae maunga o Waitākere.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō ngā iwi Tāmaki (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ngāi Tai

  • tatauranga o 1991: 96
  • tatauranga o 2001: 177
  • tatauranga o 2006: 342
  • tatauranga o 2013: 498

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 312
  • Waikato: 78

Ngāti Pāoa

  • tatauranga o 1991: 1,695
  • tatauranga o 2001: 2,397
  • tatauranga o 2006: 3,375
  • tatauranga o 2013: 3,456

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 1,440
  • Waikato: 966

Ngāti Whātua

  • tatauranga o 1901: 356
  • tatauranga o 1991: 9,360
  • tatauranga o 2001: 12,105
  • tatauranga o 2006: 14,721
  • tatauranga o 2013: 14,784

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 7,353
  • Te Tai Tokerau: 3,120

Te Kawerau-a-Maki

  • tatauranga o 2001: 228
  • tatauranga o 2006: 123
  • tatauranga o 2013: 150

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 96

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Rāwiri Taonui, 'Tāmaki tribes', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-iwi-o-tamaki/print (accessed 19 May 2021)

He kōrero nā Rāwiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017