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Traditional Māori religion – ngā karakia a te Māori

by Basil Keane

Kāore e ārikarika ngā atua o te ao Māori. Ko ngā tohunga te hunga arataki i ngā whakaaro o te iwi ki ngā atua.


Ngā atua – the gods

Kei te pūtake o te whakapono Māori ko ngā atua Māori. I roto i te whakapono Māori he kotahi te ao turoa me te ao atua – ka mutu kāre kau he kupu ake ā te Māori mō te ‘religion’. Nā ngā mihinare i whakamahi te kupu whakapono mō te ‘religion’.

Te Kore

Ka timata mai ngā kōrero o te orokohanga i Te Kore, ka puta ko Te Pō, ka hua ko Te Ao Mārama. He manomano tau tēnei āhuatanga, ā, he maha ngā tātainga o Te Kore, Te Pō me Te Ao Mārama i roto i ngā whakapapa. Ka mutu he rerekē ngā kōrero a tēnā iwi, a tēnā iwi.

Ko Rangi, ko Papa me ā rāua tamariki

Ko tētahi kōrero hihira o te orokohanga ko Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku. I a rāua e piritahi ana ko ā rāua tamariki e noho ana i waenganui i te pōuri ka toko ake te whakaaro ki te whakawehe i ō rātou mātua. I tua atu i a Tāwhirimātea ka ngana ngā tamariki katoa ki te whakawehe i a rāua engari auare ake. Kātahi ka tokona e Tāne ki ana waewae ka māwehe ko Rangi ki runga ko Papa ki raro.

Nā ko Tāwhirimātea te atua o ngā hau, ko Tāne te atua o te ngahere, ko Rongo te atua o te kai hauhake, ko Haumia te atua o te aruhe me ngā kai kaore i ngakina.

Ko ētahi atu atua ko ngā atua pakanga ko Maru, ko Uenuku ko Kahukura hoki.

Ngā atua me ngā whakapapa

Ki te ao Māori, honohono ai ngā mea ora katoa mā te whakapapa. Nā Tāne a Hineahuone i poke mai i te oneone, ā, ka moea hei wahine māna. Ko ēnei ngā tīpuna o te ira tangata.

Ki ētahi ka heke kē mai te tangata i a Tiki, ka mutu he whakapapa tō te tangata ki ngā manu, ngā ika, ngā rakau me ngā āhuatanga Māori katoa o te taiao.

Ngā ioio tamaki

Ko te hunga e rapu nei i ngā taunakitanga o te atua nui kotahi o te Māori o Io Matua-Kore ka rangahau i ngā tuhituhinga o mua. Nā te mihinare a John White i tuhi korero mō ‘io’ i roto i ngā korero o Ngāti Ruanui. Kei taua tuhinga anō rā e kōrerohia ana ētahi tohu pēnei i te wiriwiri o ētahi wāhanga o te Tinana. Ko ētahi o ēnei ka kīa he ‘io’, ā, he wā ka whai pū matua te pūreta tuatahi o tēnei kupu. Heoi hei te hunga rangahau anō rā kāore tēnei e tohu ana i tētahi Atua Nui kotahi o te Māori.

Io – atua matua

E taupatupatuhia ana ngā kōrero mēnā he atua matua kotahi tonu rānei tō te Māori, ko tōna ingoa ko Io. He nui ngā ingoa o tēnei atua ko Io-matua-kore anō tētahi.

Ko rātou ka whakaae ko Io te atua nui o te Māori i mua i te taenga mai o tauiwi ka tohu ki ngā kōrero i kohia e Te Whatahoro Jury mai i ngā tohunga o Wairarapa a Te Matorohanga rāua ko Nēpia Pōhūhū. E whakapae ana rātou he kōrero tuku iho ērā mō Io.

Ko ngā kōrero mō te Kauwaerunga me te Kauwaeraro e ai ki a rātou e tohu ana i ngā kōrero mō Io. Ahakoa tokoiti anake i mau ki ngā kōrero o te Kauwaerunga, i mōhio whānuitia ngā mātauranga o te Kauwaeraro. I roto i te rautau 1900 ka rongo whānuitia a Io ki roto o Ngāti Kahungunu me Ngāpuhi.

Heoi arā anō te hunga whakapae ehara a Io i te atua Māori tūturu engari nā te mihinare kē. E ai ki te pūkenga nei a Te Rangi Hīroa, ‘The discovery of a supreme god named Io in New Zealand was a surprise to Maori and Pakeha alike' (Tūmeke tahi te ao Māori me te ao Pākehā ki te rongo ko Io te atua matua).1

Ngā tipua

Tērā anō ngā tipua. Ko te taniwha he momo tipua noho ki taiao. He maha ngā āhua me ngā āria o ēnei kaitiaki.

Ko ētahi atu momo atua iti nei he tipua, ā, he mea koha ki ngā taunga o ēnei tipua he peka rākau he rau rākau rānei hei whakaratarata.

Rākau me te kōhatu tipua

I ētahi wā ko te rākau, ko te kōhatu rānei he tipua. He mea waiho hoki ki ēnei rākau tipua, kōhatu tipua rānei he peka he rau rānei e te hunga haere hei whakawātea i te huarahi.

Footnotes
    • Peter Buck, The coming of the Maori. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Whitcombe & Tombs, 1950, wh. 526. Back

Tohunga

He aha tēnei mea te tohunga?

E kī ana a Te Rangi Hīroa ka ahu mai te kupu nei i te kupu tohu, arā hei tohutohu atu. E ai ki te kaumātua nei o Ngāpuhi a Māori Marsden arā atu anō te tikanga o te tohu nei ko te tangata i tohua.

Tērā ka whakamahia hoki te kupu tohunga nei mō te tangata tino matatau ki tētahi mahi. Arā ko te tangata mātau ki te tā moko e kīa ana he tohunga tā moko, ko te tangata mātau ki te whakairo he tohunga whakairo. Ko te tohunga mātau ki ngā karakia he tohunga ahurewa.

He tapu rawa

He tapu rawa etahi tohunga kaore ō rātou ringa e pā ki te kai. He mea whāngai rātou mā te rākau, ā, he mea whainu ki te korere. Kaore hoki ngā tohunga tapu e tapahi i ō rātou makawe.

Kauwaka

Ko ngā tohunga tonu ngā kauwaka atua, wairua hoki. Hei te kōrerotanga o te māngai kua puta kē mai he reo atua kē. Ko tētahi tauira ko te tohunga matakite o Tūhoe ko Uhia, koia te kauwaka o te wairua o Hope-motu, arā o Te Rehu-o-Tainui.

Ko te tohunga kōrero i te reo atua ka kīa he waka atua, he kauwaka rānei.

Matakite

Ko te matakite he tangata whakamārama kōrero mō anamata, mō ētahi mahi rānei e mahia i taua wā tonu ki wāhi kē. Nui atu ngā tohunga he matakite hoki.

Tērā tētahi tauā e haere ana ki te pakanga ka puta mai te atua Maru ki tō rātou tohunga ka tohutohu mai ki hea pakanga ai. Ahakoa te tokoiti noa ake te tauā nei ka hinga i a rātou te hoariri.

Tērā anō hoki tētahi tohunga i te ngahuru tau 1840, i tētahi tira hī ika ki te moutere o Rua-papaka ki te Tai Tokerau. I te paenga atu ki uta ka puta te kōrero a te tohunga kua mate mai tētahi kōtiro ko Ngā-ripene te ingoa, inā hoki hipa mai ai tōna wairua i te ihu o te waka. He pakari te kōtiro nei, ā, kaore i whakaponohia te kōrero a te tohunga rā. Heoi i te waihapenga o te tira ka pā mai te kōrero kua mate te kōtiro rā.

He aha te mahi a te tohunga?

Ko te mahi a te tohunga he whakaū i ngā tikanga, he ārahi he ārai hoki i tōna iwi i te wairua poke. He kaiwhakaora hoki rātou i ngā pokenga kikokiko, wairua hoki, ka arataki hoki i ngā mahinga ahuone, hao ika, patu manu, me ngā kawenga o te riri. Ka hiki hoki rātou i ngā tapu o ngā whare hōu me ngā waka hōu, ā, ka hiki, ka uta rānei i ngā tapu i ngā tangihanga.

Tērā anō hoki te whai wāhi a te ruahine me te puhi hoki ki ngā mahi wete i te tapu o ngā waka hōu me ngā whare hōu.


Spiritual concepts

Mana

Ko te mana whakaheke ka heke mai i ngā atua ki ngā rangatira, ngā ariki me ngā tohunga, ā, ki ngā tāngata katoa.

He tino hāngai hoki tēnei mea te mana ki te tapu.

Tapu me te noa

Ko te tapu o te tangata ka heke mai i ona mātua tīpuna, i ngā atua. He nui ake te tapu o te hunga matāmua.

Ka taea tonu ngā mea ora katoa te noho tapu. Inā ka noho tapu tētahi tangata, tētahi mea rānei, ka tūpato ake te mahi a te tangata ki a ia.

Ko te noa, kāre kau ōna tapu. Nui atu ngā kawenga hei wetewete i te tapu e noho noa ai tētahi mea, tētahi tangata rānei.

Mauri

Kei ngā mea ora katoa tēnei mea te mauri. He mauri tō ngā mea ora katoa. He wā kua whakanōhia e te tangata he mauri ki te ngahere ka mutu ka tiakina.

Ki te haumate haere te mauri o te tangata, ka mate ko ia.

Hau tipua

I te hīnga ake e Maui Te Ika-ā-Maui ka mea ia ki ōna tuākana, ‘[K]aua hoki e kotikotia tā tātou ika; engari waiho kia tae au ki te kawe atu i te hau o tēnei tanga-ika; ā, kia tae atu au ki te tohunga, kia whāngaia ki te atua, ka hurihia te hurihanga takapau, ruahine rawa, kakahi rawa, ka noa’.1

Hau

Ko te mahi a te mauri he tiaki i te hau o te tangata, o te wāhi ranei. Mēnā ka whai mauri te ngahere, ka nui kē atu ōna manu, ōna ika rānei.

Wairua

Ka taea e te wairua te wehe atu i te tinana o te tangata haereere ai. Ka mate mai te tangata, ko tōna wairua ora tonu. E ai ki ngā korero i ngā wā o mua, ka mate te tangata, ka rere tōna wairua ki Rarohēnga. Hei ngā kōrero o te Tai Tokerau, ka takahi taua wairua i te ara wairua ki te rerenga wairua. I reira ka heke ki raro ki te wai.

Footnotes
    • George Grey, Ko nga mahinga a nga tupuna Maori. Rānana: George Willis, 1854, wh. 22. Back

Karakia

He aha tēnei mea te karakia?

Mā te karakia kōrero ai te tangata ki ngā atua. Ki tā Te Rangi Hīroa, ko te karakia ‘a formula of words which was chanted to obtain benefit or avert trouble' (he kupu kōrerotanga i karakiatia hei whiwhi painga, hei turuki whakataha rānei i te raruraru).1 Ehara te karakia i te īnoi, i te whakamoemiti rānei. Ko tētahi momo karakia ko te tūā.

Ko wai te hunga i karakia?

Ko te tohunga te tangata tika hei karakia, ko rātou hoki ngā kauwaka atua. Mā ngā kupu tonu mā te mana hoki o te kaikarakia ka kaha ai te karakia.

Ahatia ko ngā tāngata katoa i karakia – tamariki mai pakeke mai. Ko tētahi karakia poto hei ārai raru ko ‘Turuki, whakataha!’

Ngā momo karakia

He maha ngā tūmomo karakia. Arā atu hoki ko ngā karakia tamariki. He karakia ngāwari tēnei mā te tamariki hei whakataha i te ua:

E rere te kotare
Ki runga i te puwharawhara
Ruru ai ia o parirau
Kei maku o kuao i te ua
Mao, mao te ua.2

Ko te kī tao he momo karakia hei whakamana i te rākau pakanga. Ko te tā kōpito he karakia mō te hunga e pāngia ana e te mate. Ko te tūā moe he karakia mā ngā kaihopu manu hei whakamoe i te tūī. Ko te tūā pana he karakia āwhina i te whakawhānau tamariki. Ko te hoa tapuae he rārangi karakia hei whakahohoro i te haere a te toa.

Anei ētahi whakaotinga karakia:

Tūturu ka whakamaua kia tīna, tīna, haumi ē, hui ē, tāiki ē!

me tēnei:

Whano, whano, hara mai te toki, haumi ē, hui ē, tāiki e!

Ngā tūmomo karakia

Ko ētahi momo karakia ko te:

  • ātahu: mō ngā mahi whaiāipo
  • hoa: hei wāwāhi kōhatu, hei whakamaroke i te rau rākau, hei patu manu rānei
  • hoa tapuae: hei whakahohoro i ngā waewae, hei tāmoe hoki i te hoariri
  • hono: hei tūhono i ngā kōiwi whati
  • kaha: e whai hua ai te patu manu
  • kawa: hei hiki i te tapu o ngā whare hōu
  • kī tao: hei whakakaha i te tao – e kīa ana hoki he reo tao
  • kī rākau: hei whakakaha i te rākau patu
  • ngau paepae: hei kaupare i ngā mākutu ki te ope tauā (whakaariki)
  • pou: hei whakatau i te ihomatua i ngā wā akoako
  • rāoa: hei whakatuha mai i tētahi mea rāoa
  • rotu: hei whakamoe i te moana, i te tangata rānei
  • tā kōpito: hei whakaora i ngā mate puku
  • tohi: hei whakanoho i te tapu me te mana ki roto ki te tamaiti
  • tohi tauā: hei tāuwhiuwhi i te tauā
  • tūā: he tohi i te tamaiti whai muri i te motunga o tōna iho
  • tūā pā: hei kaupare i te aituā
  • whai: hei whakaora taotū, weranga, rāoatanga
  • whakanoa: hei whakanoa mā te wete i te tapu.
Footnotes
    • Peter Buck, The coming of the Maori. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Whitcombe & Tombs, 1950, wh. 489. Back
    • The coming of the Maori, wh. 491. Back

Rituals and ceremonies

Nā te mea kei ngā mea katoa te mana, te tapu me te mauri, mā te karakia me te whakahaerenga tikanga tau ai te taha wairua. Ko te nuinga o ēnei whakahaerenga tikanga mā te tohunga rānō.

E ai ki Te Rangi Hīroa ko te whakahaerenga tikanga ‘the form of conducting the whole rite relating to one subject and it may include various ceremonial acts in addition to the chanting of appropriate karakia' (ko te whakahaerenga katoa mō tētahi kaupapa kotahi tae atu ki ngā tikanga me ngā karakia hāngai katoa).1

Tūā

Ka tapaina te tamaiti whai muri i te motunga o te tāngaengae. Ka tākina te karakia tūā ki te wāhi tonu i whānau mai ai te tamaiti. Ko tōna tikanga he hiki i te tapu i te whaea me te tamaiti, e hauora ai hoki te tamaiti.

Tohi

Whai muri te tohi i te tūā. He mea kawe tēnei karakia ki te wai tapu. Hei tohi tēnei i te tamaiti ki ōna atua. Ka mutu ko ngā tamatāne ka tohia ki a Tumatauenga, ko ngā tamawahine ki a Hineteiwaiwa.

Pure

Whai muri i te tohi ko te pure. Mā konei whakaū rawa te mana ki roto i te tamaiti. Ko ngā pakeke i whai wāhi ki te tohi me te pure ka whakanoahia ki te taha tonu o te paepae turuma, ki tētahi kōawa rānei.

Rāhui

Ka ūhia hoki he tapu ki ngā wāhi, ki ngā mea rānei hei rāhui i te haere atu a te tangata. Ka rāhuitia pea he wāhi mate ai te tangata. Hei tauira, ki te toremi te tangata, ka rāhuitia taua wai e te rangatira, e te tohunga rānei e kore ai te hunga kūare e poka noa.

Tā i te kawa

Ko te tā i te kawa he tikanga whakatūwhera i te whare hou, hei whakarewa rānei i te waka hou. Ka heria hoki tēnei i ngā whakawhānautanga, i te pakanga rānei.

Ngā hua tuatahi

Rokohanga atu he atua mō ngā mahinga kai katoa ahakoa māra, kohi kai rānei. Ko ngā huamata ka tukua hei amonga ki ngā atua.

  • I te wā e hī ika ana, ko te ika tuatahi ka whakahokia ki te moana ki tōna atua ki a Tangaroa. Tērā te kōrero mō te tama a Ruatepupuke a Manuruhi, ka hao ika, ā, kāore i tuku karakia ki a Tangaroa, kāore hoki i whakahoki i te mātāika. Nā te riri, ka kahaki a Tangaroa i a Manuruhi ki raro i te moana, ā, hurihia ia hei tekoteko mō runga i tōna wharenui.
  • Ko ngā kūmara tuatahi ka tukuna ki te atua o te hauhake ki a Rongo. Ko ēnei kūmara he mea whakatipu ki māra kē ki te māra tautāne.
  • Ko te manu tuatahi i mau ka tukuna ki a Tāne, atua o te ngahere.
  • Ko te mātāika o te pakanga, arā ko te ika i te ati ka tukuna ki a Tumatauenga.

Te hiki tapu

He maha hoki ngā karakia hei hiki i te tapu e noho noa ai te tangata.

Ngau paepae

Tērā ngā kairangahau tikanga tangata tokorua nei a Allan rāua ko Louise Henson i rangahau tuhinga tawhito mō te tikanga o te ngau paepae. Ko tā rāua whakataunga, kāore ngā atua i mataku ki te turuma pērā i te tangata – inā te tauira ko te kakenga o Rupe ki te kāinga o te atua o Rēhua, e marara ana te para tūtae – nā reira ko te ngau paepae he hari mai i te tapu o reira, he whakahoki atu rānei.

Ko te whakahoro he tikanga hei hiki i te tapu o te tangata mā te wai. Ko tētahi atu tikanga ko te hurihanga takapau. I whakamahia tēnei karakia e Māui hei hiki i te tapu o Te Ika-a-Māui.

Whāngai hau

Ko tētahi wāhanga o te whāngai hau he amo kai ki te atua, arā, he whāngai i te hau ki tētahi atua.

Ngau paepae

He tikanga tēnei hei whakakaha i te tapu o te toa mō te pakanga me te hiki i ētahi o ngā tapu.

Footnotes
    • Peter Buck, The coming of the Maori. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Whitcombe & Tombs, 1950, wh. 500. Back

Tūāhu and wāhi tapu

Ngā wāhi tapu me ngā mea tapu

Ko ētahi wāhi, ko ētahi mea rānei he tapu, pērā i te tūāhu, ngā mauri atua, ngā wai tapu tae atu ki ngā wāhi tapu i tapu ai rānei nā tētahi kaupapa i reira.

Tūāhu

Ko te tūāhu ka whakaarahia ki waho ake i te pā kāinga. He mea hanga ki te kōhatu. Ko te tūāhu he pou rāhuitia tōna ka kīa he pouahu. Ki roto i tēnei rāhui he waka huia nōhanga atua. Ko ngā kawiu hoki he waka huia kei roto. I ētahi wā ka whakatūria hoki he whata.

Ngā turuma

Ko ngā wharepaku o te pā kāinga ka kīa he turuma he paepae rānei. Ka mahia ēnei e ngā tohunga i roto i ētahi whakahaerenga tikanga, pērā i te ngau paepae.

Wai tapu

He nui ngā whakahaerenga tikanga i kawea ki te wai. Ko ngā wai tapu ēnei. Hei wai tohi, hei wai hiki i te tapu o te tangata o te tauā rānei kua hoki mai i te pakanga.

Wāhi tapu

He tapu ētahi wāhi. Ko ētahi wāhi tapu he urupā, he wāhi mate ai te tangata, he rākau tanu whenua, he taumata maunga rānei. He mea rāhui hoki ki ēnei wāhi. Me tūpato te tangata ki ēnei wāhi kei tānoahia te tapu pēnei i te mau kai ki reira.

Taumata atua me ngā rākau atua

Ko ētahi taonga he ō atua, ā, he mea whakamahi ēnei taonga mō te whai hua. Ko ngā taumata atua he kōhatu whakairo ka waihotia ki ngā mahinga kai hei mauri tiaki i te oranga o taua wāhi. Ko ngā whakapakoko atua, ngā atua kiato rānei he koi tētahi pito hei titi ki te whenua. Hei wāhi nōhanga atua, hei tiaki hoki i te whai hua o te māra kai, o te mahinga ika rānei.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Basil Keane, 'Ngā karakia a te Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-karakia-a-te-maori/print (accessed 13 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011