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Ngā māngai – Māori representation

by Rawiri Taonui

I te tau 1867 ka hangaia ngā tūru Māori i te āhua ki te whakakore whai muri i ngā tau e rima. 150 tau i muri, i te tau 2011, e whitu ngā tūru Māori, ā, kei te rahi ake ngā Māori e pōti ana i te rārangi Māori, ahakoa kei reira tonu te rārangi whānui ki te hiahiatia. 


Representation in Parliament

Te Whakatūnga o te Pāremata

Ka takea mai te Pāremata tuatahi o Niu Tīreni i te Ture Nui o Niu Tīreni 1852. Ko te hunga i whakaaetia kia pōti ko ngā tāne pupuri whenua; he nui ake te uara o ngā whenua i te 50 pāuna; te 10 pauna rīhi; te 10 pauna rēti noho taone; me te 5 pāuna rēti taiwhenua ranei. Nā te mea nō ngā hapū me te iwi ngā whenua, kāore te Māori i whai wāhi nui. I āhei te pōti o te tāne Māori engari kāore i pānuitia, ka whakakorea rānei ētahi pōti. Kotahi rau anake ngā Māori i pōti i te tau pōti whānui o te tau 1853. E ai ki te wāhanga 71 o te Ture Nui o Niu Tīreni ka whakaaetia ētahi rohe Māori ka whakahaeretia i raro i te mana Māori. Otirā kāore te Karauna i whakamana i tēnei wāhanga o taua ture.

I te tau 1852 he tokomaha ake te Māori i te Pākehā, nā reira ka takawaretia te Māori i te tukanga tōrangapū. Ko tētahi whakapae kāore anō te Māori kia whakatangata ki roto ki te ao Pākehā, ā, kāore e āhei te pōti. E ai ki te mema Pāremata, ki a James Richmond, ‘he āhuatanga mōrearea ki te Kāwanatanga mēnā ka tukuna te mana pōti ki tētahi iwi nui kāore anō kia whai mātauranga tōrangapū, kāore anō kia whai reo tuhi, kāore anō hoki kia aro ki te ture'.1

Te whakature i te whai kanohi Māori

I runga i te kaiā koura i te tekau tau 1860 ka muia Te Waipounamu e te Pākehā, ā, ka hangaia ētahi tūru Pāremata hou. I te hiahia o ngā Pākehā o Te Ika ā-Māui kia mau tonu te awe tōrangapū, ā, ka tāpaetia mai te whakaaro kia hangaia ētahi tūru Māori e whā; e toru ki te Ika-a-Māui, kotahi ki Te Waipounamu. Ka mutu mā te Māori e pōti, engari mā te Pākehā te tūnga mema. Ka whakaae ngā kaitōrangapū o Te Waipounamu engari kia tangata Māori ngā mema hōu. Ka whakaae ngā mema o te Ika ā-Māui i runga i te āhua mā ngā Pākehā e tūtohu ngā mema Māori. Ka whakaae ngā mema o Te Waipounamu engari me mātua tuku ngā whenua rāhui o te Māori ki Otepoti ki te kāwanatanga porowini o Ōtākou, tae atu ki ngā kohinga rēti o tau kē.

I te tau 1867 ka whakaputaina te ture Maori Representation Act 1867 e te mema reo Māori o Ahuriri, e Donald McLean (Te Mākarīni). Ko tōna ngako he whakawaimeha i te Māori ki roto ki te ao tōrangapū Pākehā e tau ai te āio ki ngā iwi e rua. Ka whakapae ētahi ko tā McLean me te ture he ngana kia whakatāmate i te tino rangatiratanga me te kaupare i te pakanga ki Waikato, Taranaki me Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. I runga i tēnei ture ka tukua te mana pōti ki te hunga tāne Māori katoa, neke atu i te 21 te pakeke, tae atu ki ngā hāwhekaihe (kotahi mātua Māori, kotahi mātua Pākehā). Engari kāore i uru ko ērā i mauheretia mō te mahi kaikaiwaiū, mō tētahi tūkinotanga nui atu rānei. I ōrite tēnei aukati kaipōti ki te Ture Nui o Niu Tīreni 1852. Ko te pūtake o taua ture he aukati i ērā i tohe ki te Karauna; me te whakateitei i ērā i pono ki te Karauna i ngā pakanga. Ka taha atu ngā tau, ka ngaro atu tēnei o ngā rārangi.

Kaiwāhi

I te tūnga tuatahi o ngā māngai Māori e whā i te Whare Miere nā Tāreha Te Moananui i wāhi ngā kōrero. Ko tāna he āki i te kāwanatanga kia whakatau i te ture whakaaro nui e mahi tahi ai te Māori me te Pākehā. I kōrero Māori ia, ā, nā tētahi i whakapākehā ana kōrero. Nā te kore e āro ki te reo Māori, me te takitahi o te Māori ki te Pāremata, kāore i tino arohia a Te Moananui mā.

Ngā māngai Māori tuatahi

I te tau 1868 ka tau ngā mema Māori tuatahi ki te Pāremata. Ko Frederick Nene Russell rātou ko Mete Kīngi Te Rangi Paetahi, ko Tāreha Te Moananui, ko John Patterson aua mema tuatahi.

Pōti takirua

I raro i te ture Maori Representation Act ka whiwhi te tāne Māori i te mana pōti – 12 ngā tau i mua i te āhei o te tāne Pākehā. Ka tukuna hoki ngā kaipupuri taitara takitahi Māori kia pōti ki ngā pōtitanga matua. I te tau 1893 ka whakakorea tēnei pōtitanga takirua.

Ngā tūru toka

I tōna tikanga e rima tau anake ngā tūru Māori noho ai ki te Pāremata. Ko te whakapae a ngā mema Pākehā ā tōna wā ka takitahi te pupuri o te Māori i ōna whenua, ā, mā reira ka āhei kia whakakorea. Engari ka tōroatia ki te tau 1872, ā, i te tau 1876 ka kōhatutia ngā tūru Māori ki te Pāremata.

I te ture Electoral Act 1893 ka āhei te pōti o ngā tāne me ngā wāhine Māori mai hoki.

Footnotes
    • Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1860, E-7, wh. 5–6. Back

Effect of Māori seats

Ngā rerekētanga mō te whai kanohi

I tūmanakotia ngā tūru Māori hei whakamārire i te hononga tōrangapū o te Māori me te Pākehā. Heoi ka warea te Māori i roto i te pūnaha tōrangapū. I te tau 1867 e 72 ngā tūru Pākehā mō te taupori e 250,000 te rahi. Ka mutu kotahi te tūru mō ia 3,500 tāngata. E whā ngā tūru Māori mō te taupori e 50,000 te rahi; arā kotahi te tūru mō te 12,500 tāngata. E ōrite ai ki tā ngā Pākehā, ko te tikanga 14 ki te 16 ngā tūru Māori. I te kakenga o te taupori ka rahi ake ngā rohe pōti whānui (e 72 i te tau 1867; e 95 i te tau 1993), engari anō ngā tūru Māori; e whā noa iho ngā tūru Māori mō te 129 tau.

Te takaware ā-ture

Ka takawaretia ngā tūru Māori e te ture. I te tau 1870 ka āhei te pōti huna ki ngā tūru Pākehā, engari anō ki ngā tūru Māori. Tae noa ki te tau 1938, he mea kaute ngā ringa, ā, nāwai me tauākī ki tētahi āpiha auraki. Nō te tau 1948 rā anō whakamahia ai te poti huna ki ngā tūru Māori. I muri, i te tau 1924 ka whakaturea te rēhita pōti mō ngā rohe pōti whānui engari nō te tau 1956 rā anō whakaturea ai i ngā rohe pōti Māori. Taka rawa ki te tau 1951 i whakawehea ngā pōtitanga Māori i ngā pōtitanga whānui. He rerekē ngā rā me ngā ture hoki. He kongakonga hoki ngā pūtea i homai mō ngā pōtitanga Māori. Nā whai anō ka kōkiri ngā māngai Māori ki te whakarahi ake i ngā tūru Māori i te huhua mārika o te tangata i ngā rohe Māori.

Ngā whakawehe ā-momo iwi

I ngā whakarerekētanga ture atu i te tau 1893 ki te tau 1896 ka tata wehea ngā pōtitanga Māori i ērā o Tauiwi. Tae noa ki te tau 1975 ko ngā hāwhekaihe anake ka āhei kia pōti ki te rārangi Māori, ki te rārangi whānui rānei.

Mai i te tau 1896 kāore i whakaaetia te Māori (atu i te hāwhekaihe) kia tū hei kanohi ki ngā tūru whānui. I panonitia tēnei ture i te tau 1967, engari nō te tau 1975 rawa ka angitū te Māori ki ngā tūru whānui.

Ngā mema Māori hou

I ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900 ka muia te Whare Miere e ngā ahurewa Māori pērā i a Timi Kara rātou ko Hirini Taiwhanga, ko Hōne Heke, ko Āpirana Ngata, ko Te Rangi Hīroa me Māui Pōmare. I whai mana tonu rātou i waenganui i ō rātou hoa mema Pākehā, ā, he ihumanea hoki ki ngā tikanga ōkawa o te Pāremata. I te tau 1887 ka riro i a Kara te tūru Māori o te Tai Rāwhiti. I te tau 1893 koia te Māori tuatahi kia wini i tētahi tūru whānui, arā te rohe o Waiapu. Nō te tau 1975 kātahi anō ka angitu te Māori ki ngā tūru whānui, arā ko ngā māngai o Nāhinara ko Rex Austin (Awarua) me Ben Couch (Wairarapa). Ko te wahine Māori tuatahi kia wini i tētahi tūru whānui ko Sandra Lee, i tōna kakenga ki te tūru o Auckland Central i te tau 1993.

Kōwhiringa pōti Māori

I te tau 1975 ka whakaputa a Reipa i te kōwhiringa Māori whai muri i ia tatauranga rima tau, arā, i tukuna mā te Māori anō e tīpako kia rēhita ki te rārangi whānui, ki te rārangi Māori rānei. Mēnā i nui ake te rārangi Māori ka whakarahia ngā tūru Māori, ki te heke ka iti iho ngā tūru Māori. Engari nō te urunga o Nāhinara ki te kāwanatanga i te tau 1976, ka whakatokaina ngā tūru Māori ki te whā. Nō konei kua kore anō e arohia ngā tūru Māori, ā, ka mene katoa ki te rārangi whānui. I kitea tēnei āhuatanga tae noa ki te tau 1991.

Te pānga o te MMP

Nā te Kōmihana Karauna mō te Pūnaha Kōwhiri (1986) i whakaae he whakahirahira ngā tūru Māori ki te iwi Māori. Ka kitea kāore te Māori i whai hua i ngā tūru Māori, ā, ka whai kanohi ake te Māori mā te pūnaha pōti tikanga pōti ōwehe. Ka tūtohu anō te kōmihana kia whakakorea ngā tūru Māori mena ka whakamahia te pūnaha ōwehe. Ko te whakahoki a te iwi Māori ehara ko ngā tūru te hē, engari ko te whakaritenga mai o ngā tūru kē te raru. I te tau 1993 ka whakaturea te Electoral Act 1993 i waihangatia ai ngā tūru 120 MMP, tae atu ki ngā tūru Māori.

Te arohaetanga o te whiringa pōti hou

I te whiringa pōti Māori hou o te tau 1993 ka hāngai anō te rahi o ngā tūru Māori ki te rahi o te iwi Māori e rēhita ana ki te rārangi Māori. I te tau 1995 ka tāpirihia te tūru Māori tuarima i raro i te tikanga MMP. I ngā whiringa pōti Māori i te tau 1997, 2001 me 2006, kō atu i te rearua te rahi ake o ngā kaipōti Māori i hūnuku ki te rārangi Māori (e 43,000 ka haere ki te rārangi Māori, 18,000 ka haere ki te rārangi whānui). I te tau 1991 ka piki ki te ono ngā tūru Māori, ā, ka whitu i te tau 2002. Mai i te tau 1991 (te tau whakamutunga mō te kōwhiringa i mua i te MMP) ki te tau 2006 ka huhua ake ngā Māori ki te rārangi Māori, arā, mai i te 40 ōrau ki te 58 ōrau o ngā kaipōti Māori katoa. Nō te tau 2006 e 80 ōrau o ngā kaipōti Māori hōu ka tīpako i te rārangi Māori. I taua tau hoki ka riro i te rārangi Māori ngā pōti mai i ngā tūru whānui katoa.

Te kakenga o te maha o ngā māngai Māori

I te tau 1996 ka rearua ngā kanohi Māori ki rō Pāremata mai i te 6 ōrau ki te 12 ōrau, arā, 14 ngā māngai Māori. I te tau 2011, 22 ngā māngai Māori (18 ōrau o te whare); i te tau 2014, 27 (22 ōrau) ngā māngai Māori.


Controversy over Māori seats

Ngā tohe o mua mō te whakakore

Mai anō i te rautau 1800 kua wānangatia e ngā mema, ngā rōpū me ngā kaikōrero tōrangapū te take whakakore i ngā tūru Māori. I te tau 1902 ka whakapuaki ngā mema Pākehā o te āpitihana ki te whakakore i ngā tūru. Mai i te tau 1891 i te rōpū Liberal (Rīpera) me ngā māngai Māori hoki te mana whakahaere. Puta noa i te tekau tau mai i 1950 ka karanga anō a Nāhinara kia tineia ngā tūru whai muri i te rironga o te kāwanatanga ki a Reipa me Rātana mō te 14 tau; ara mai i te tau 1935 ki te tau 1949.

Hē, tika rānei?

I te whakaurunga o te ture Electoral Act hou i te tau 1902 ka whakapae te māngai o Napier a Frederick Pirani nā te kore o te pōti huna mō te Māori, wātea kau ana ngā pōtitanga ki ngā mahi hoko pōti, me ētahi atu mahi mūrere. E ai ki a Pirani nā runga i ngā tūru Māori kāore ngā mema Pākehā i tino aro atu ki te Māori. Heoi ka urupare atu a Wī Pere; mā ngā tūru Māori anake e mōhiotia ai he iwi motuhake te Māori. Ki a ia, kua oti katoa ērā atu o ō rātou tika te tāhae e te Pākehā.1

Ngā tautohe mō te whakakore i te tau ruamano

Ka haere tonu ngā taupatupatu ki roto ki te tau rua mano, ā, ka tokomaha ake ngā māngai Māori (i ngā tūru puta noa) i raro i te ture MMP. Ko tā ngā kaiwhakahē ka nui rawa ngā Māori ki te Whare Miere. Nō te tau 2008 e 22 ngā māngai Māori i roto i te kāhui mema Pāremata 122 te tokomaha. Ka mutu e 18 ōrau o ngā mema katoa o te Pāremata he Māori, ahakoa 14 ōrau noa iho te taupori Māori o Aotearoa.

Ko New Zealand First (Aotearoa Tuatahi) me te Pāti Māori tērā i tūhono ki ngā kāwanatanga Nāhinara. Kātahi ka kiriweti anō ētahi ki te pūnaha tūru Māori. Ko te heitara a ētahi kaiwhakahē he kaikiri te āhua o ngā tūru Māori, ka mutu he whakawehewehe noa iho te mahi.

Ngā kaupapa tōrangapū mō te whakakore

I te tau 2008 ka mea a Nāhinara ki te whakakore i ngā tūru Māori i te otinga o ngā whakataunga Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko te manako o te rōpū ka tutuki tēnei i te tau 2014. Heoi i te tau 2011, ka eke tētahi whakaaetanga i waenganui i a Nāhinara me te Rōpū Māori, ā, ka kūpeke a Nāhinara i te kaupapa o te whakakore i ngā tūru.

I te tau 2014, ka tautoko a ACT, i roto i ngā kaupapa kōwhiri o tērā rōpū, ki te whakakore i ngā tūru Māori.

Ngā totohe kia mau tonu ngā tūru

Ka whakapae te hunga tautoko i ngā tūru Māori kua nui kē atu te whai wāhi o te Māori ki te Pāremata i ngā tūru Māori. He nui ake ngā kaitōrangapū tangata whenua o Aotearoa i ērā atu o ngā whenua maru o Peretānia. Taka mai ki te tau 2005 e 85 ngā mema Māori kua uru ki rō Pāremata, engari kāore te katoa i paku aro ki ngā painga mō te Māori. Mai i te tīmatatanga o te tikanga pōti whirirua (MMP) i te tau 1996 kua piki ake te ōrau o ngā Mema e kī ana he Māori rātou, engari ehara i te mea he māngai katoa rātou mō ngā āhuatanga Māori.

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki Neill Atkinson, Adventures in democracy: a history of the vote in New Zealand. Ōtepoti: University of Otago Press me te Electoral Commission, 2003, wh. 108. Back

Political alliances

Ngā tōrangapū o mua

He mema takitahi ngā Māori tuatahi o te Pāremata ā, tae rawa ki te tekau tau 1890, i te hononga o ngā Māori ki te Rōpū Rīpera. Koinei te rōpū whakaaweawe o te Pāremata. Ko ngā mema Māori o te Rōpū Rīpera ko Timi Kara rātou ko Āpirana Ngata me Te Rangi Hīroa. Ko Māui Pōmare hoki he mema Pāremata mō te rōpū Reform. Ka mahitahi hoki ngā mema Māori o ngā rōpū mā te Rōpū Rangatahi Māori (Young Māori Party). Ko Ngata, ko Te Rangi Hīroa, ko Pōmare me Kara ōna mema.

Ngā taonga a Rātana

I te tau 1935 ka takoto i a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana ētahi taonga ki mua i te aroaro o te Pirimia Reipa i a Michael Savage: arā, ngā rau huia e toru mō te rironga o te ahurea Māori; te rīwai me te kumara, mō ngā whenua i murua i te Māori; ko te pounamu, mō te mana Māori. E waiho ana ia tēnei mā Savage e tiaki; ko te wati pakaru nā te tipuna o Rātana i whawhai mō te kāwanatanga i ngā tau o te pakanga. I tōna rawakore kāore ia i āhei te whakahou i te wati; ko te pine Rātana, mō ngā mema 40,000 o te hāhi Rātana ka mene katoa ki a Reipa.

Rātana

I te tau 1935 ka tohua a Eruera Tirikātene hei māngai Pāremata tuatahi mō te hāhi Rātana. He mea tautoko ia i a Reipa. I te tau 1935 kātahi ka pūmau te hono ki a Reipa. I te tau 1943 ka kapo ake ēnei rōpū i ngā tūru Māori e whā – ā, ka mau tonu iho ērā tūru tae noa ki te tau 1993.

Mana Motuhake

I te tekau tau 1970 ka toko ake ngā pātai ki te uara o te hono ki a Reipa. I te tau 1980 ka wehe a Matiu Rata hai minita Take Māori mō Reipa i te hiahia ki te whakawhenumi i te tari Māori me te tari mō ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ko te whakatūnga tērā o Matiu Rata i te Rōpū Mana Motuhake. E whā ngā kōwhiringa mai i te tau 1981 ki te tau 1990 i tū ai ngā kaitono o te Rōpū Mana Motuhake, engari auare ake. I te tau 1991 ka haumi a Mana Motuhake ki ngā rōpū e toru i hua mai te rōpū Alliance (Tūhono). I te tau 1993 ka arahina e Tuaiwa Rickard te rōpū tōrangapū o Mana Māori. He kotahitanga tēnei i waenganui i a Te Tāwharau me Piri Wiri Tua.

Tata tonu

I te pōtitanga matua i te tau 1928 ka hinga a Eruera Tirikātene ki te tūru o Te Tai Tonga, ā, he iti noa iho te wehenga. I tērā wā ka whakaaetia te pōti pōhi mō ngā tūru whānui engari anō mō ngā tūru Māori. Nō konei kāore ngā kārangaranga maha o Tirikātene i pōti nō te mea i te hauhake wīti kē rātou ki Rātana Pā. Ko te tatau mutunga he taurite te tataunga, arā, 198 ngā pōti ki a Tirikātene, 198 ki a Tūiti Makitānara. Heoi ka tuku te āpiha auraki (he Pākehā) i tana pōti mō Makitānara. Heoi anō, i te pōtitanga ohorere i te tau 1932, ka wini a Tirikātene, ā, ka noho koia te māngai Pāremata tuatahi o Rātana.

I te tau 1993 ka kōwhiria te kaitono o Mana Motuhake a Sandra Lee ki raro i te maru o te Alliance. I te tau 1996 ka uru atu ko Alamein Koopu engari ka wehe ia i te rōpū, ā, ka whakatūria e ia tōna ake rōpū ko Mana Wahine Ira Tangata. I te tau 1999 ka uru atu te kaitono o Mana Motuhake a Willie Jackson ki te Pāremata. I te tau 2002 ka tōtara wāhirua te Alliance, ā, i te pōtitanga o taua tau ka riro katoa ōna tūru. Whai muri tata ka wehe a Mana Motuhake i te Alliance.

New Zealand First (Aotearoa Tuatahi)

I te tau 1993 ka riro i a Tau Hēnare o New Zealand First te tūru Māori o Te Tai Tokerau. I te hōhā o te marea ki a Reipa ka riro katoa ngā tūru Māori i a New Zealand First i te tau 1993. I te tau 1999 ka hoki anō ngā tūru ki a Reipa.

Te Pāti Māori

I te tau 2004 ka wehe a Tariana Turia i te kāwanatanga Reipa hei porotēhi ki te āhua o te ture takutai moana. I te tau 2005 ka wetekina te rēhita a Mana Motuhake me Mana Māori i te haere o te pōti Māori ki te Pāti Māori. I te tau 2005 e whā ngā tūru Māori ka riro i te pāti, ā, e rima ka riro i te tau 2008. Nā te pakari o ngā paiaka tautoko mō ngā mema Māori o Reipa a Nanaia Mahuta rāua ko Parekura Horomia ki ō rāua tūru, kāore i riro te katoa o ngā tūru ki te Pāti Māori. Whai muri i te whakataetae pōti o te tau 2008 ka piri anō te Pāti Māori ki a Nāhinara. Ko te koha ki te Pāti Māori ko ngā whakaaetanga ki ētahi ture ārahi me ngā tūranga minita e rua (ki waho i te urupū minita). He ōrite anō ngā whakaritenga i muri mai i ngā pōti o 2011 me 2014, otirā, i te tau 2014 kotahi o ngā mema e rua he Minita kei waho i te Rūnanga Kāwanatanga.

Te Rōpū Mana

I te tau 2011 ka wehe a Hone Harawira (māngai o Te Tai Tokerau) i te Rōpū Māori i tōna whakahē ki ngā whakahounga ture takutai moana. I tōna putanga i te Pāremata ka whakatū ia i te Rōpū o Mana. I te pōti ohorere i te Pipiri o te tau 2011 ka kapo anō ia i te tūru o Te Tai Tokerau. I tētahi pōti iti i te marama o Hune 2011 i toa anō i a ia te tūru o Te Tai Tokerau, heoi anō, ka riro atu i a Kelvin Davis o te Rōpū Reipa i te pōti o 2014. I whakapiri atu te rōpū o Mana ki te rōpū o te Internet Party mō taua pōti. Nā te rironga atu o te tūru o Harawira i te rōpū kē, kua kore a Mana e noho i te Whare Pāremata.


Local body representation

Kore whai wāhi i mua

Nō te rahi haere o ngā māngai Māori ki te Pāremata ki raro i te ture MMP ka pātaihia he aha i iti noa iho ai ngā Māori ka tohua ki ngā kaunihera. Hei tauira, i mua i te kōwhiringa o Ray Ahipene-Mercer ki te kaunihera o Te Whanganui-a-Tara, kotahi noa iho te kaikaunihera Māori o te rohe o Te Whanganui-a-Tara (i te tekau tau 1960). Ko Ahipene-Mercer tētahi o te 20 kaitōrangapū Māori o ngā kaunihera puta noa i Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ahakoa 1,000 kē ngā kaitōrangapū o tērā rohe. I te tau 2007, e 5 ōrau noa iho o ngā kaitono angitū he Māori, ahakoa 14 ōrau te taupori he Māori.

Ralph Love

I te kōwhiringa mō te kaunihera o Te Whanganui-a-Tara i te tau 1962 ka eke ko Mākere Rangiātea Ralph Love ki te Kaunihera o Te Whanganui-a-Tara. I taua tau anō ka piki tana irāmutu a Peter Love ki te Kaunihera o Pito-one. Ko Ralph Love te hēkeretari matua mō ngā māngai Pāremata Māori a Eruera Tirikātene rāua ko tana tamāhine a Whetū Tirikātene. I te tau 1965 ka piki ia ki te tūranga koromatua o Pito-one. Ka whakawahia ia hei tā.

Local Government Electoral Amendment Act 2002

Nā te hanganga ture o te Local Government Electoral Amendment Act i te tau 2002 ka āhei ngā whakahaerenga ā-rohe te whakamahi i ētahi āhuatanga hei whakamana i te manaaki a te Karauna i ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Otirā ka whai wāhi hoki te Māori ki ngā tukanga whakatau o ngā kaunihera rohe.

Ngā tūru Māori

Ko tētahi huarahi he tuku mā ngā kaipōti kei te rārangi Pāremata Māori e kōwhiri ngā kaitono Māori kaunihera. Engari tae rawa ki te tau 2011, he tokoiti noa iho ngā kanohi Māori kei ngā kaunihera o te motu. Heoi ko tētahi whetū tārake ko te Kaunihera ā-rohe o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. I te tau 2004 ka whakatūria ngā tūru Māori, he mea pōti e ngā kaipōti kei te rārangi Māori. E toru ngā tūru Māori kei roto i te poari 13 te rahi. E 27.5 ōrau te taupori o taua rohe he Māori. I te tau 2014 ka pōti te Kaunihera o Ngāmotu kia hangaia he wāhanga.

Te ngana kia whai wāhi

I te Poutūterangi o te tau 2011 ka tuhi reta te kaikōmihana take ā-iwi a Joris De Bres ki ngā kaunihera o Aotearoa. E ai ki a De Bres, ‘that your Council this year consider the option of establishing Māori seats or constituencies … Māori constituencies have been operating successfully in Environment Bay of Plenty since the 2004 elections. They were also recommended by the Royal Commission on Auckland Governance for the new Auckland Council, although the Government instead opted for a Statutory Board. … I would ask that as a first step, the Council engages with local tangata whenua on the issue, in order to ascertain their preferences’ (mā te Kaunihera e āta whakaaro i tēnei tau te kōwhiringa tūru Māori...Kua pai te haere o ngā tūru Māori i Te Kaunihera ā-Rohe o te Waiariki mai i ngā pōtitanga i 2004. I taunakitia ngā tūru e Te Kōmihana a te Karauna mō te Mana Whakahaere o Tāmaki-makau-rau mō te Kaunihera hōu o Tāmaki Mākaurau, engari i kōwhiria kētia he Poari ā-ture.... Ko taku tono i te tuatahi, me kōrero te Kaunihera ki te mana whenua mō te kaupapa nei, kia kite he aha ō rātou hiahia).’1

Te taone nui o Ākarana

E ai ki ngā tūtohu a te Kōmihana Karauna mō Ngā Whakahaere o Tāmaki-makaurau (2009) me whakatū ngā tūru Māori e toru ki te Kaunihera o Tāmaki-makaurau. E rua mō ngā mātā waka (80 ōrau te taupori Māori o Tāmaki), kotahi mō te mana whenua (20 ōrau o te taupori Māori o Tāmaki). I taua wā kāore he Māori i te Kaunihera Tāone o Tāmaki, i te Kaunihera ā-rohe o Tāmaki rānei. 10 noa iho ngā mema (250 ngā mema) Māori i ngā kaunihera puta noa i te rohe.

Ka whakahē a Nāhinara i ngā tūru Māori, engari nā ngā whakataritari a ngā Māori ka whakatūria tētahi poari Māori me ngā mema tokoiwa. Tokowhitu ngā mema nō te mana whenua, e rua nō ngā mātā waka. He mea whakamana ēnei tūnga e te Minita mō ngā Take Māori me te urupū minita. Arā anō ngā ketuketu mō te maha o ngā tūnga mana whenua, me te iti o ngā tūnga mō ngā mātā waka. E rua ngā māngai o te poari Māori hou kei a rāua ngā mana pōti ki ngā komiti 11 (18 ngā komiti) o te kaunihera. Ka tumeke a Tauiwi i runga i te pōhēhē kāore he mana o te poari Māori. I te tau 2011 ka tuku te koromatua o Tāmaki a Len Brown i tāna tautoko kia whakatūria ngā tūru Māori.

Ngā painga mō te whai kanohitanga

I te tau 2010 ka rangahau te Kōmihana Tika Tangata mena i whai whakaaro anō ngā kaunihera ki ngā tūru Māori. I kitea i taua rangahau ko te Kaunihera o Whakatāne tērā i whakahaere i tētahi pōti tatau e pā ana ki ngā tūru Māori. E 30 ōrau i whakaae ki ngā tūru. I kōrero hoki te Kaunihera o Tai Tokerau ki te Raki mō tōna tautoko mō ngā tūru Māori, ā, kei te tirohia e rātou te take i te tau 2011.

I te Hakihea o te tau 2010 ka whakahau te kāwanatanga Nāhinara i tāna arotake i ngā whakahaerenga ture o Aotearoa, tae atu ki ngā take e pā ana ki te whai kanohitanga o te Māori: te whiringa pōti Māori, te whai wāhi a te Māori me ngā tūru Māori ki te Pāremata me ngā kaunihera. Ko te Pirimia Tuarua ko Bill English rāua ko te Minita Take Māori ko Pita Sharples ngā kaiārahi i te arotake.

Footnotes

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Rawiri Taonui, 'Ngā māngai – Māori representation', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-mangai/print (accessed 30 March 2020)

He kōrero nā Rawiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012, reviewed & revised 15 Jul 2016