Kōrero: Ngā iwi o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa

Whārangi 4. Reconstruction and development

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te pupuri whenua

Whai muri i ngā pakanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka whakawehia ngā iwi o te tai rāwhiti e te kāwanatanga i tana kī, ka raupatuhia e ia ō rātou whenua. Hei whakamāhaki i te whakapae nei, ka whakaae ngā rangatira kia tukua ētahi whenua ki te Karauna. Ka whakaae anō rātou kia rangahaua ngā taitara o ngā whenua o te rohe e te Kōti Whenua Māori. I te tau 1869 ka tīmata te Kōmihana o Tūranganui (Poverty Bay Commission) ki te tuku taitara whenua ki te hunga kāore i pakanga ki te Karauna i muri i te tau 1863. Ko ētahi iwi o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa i tāmia kinohia e ngā whakatau a te kōmihana, ko ētahi iwi ka whiwhi. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1870, ka horapa te Rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua (Repudiation Movement) ki roto o Tūranga, ko tāna kaupapa, he ātete i te hoko i ngā whenua Māori.

I te tau 1880 ka whakatūria e te Māori me te Pākehā Te Kamupene Whakanoho Whenua o te Tai Rāwhiti (East Coast Settlement Company), ki te rīhi i ngā whenua hei painga mō ngā kaipupuri Māori. Ahakoa i hinga te kaupapa, ka puritia ngā whenua ki raro i te kaitiakitanga o te ture East Coast Native Land Trusts Act 1902. Nō muri, ka whāia tēnei momo whakahuihui whenua Māori e ētahi atu. I te rau tau 1900, ka kuhu ngā iwi o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa ki ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua a Āpirana Ngata, te mema paremata o te tai rāwhiti mō ngā tau 1905 ki te 1943. Ka whakatūria ētahi kaporeihana nui rawa, i raro i ngā whakahaere o ngā iwi, e tōtika ai te whakamahi i ngā whenua.

Ngā pakanga o te ao

I te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, i kitea ngā iwi o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa i te Rōpū Paionia o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Pioneer Battalion), te rōpū o ngā hōia Māori. I te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ka kuhu ngā tama a Tūranganui-a-Kiwa ki te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion). Nā Kīngi Āreta Keiha o Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki, o Ngāi Tāmanuhiri, o Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti, te ope Māori i ārahi mō tētahi wā i te tau 1943. I kaha ngā tautoko a te iwi i ngā hōia i te wā o te pakanga me tō rātou hokinga mai ki te kāinga. Nā te wāhine ēnei kaupapa i ārahi; ngā wāhine rangatira pēnei i a Hēni Materoa Carroll, i a Lena Matewai Ruru mā. I kaha anō ngā iwi o Tūranganui ki te tautoko i ngā kaupapa pēnei i te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora.

Te Rūnanga o Tūranganui a Kiwa

I te tau 1986 ka whakatūria Te Rūnanga o Tūranganui a Kiwa hei māngai whakahaere mō ngā iwi o Rongowhakaata, o Ngāi Tāmanuhiri, o Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki. Ko tāna, he whakarato āwhina mō te hapori, te mātauranga, te hauora, ngā hākinakina, te whakawhanake hoki i ngā whenua me ngā rawa. Whakahaerehia ai anō e te runanga tētahi reo irirangi ka tuku kōrero i roto i te reo Māori. Kei te mahi tahi te runanga me te Gisborne Herald, ki te whakaputa i a Pīpīwharauroa, tētahi nūpepa ā-marama.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Nick Tūpara, 'Ngā iwi o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa - Reconstruction and development', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-iwi-o-turanganui-a-kiwa/page-4 (accessed 24 January 2020)

He kōrero nā Nick Tūpara, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017