Kōrero: Ngā Māori kei tāwāhi

Whārangi 5. Ingarangi, Te Hononga o Amerika me wāhi kē

Ngā whakaahua

I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 2000, ko te kōrero, e 130,000 ngā Māori e noho ana ki tāwāhi. Ahakoa te nuinga kei Ahitereiria e noho ana, arā anō te e 18,000 Māori e noho ana ki whenua kē (Ingarangi e 8,000, USA 1,000, Kānata 1,000).

Ingarangi

I mua noa atu i te mōhio a te Pākehā mō te toa a te Māori i roto i ngā tākaro, i mīharo ngā Pākehā mō ngā moutere o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900 ka mīharo ngā Pākehā ki ngā whakaaturanga a ngā kapa haka Māori i tae ki Ingarangi.

Ehara i te mea i hoki katoa mai ngā tāngata toi Māori. I tana haerenga ki Ingarangi me tētahi kapa haka i te tau 1912, ka tūtaki anō a Mākereti (Maggie) Papakura o Whakarewarewa ki tētahi tangata whai whenua Pākehā o Oxfordshire. I taua tau tonu ka moe rāua. I whakaritea e ia he taiwhanga ki tōna whare nunui e kikī ana i ngā taonga a te Māori – korowai, kete, whakairo, pounamu me ētahi atu taonga. I te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao ka tuwhera e ia tōna kāinga ki ngā hōia Māori. I ērā tau, ko te pakanga anake te take mō te haere a te Māori ki tāwāhi. I whawhai ētahi ope Māori ki Karipori (Gallipoli), ā, nō muri mai ka kuhu ki ngā pakanga i Wīwī hei wāhanga o te Rōpū Paionia o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Pioneer Battalion). Nā Maggie i kohikohi moni hei whakatū maumaharatanga mō ngā hōia Māori ka hinga – he pikitia Itāriana o te Karaiti me tētahi whakairo Māori. Ka tuhia e ia tana pukapuka The old-time Maori, ka kōrero mō ngā tikanga a Te Arawa i te tirohanga wahine. Nō muri i tōna matenga i te tau 1938 ka whakaputangia tana pukapuka.

I ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau atu i 1950 ka whakatūria e tētahi rōpū Māori iti te Karapu Māori o Rānana (London Māori Club) hei whakaora i ngā tikanga Māori mā roto i ngā haka me ngā waiata. I te tau 1971 ka huri te ingoa o te rōpū ki Ngāti Rānana. Kia taka ki ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau atu i 1990 kua tū ā rātou hui ā-wiki me ngā whakaakoranga reo Māori ki te tari kāwanatanga o Aotearoa (New Zealand House).

Kōhanga reo ki te tari kāwanatanga o Aotearoa

I ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau atu i 1990 ka kōrero a Taone O’Regan mō te noho ki Rānana me te kōhanga reo:

‘E 20 ki te 30 ngā whānau Māori; me kī e ono ki te waru ngā whānau pūmau. E mea ana ahau kia noho mō ngā tau e rua – kua tekau tau ahau ki konei ināianei. He mea uaua ki te hoki ki te kāinga. Mehemea nō Ingarangi tō hoa, kātahi ka uaua rawa atu. Mea rawa ake, he tametame [Cockney] āu tamariki. Kua rongo koe i te tametame e kōrero Māori ana? E tā! Epēnei nei, “kia ora babes”.’ 1

Ka tōmina mai ngā whare toi o Ingarangi me Ūropi ki ngā tāngata toi Māori kia haere atu ki te whakaatu i ā rātou mahi. Ko te Māori rongonui rawa atu kia haere, ko Kiri Te Kanawa. Ka hau te rongo mōna i tana tū hei tapairu i te whakaari pūoru Le nozze di Figaro i te whare whakaari pūoru o Covent Garden i Rānana i te tau 1971.

Te Hononga o Amerika

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau 2000 e noho ana ētahi ngaio Māori ki New York me Karapōnia, engari ko te hapori Māori nui rawa atu ki Te Hononga o Amerika, kei Utah. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1950 tīmata ai te hapori nei, i te whakatūranga a ētahi mihinare Mōmona Māori i te Karapu Kiaora (Kiaora Club). Nō ngā iwi maha rātou, whai anō ka tapaina rātou ko Ngāti Hiona.

I te tau 2003 i te whiriwhiri te New Zealand-American Society o Utah ki te whakatū marae ki te tāone nui o Lehi. Kei Provo i Utah tētahi rōpū Māori e kīia ai ko Te Kaha o ngā Tupuna. I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 2000, e 300 pea ngā whānau Māori e noho ana ki Utah – te tokomaha nā tō rātou hāhi Mōmona rātou i ārahi mai, ki te rapu mahi me ngā tuwheratanga i te taha matauranga.

Kua tae ētahi Māori ki Hollywood mahi ai – pēnei i a Temuera Morrison rātou ko Cliff Curtis, ko John Tamahori, nana i ārahi te pikitia Die another day.

Ētahi atu whenua

Ko te nuinga o ngā Māori i wehe i Aotearoa hei hōia, ki te rapu mahi rānei. Kāore i te nui ngā Māori kei Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa e noho ana, kei ngā wāhi rānei kei tua atu o Ahitereiria, Ingarangi me Te Hononga o Amerika.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I uiuitia e Carl Warlrond i te Tari Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa, Rānana, 1999. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Carl Walrond, 'Ngā Māori kei tāwāhi - Ingarangi, Te Hononga o Amerika me wāhi kē', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-maori-kei-tawahi/page-5 (accessed 17 July 2019)

Story by Carl Walrond, published 8 Feb 2005