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Ngā manu – birds

by  Kelly Keane

He wāhi nui tō ngā manu i roto i te ao Māori, hei kai, ko ōna huruhuru hei kura whakarākai i te tinana me ngā kākahu o te rangatira. Ka āta mātaki te Māori i ngā whanonga me te noho a tēnā manu, a tēnā manu. Kei ngā mōteatea me ngā whakataukī ngā momo manu e whakahuatia ana. Ka tirohia te whanonga o te manu mō ngā tohu huarere me ngā tohu mō ngā rā kei te tū.


Symbols of status

E ai ki te Māori ko ētahi manu ka tohu ki te rangatiratanga. Ko ngā huruhuru o ētahi manu hei whakarākai i te māhunga o te ariki, o te rangatira. Kākahungia ai te rangatira ki ngā kākahu ka whatua i ngā huruhuru o ngā manu ātaahua rawa atu.

Huia

Nō te tīmatanga o te rau tau atu i 1900 ka mate ā-moa tēnei manu ātaahua te huia. He pango ōna kura, he tea te pito. Koinei ngā tohu ka mau i te tātai ariki. Karangatia ai ngā kōtore e 12 o te huia he mareko, whakamau ai e te rangatira ēnei hei rākai mō tōna māhunga i mua i te kuhu atu ki te pakanga. Whakanōhia ai ngā kura o tēnei manu ki roto i tōna waka huia.

He motuhenga ngā ngutu o te tama, he piko ō te karawa. Anei te pūrākau whakamārama: ka taka ki tētahi rā, ka hura e tētahi rangatira te karawa huia kua mau i roto i tētahi māhanga. Ka hūtia e te rangatira rā ngā kōtore huia e rua, kātahi ka karakiatia e ia taua manu kia taea ai tana hoki ki te huhuti anō i ōna huruhuru. Tērā te wā ka haere ake te manu rā, kua puhirua katoa ōna huruhuru nā te noho ki runga kōhanga. Nā tana kaha riri ki tēnei, ka takahiria e te rangatira rā ngā ngutu o te karawa huia kia roa kia tarea ai e ia te whakatika tōna hikumārō ki te taha.

Kākā

He manu whakatoi tēnei manu te kākā. He whero ngā kura i te taha whakararo o ōna parirau. I te ao Māori, he tohu rangatira te tae whero, ko ngā rangatira anake ka mau i ngā kākahu ka whatua mai te kākā kura. Ka noho te kākā hei mōkai, hei maimoa rānei i ngā mahi patu kākā. Tarahae te tangi o te kākā ki te taringa, nō konā te kupu whakarite a te Māori mō te pākiwaha, kīia ai he kākā waha nui, he pane kākā rānei.

Kākāpō

He manu huna te kākāpō, kāhore a ia e rere i te rangi. Kainga ai te kiko o te kākāpō, ko ōna huruhuru kākāriki, huruhuru pākākā ka rarangatia mō ngā kākahu o ngā rangatira. Rawea ai te kākāpō hei mōkai.

Kererū (wood pigeon)

Whakamahia ai ngā huruhuru o te kererū hei kākahu, hei korowai. Tāwhiria ai ngā tahā huahua me ngā pātua ki ngā huruhuru o te kererū.

Tērā tētahi kōrero e mea ana, i ngā rā o nehe, he tea kē ngā huruhuru o te kererū. Ka pīrangi a Māui kia rapu i ngā haerenga o tōna whāea a Taranga. Hei whakatōroa i a ia, ka hunaia e Māui ngā kākahu o tōna whāea. Hauwarea, haere atu ana tōna whāea i āna haerenga. Ka huri a Māui hei kererū huruhuru tea ka aru i ngā tapuwae o tōna whāea, e mau tonu ana ki ōna pueru; ka huri ēnei hei huruhuru mō te kererū. I tua atu he tino kai te kererū.

Kiwi

Kīia ai te kiwi ko ‘te manu huna a Tāne’, nā te mea hei ngā pō anake ka puta tēnei manu. He kai nā te rangatira te kiwi. Whatua ai te kahu kiwi i ōna huruhuru, he taonga kura. Hei ngā hui nui o te ao Māori ka kitea ēnei kākahu, pērā i te tangihanga mō te kūini Māori a Te Ātairangikaahu i te marama o Here-turi-kōkā i te tau 2006.

Kōtuku (white heron)

Tērā te kōrero mō te manu nei a te kōtuku e kī ana, ‘He kōtuku rerenga tahi’. He kupu whakarite tēnei mō te manuhiri tūārangi mai tawhiti tē kitea noatia. He mea nui te mau i ngā kura i te māhunga o te kōtuku hei whakapaipai; kīia ai ēnei huruhuru he piki kōtuku. Ko ngā rangatira, ko ngā ariki anake ka mau ēnei whakapaipai.

Tākapu (gannet)

He mea nui ki te Māori ngā huruhuru tea o te takapū. Ko ngā kura hei whakarākai mō ngā makawe, ko ngā huruhuru mai te puku ka hoatu hei pōhoi mō te taringa o te rangatira.

Tara (tern)

Kātahi te manu huatau, ātaahua rawa ko te tara, nā whai anō kīia ai he manu rangatira. Ko tētahi kupu whakanui, whakarite i te kāhui rangatira ko te ‘tāhuna ā-tara’.

Te rau o Tītapu

Mōhiotia ai te hikumārō o te huia, ngā huruhuru i te tuarā o te kōtuku, tae atu ki ngā huruhuru o te toroa, ko ‘te rau ō Tītapu’. E kī ana te kōrero he motu a Tītapu i Te Moana-a-Raukawa, heoi, kua toremi ki takere o te moana.

Toroa (albatross)

Hei ngā hui nui rawa atu ka whakamaua e te kāhui ariki ngā huruhuru o te toroa. Kīia ai ēnei he raukura, he kaiwharawhara rānei. Ko te hune toroa hei pōhoi toroa.

Tūī

Taea noatia ai e te tūī te tangi o te manu me te reo o te tangata te tāwhai. Kua whakarataa te manu, kua akona ki te kōrero. Ka akona ēnei manu te mihi ki te manuhiri, te taki karakia, te whakahua whakataukī hoki. Whakaakongia ai te tūī kia pērā tōna reo ki te reo panguru o te rangatira. Kīia ai ēnei momo tūī he manu rangatira. He wā anō kua tapaina te tūī mōkai a te rangatira ki tētahi tipuna rongonui o te iwi.


Birds associated with death

Mō te Māori, ka noho ētahi manu hei tohu ki te mate, ki te whakamomori.

Kūaka (godwit)

E kī ana te Māori, ka mate te tangata, ka wehe atu tōna wairua i Te Rēinga kei te hiku o te ika a Māui. Koinei te wāhi whakahuihui ai te kūaka i mua i tō rātou heke ki tērā taha o te ao. Arā te kōrero e whakarite ana i te kūaka ki ngā wairua kua wehe, arā, ‘me he kāhui kūaka’.

Mātātā (fernbird)

He tapu te mātātā ki ētahi iwi. Ka mate ana he rangatira, ka nehua, ka haere ka hopukina he mātātā i te repo, ka takina ngā karakia kia pai ai tana ārahi i te wairua o te rangatira rā ki Hawaiki.

Tērā tētahi kākahu ārai marangai, ko te mai. Nā tō rāua rite, ka kīia tēnei kākahu, he whare nō te mātātā.

Matuku (bittern)

Pohū te reo o te toa matuku hei aha, hei pana i toa kē kei tōna takiwā i te wā ka paopao ngā hua. Ki te Māori, nā tana pōuri ka pērā ai te tangi a te matuku. Ka rongohia tana tangi e te tangata whakamomori, ka whakarite taua tangata i a ia ki te manu rā. Tērā tētahi waiata tangi, e whakarite ana te kaiwaiata i a ia ki te matuku, ara:

Kei te matuku, e hū ana i te repo, i!

Moho pererū (banded rail)

He rite te tangi a te moho pererū ki te kata a te tangata. Tērā te kōrero mō Māui, i ngana kia unu i te mate mā te kuhu i ngā kūhā o Hine-nui-te-pō i a ia e moe ana. Nā te kata a te moho pererū, ka oho a Hine-nui-te-pō, ka kūtia a Māui ki roto. Kei tēnei wāhanga o te waiata nei ngā kōrero hāngai:

Ehara i te taru te mate.
Kua mate mai i mua, i a Māui –
Nā te pātātai i kata, ka motu ki roto rā …

Tīwaiwaka (fantail)

Kei waenganui i te 20 me te 30 ngā momo ingoa a te Māori mō te tīwaiwaka – he pīwakawaka, tīwakawaka, tīrairaka, aha atu. Tērā te kōrero, nā te tīwaiwaka kē ka mate a Māui. Whāia, ki te kuhu tētahi ki roto whare, he aitua kei te haere. Kīia ai te tangata ohooho he tou pīwaiwaka, nā te mea he pērā te pīwaiwaka, kāore e āta tau.


Tohu – signs and predictions

Mā te mātaki i ngā whanonga a ētahi manu taea ai e te Māori te matapae he aha ngā nekeneke ā ngā rā kei te tū.

Kāreke (marsh crake)

E ai ki te Māori taea ai e te kāreke te tohu ka aha ā ngā rā kei mua i te aroaro. Ki te rongohia te tangi a te kāreke i te taha mauī, he aituā kei te haere; ki te rongohia tana tangi i te taha matau he tohu mō te pai.

Karoro (black-backed gull)

Ka kite ana te Māori me te Pākehā i te karoro, ka toko ngā mahara mō ngā rā mahana o te raumati, mō te moana, mō ngā ngaru. He tohu aituā mēnā ka kitea te karoro i uta. Ko te tangata noho ki te taha moana kīia ai he karoro inu tai. Hei ētahi wā ka whakamōkaitia he karoro, he pai hoki tērā manu hei kaikai i ngā ngārara kai i te māra.

Hōmiromiro (tomtit)

He rongo pai ka kawea e te hōmiromiro. Whakapono ai te tangata he nui tōna mana, he tapu a ia. Kīia ai te tangata mata ka tea he kanohi hōmiromiro, nā te mea ka taea e ia te kite i ngā mea ririki pērā i te aitanga a pepeke.

Piopio (native thrush)

Kua ngaro tēnei manu, kua takahi i te ara i takahia e te moa, te huia, arā atu. Ko tētahi anō ingoa mōna ko te tiutiu kata, inarā ka wehi te tangata i tana kata. Ka tohu te piopio he aituā kei te haere.

Pōpokotea (whitehead)

Pērā te pōpokotea ki te hōmiromiro, arā, he tohu ora, he tohu pai. Ko te kōrero a ngā iwi o Whanganui, ko ērā manu ngā wairua o te hunga kua wehe ki te pō. Ki ētahi atu iwi ka tohu ngā manu nei kei te whakatata mai he wairua.

He whakamārire te riri

He wā ko te hōmiromiro ka whakamārire i te riri i waenganui i te wahine me te tāne kua wehe. Ka whakarerea ana tētahi e tōna hoa, ka haere tērā ka mahue ki te tohunga kia karakiangia ia ki te ātahu. Whāia, ka rere te hōmiromiro rā ki te hoa tāne, wahine rānei, ka tau ki tōna māhunga. Nā te kaha o te ātahu ka hoki tērā ki te kāinga. Koirā anō te mahi a te kārearea, heoi, ko tāna, he whakataka i tētahi o ōna huruhuru ki runga i te tipuaki o tērā kua wehe atu.

Ruru (morepork)

He nui ngā pūkanohi o te ruru, ko tōna ingoa i ahu mai i tana tangi taukurī. He nui ngā kōrero a te Māori mō ngā tohu a te ruru. Nā te mokemoke o tana tangi me te mataara o tana tū, ka honoa te ruru ki te tapu, te kaitiakitanga, te whakatūpato, te pōuri me te mataara.

Tarāpunga (red-billed and black-billed gull)

He wāhi nui tō te tarāpunga i ngā kōrero tuku iho. He tapu te manu nei ki ngā iwi o Te Arawa, otirā, nāna taua iwi i whakaohooho mō te ope taua a Ngāpuhi e hoe ana ki a rātou e whakamaru mai rā i te motu o Mokoia.

Turiwhatu (dotterel)

Kei te maha o ngā moteatea ngā kōrero mō te turiwhatu. Kei te maha o ngā waiata mō te orotā o te ao te kōrero e mea ana, ko te manu nei te turiwhatu anake ka ora.

Whēkau (laughing owl)

Kua takahi te whēkau i ngā tapuwae o te moa, o te huia, o te piopio, ka ngaro ki te pō. I tapaina tēnei ingoa mōna nā tana kai i ngā whēkau o te kiore me ētahi manu ririki.


Predicting the weather

Āta mātakitaki te Māori i ngā whanonga o ngā manu, ko rātou hoki ka tohu he aha te āhua o te rangi ā te wā kei te tū.

Hurupounamu (bush wren)

He tapu te hurupounamu. Ki te mate tētahi ka heke te hukarere.

Kārearea (falcon)

Ka tohu te kārearea ki te āhua o te rangi, inā te whakataukī:

Ka tangi te kārearea ki waenga o te rangi pai, ka ua āpōpō.
Ka tangi te kārearea ki waenga o te rangi ua, ka paki āpōpō.

Pīpīwharauroa (shining cuckoo) me te koekoeā (long-tailed cuckoo)

Ia tau heke ai te pīpīwharauroa me te koekoeā mai tērā taha o te ao ki Aotearoa. Ka rongo te tangata i te tangi o ēnei manu ka mōhio ia, e, ko te kōanga. Ko tā ngā manu e rua nei, he whakarere i te hua kotahi ki te kōhanga o manu kē. Ka paopao tuatahi te hua o te rāwaho, ka tahuri te pīpī ki te pana i ngā hua kē, kia riro ko ia anake te pī ka whāngaihia ki te kai. Whai anō ka whakaritea e te Māori te tangata māngere ki te pīpīwharauroa me te koekoeā.

Riroriro (grey warbler)

Ka āta hanga e te riroriro tōna kōhanga kia ārai i te hau; whai anō mōhio ō tātou tīpuna pupuhi mai ai te hau nui i whea.

Ka tangi te riroriro, ko te wā o te ono kai. Inarā te wero i te whakataukī mō te tangata māngere i te wā o te hauhake:

I whea koe i te tangihanga o te riroriro, ka mahi kai māu?

Tōrea (pied oystercatcher)

Ka tangi te tōrea, ‘keria, keria’, he tohu tērā he āwhā kei te haere mai – he tohu hoki tērā me keri i te mātaitai i mua o te marangai. Whai muri i te āwhā ka rongohia te tangi a tōrea, ‘tōkia, tōkia’, he tohu tēnei kua āio te āhuarangi.


Sayings, metaphors and stories

Kei ngā whakataukī e whakarite ana i te tangata me ōna whanonga – pai, kino – ki te āhua o tēnā manu, o tēnā manu. He wāhi nui tō te manu i ngā pūrākau a te Māori, pērā i ngā kōrero mō Māui.

Kāhu (harrier) me te kārearea (falcon)

Tirohia ai te kāhu anō he rangatira, ko te kārearea he toa, he nanakia. Tērā te kōrero e mea ana, me mōhio koe ko wai ō haumi, ko wai ō hoariri:

Homai te kārearea kia toro māhangatia,
Ko te kāhu te whakaora – waiho kia rere ana!

Kawau (shag)

Ko te ope taua ka kōkiri i te hoariri i runga i te takitakitū, kua kīia he kawau mārō. Tērā te whakataukī e mea ana ‘Ka mārō te kakī o te kawau’, he whakaata tēnei i te toro o te kakī o te manu nei te kawau i a ia ka rere.

Kōkako

Nā tōna reo ātaahua ka hau te rongo mō te kōkako. Tērā te wā ka tono a Māui ki tēnā manu, ki tēnā manu kia tīkina he wai māna. Ka whakaae te kōkako ki te tono a Māui, ka haere, ka whakakīia ōna taringa ki te wai. Ka koa a Māui; hei utu mō āna manaakitanga, ka kumekume e ia ngā waewae o te kōkako kia roa atu, kia tere ake ai tana pekepeke haere.

Koreke (New Zealand quail)

Kia tae ki te tau 1875 ka ngaro te koreke ki te pō. He manu ohooho te koreke, ka whiti, ka rere, i konei ka rongohia te pakipaki o ana huruhuru. Ka whakarite te Māori i tēnei āhuatanga ki te tūpono ki te hoariri:

Whiti koreke, ka kitea koe!
Haere whakaparirau i a koe, haere whakamanu.

Korimako (bellbird)

Ka whakaritea te kaiwaiata rōreka me te tohunga whaikōrero ki te korimako. Arā te kōrero:

He rite ki te kōpara (korimako) e kō nei i te ata.

He kōrero i te kāinga he kōrero kē i te haere

Tērā tētahi kōrero, ‘He kūkū ki te kāinga he kākā i te haere’, e kōrero ana mō te tangata kāore e whakapai i tana āhua i te kāinga, engari ka puta ana ka whakapaipai i a ia anō. Arā anō he whakamāoritanga o tēnei kōrero, inā, he tangata wahangū ki te kāinga, engari ka puta ana ki wāhi kē, he waha papā.

Kōtare (kingfisher)

Ki tā te Māori titiro ai, he rite te āhua o te kōtare ki te tūtei. Ka noho whakaroau te manu nei ki runga i te rākau; kia kite rā anō i tāna i whai, ka hihiko tana rere atu. He kupu anō te kōtare mō te ahurewa, te nohoanga o te hunga whakaaraara i ngā tāngata o roto i te pā, kia mataara tonu i te pō.

Moa

Kua mate noa atu tēnei manu nui te moa. Kei ngā pūrākau, ngā waiata, ngā whakataukī kitea ai te nui o ngā kōrero mōna. Tērā te kōrero whakamomori e kī ana, ‘Kua ngaro i te ngaro o te moa’.

Pārera (grey duck)

He kaihoro te pārera. Whai anō whakaritea ai te tangata kaihoro ki tēnei manu, inā ‘He pārera apu kai’.

Poaka (pied stilt)

Whakaritea ai e ngā iwi o Hauraki tō rātou tipuna a Pāoa ki te poaka, nā te mea he rite ōna whanonga rangatira me tana hōkai ki ō te poaka. Inarā te kōrero:

Ka kōhure a Pāoa, me te turuturupourewa te āhua e haere atu ana.

Pūkeko

He māia, he pūkeke tēnei manu te pūkeko – ka toro i ngā māra mō te kūmara, mō te taro. Mēnā he tangata ūpoko mārō koe kua kīia koe he taringa pākura (he ingoa anō te pākura mō te pūkeko).

He kōrero mō ōna ngutu whero. He tangata pūrotu a Tāwhaki; i a ia e whakamate ana, e heke ana ōna toto, ka haramai te pūkeko ka totongia ōna ngutu i ngā toto o Tāwhaki.

Weka (woodhen)

He mahira te manu nei te weka, nā whai anō he māmā noa tana hopukanga. Tērā te kōrero mō te weka e ui ana mēnā ka hoki anō te tangata ki ngā hapanga o mua:

Makere te weka i te māhanga e hoki anō?

Birds’ names

Ka whakaingoa te Māori i tētahi manu i runga i tana tangi, ōna huruhuru, tae atu ki āna whanonga.

Hihi (stitchbird)

I te hopukanga a Māui i te rā, ka tono a ia ki te hihi mō tahi wai māna. Tē aro atu o te hihi. He kupu anō te hihi mō ngā tara o Tamanui-te-rā.

Hōkioi (Haast’s eagle)

Kua mate noa atu tēnei manu nui te hōkioi, heoi, kei te maha o ngā kōrero tuku iho ngā kōrero mōna. Kāore i kitea te hōkioi, ko te tangi anake ka rongohia, he tohu ki te aituā. He rite tōna ingoa ki tana tangi: ‘Hōkioi, hōkioi, hu!’. Mōhiotia ai tēnei manu ki te tai tonga ko te pouākai.

Kākāriki (small green parrot)

He manu nohinohi te kākāriki, arā, kākā – riki. Ko te tikanga o te whakataukī ‘He kākāriki kai ata’, e kōrero ana mō tētahi tangata matapiko ka kai horo i te ata i mua i ngā mahi.

Kea (mountain parrot)

He mea tapa te ingoa o tēnei kākā noho maunga ki tana tangi – ‘keee aaa’. Ahakoa he ioio, he whīroki te kiko o te kea kainga tonutia a ia e te Māori. E kī ana te iwi o Waitaha, ko o ō rātou kaitiaki, ko te kāhu, ko te ruru, ko te kea.

Kuruwhengu (shoveler)

Ahu mai ai te ingoa o tēnei pārera nā te āhua o tana whenguwhengu. Ka pēnei tana hoihoi i a ia ka ruku kai i ngā wai pāpaku.

Pāpango (black teal)

I tapaina te ingoa o te pāpango mō ōna huruhuru pango; whai anō tērā o ōna ingoa, ko matapōuri.

Te hoiho (yellow-eyed penguin), te pokotiwha (drooping crested penguin), te kororā (blue penguin)

Tapaina ai te hoiho mō tana tangi, te pokotiwha mō tōna koukou kōwhai me ōna tukemata tāhei, ko te kororā mō tana tangi.

Pīhoihoi (pipit)

Te hoihoi hoki o te manu nei, whai anō kīia ai he pīhoihoi. Arā anō tōna ingoa ko te whioi, arā he manu whio.

He aha i te ingoa?

Ko te tangi a te toa kiwi ko ‘koire’, ‘hoire’ rānei, ko te tangi a te uwha he ‘poāi’. He rite te tangi a te toa mō te uwha ki te ‘kiwi’ – koirā pea te takenga o tōna ingoa. Ki ētahi atu, i ahu mai te ingoa o te kiwi i te ‘kivi,’ he manu i mahue atu i Hawaiki i te heke o ngā tūpuna ki Aotearoa.

Pītoitoi, karuwai rānei (robin)

He rite te karanga a te pītoitoi ki te pī-toi-toi-toi. Ko tētahi atu ingoa mōna ko te karuwai, nā te waiwai o ōna kamo. He wā ka tohu tana tangi ki te pai, he wā ka tohu tana tangi ki te kino.

Takahē

E ai ki te kōrero i ngaro rawa atu te takahē i te tirohanga kanohi; heoi nō te tau 1948 ka kitea anōtia. He moke te manu nei, e noho ana koia anake, whai anō tērā o ōna ingoa, te moho. E kī ana te Māori he ōrite te tangi a te takahē ki ngā pounamu e rua ka oroa.

Tētē whero (brown teal)

Ko te ‘tētē’ te tangi a tēnei pārera. He whero, he kehu ōna huruhuru.

Tīeke (saddleback)

Ka ohorere tēnei manu ka ‘tīeke’ tana tangi. Arā atu tērā o ōna ingoa ko tīeke rere, nā tana tangi ina tumeke ia.

Tītiti pounamu (rifleman)

Ko te pūtake o te ingoa o te manu nei te tītiti pounamu, nā te tioro o tana tangi me ōna huruhuru pounamu. Noho ai te tītiti pounamu ki ngā ngahere tawai, koirā hei ētahi wā karangatia ai te manu nei ko te momotawai.

Whio (blue duck)

Noho ai te whio ki ngā awa kohuka i te tuawhenua. Ahu mai ai tōna ingoa i te tangi a te toa, ‘whio whio’.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Kelly Keane, 'Ngā manu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-manu/print (accessed 19 October 2019)

Story by Kelly Keane, published 24 Sep 2007, reviewed & revised 17 Feb 2015