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Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi – ngā mātāpono o te tiriti

by Janine Hayward

Mai i te pito o te rautau 1900, ka rapua, ka wānangatia hoki  e te hunga kaiwhakawā, e te kāwanatanga, me te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, ngā mātāpono e pā ana ki te Tiriti o Waitangi. E ai ki ā rātou whakatau, ko tā te Tiriti  he paihere i te iwi Māori me Tauiwi ki raro anō i te hononga pūmau, ā, kia tika tonu ngā mahi a tētahi ki tētahi, ki kaua hoki tētahi e tahuri ki te turaki i tōna hoa.


What are the treaty principles?

He mea haina te tiriti e te Māori me te Pākehā i te tau 1840. Ehara tonu te Tiriti o Waitangi i te ture. Engari mai noa i te tau 1975 ka whakaurua ōna mātāpono ki ngā ture maha. Ko te ture tuatahi ki te whakauru i ngā mātāpono o te tiriti ko te Ture Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1975 i hua ake ai te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. I runga i tēnei ture ka āhei te Māori ki te hora kerēme ki te taraipiunara mō ngā kaupapa me ngā mahi (me ētahi āhuatanga atu) a te Karauna kāore i te hāngai ki ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti.

Mai i te tau 1975 he maha noa atu ngā ture ka whaiwhai i ngā mātāpono o te tiriti, ka mutu he whakamātautanga i te whai mārama o te Tiriti o Waitangi i ēnei rā. E whakauru ana ngā mātāpono o te tiriti ki:

  • ngā whakawā kōti
  • ngā ture hou
  • ngā kitenga taraipiunara
  • tētahi tauākī kāwanatanga i te tau 1989.

Rārangi mutunga kore

He mutunga kore ngā mātāpono tiriti, ka mutu kei roto i ngā kupu whānui ngā mātāpono e whakamāramatia ana. Engari kāore e whakaurua ngā tuhinga tonu o te tiriti, nā runga i te rerekē o te whakamārama Ingarihi, Māori hoki, me te ara ake o ētahi taupatupatu. I te tau 1983 ka whakatau te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, ‘He nui kē ake te wairua o te tiriti tēnā i ngā kupu o roto i ōna upoko, nā reira, kaua e matawhāiti te titiro ki ngā aronga kupu, kaua hoki e matawhāiti ngā whakamārama mō aua upoko.’1

Te āta tipu o ngā mātāpono

I te tau 1987 ka kī ake a Kaiwhakawā Robin Cooke, ‘he hua tipu te tiriti kāore anō kia kōhure noa ōna aria ake … e āta tipu ana ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko tētahi mea kē he whāiti noa iho ōna tirohanga.’2

Nā te mea i hainatia te tiriti i te tau 1840, ka noho anō tēnei hei take kāore i whakaurua te tiriti ki ngā tuhinga ā-ture. Otirā ka pā ōna kupu ki ngā kaupapa i waenganui i te Māori me te Karauna o tērā wā. E whai panga ai te tiriti ki ngā kaupapa a te Karauna me te Māori i ēnei rā ka ngana te taraipiunara me ngā kōti ki te whakamārama i ngā huatau pū me ngā āwhero maha o te tiriti, otirā ki te whakahāngai i ngā mātāpono ki tēnā kerēme ki tēnā kerēme. Kua kōhatutia ētahi o ēnei mātāpono i ēnei wā, ko ētahi kua roa kē e tipu haere ana. He kaupapa tohetohe tonu ētahi mātāpono.

Footnotes
    • Waitangi Tribunal, Report of the Waitangi Tribunal on the Motunui-Waitara claim. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Department of Justice, 1983, p. 47. Back
    • Tainui Maori Trust Board v Attorney-General. New Zealand Law Reports (1987): 527. Back

Treaty principles developed by courts

Kēhi whenua, tau 1987

Nō te kēhi i te tau 1987 kātahi anō ka whakamārama hōhonutia ngā mātāpono tiriti. Ko te tono tērā a te Kaunihera Māori ki te Kōti Pīra mena tonu i te takahi ngā mahi a te kāwanatanga i ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi. E whakautua ai te pātai me whakatau te kōti he aha ia aua mātāpono. E ai ki tētahi o ngā kaiwhakawā mō taua kēhi a Kaiwhakawā Robin Cooke, ‘tērā pea koinei tētahi o ngā kēhi nui rawa kua tau ki mua ki te aroaro o tētahi kōti i Aotearoa nei.’1 I runga i te whakatau a te kōti ka paraia te huarahi mō ētahi atu pūrongo taraipiunara.

Anei ētahi o ngā mātāpono i whakamāramatia i te kēhi whenua o te tau 1987:

  • te kawenga kia tika kia pono – ko te tiriti te tohu o te hononga i waenga i te Pākehā me te Māori, ā, kia tika kia pono tētahi ki tētahi’2
  • kia kaha tonu te Karauna ki te tiaki i ngā painga a te Māori – ehara te kawenga o te Karauna i te ngoikore noa iho, engari ka whai niho tonu tana manaaki i te whakamahi a te Māori i ōna whenua me ōna wai, ‘kia eke ai ki ōna taumata taua manaakitanga’3
  • kia noho mōhio te kāwanatanga i mua i āna whakataunga katoa – ki tā te Kōti Pīra me ako, me noho mōhio tonu te kāwanatanga ina whakatau tikanga ia e pā ana ki te tiriti
  • me rongoā e te Karauna ngā mamae o mua – ‘Mena ka kitea he tika te kokoraho, ā, ka tūtohu te Taraipiunara kia utua te hara e te Karauna, hāunga ērā ka kīia he take tika hei pupuri i te utu a tētahi hoa Tiriti pono – he āhuatanga ruarua tēnei, kāore tonu pea e pērā’4
  • kei te Karauna te mana whakahaere – kāore ngā mātāpono tiriti e whakamana i te whakaitinga o te mana kāwanatanga, kia kotiti rānei i ngā kaupapa ka horahia e ia. Waihoki,  kāore he take hei herehere i te Kāwanatanga, hei taupatupatu tērā ki ngā mātāpono tiriti’.5 Ki tā tētahi atu kaiwhakawā o te kēhi ki a Gordon Bisson, ‘e hāngai ai ki ngā mātāpono o te tiriti, me whakarato ture tonu te Karauna kia eke ai ngā hiahia o te hapori whānui, me te whai whakaaro tonu ki ngā take ōhanga me ētahi atu kaupapa o te rā’.6

Ētahi atu kēhi

I muri i te kēhi whenua o te tau 1987, arā anō ngā kēhi i whai wāhi ai ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko ēnei ētahi o aua kēhi:

  • Te Kaunihera Māori ki te Kaiwhakawā Matua i te tau 1989 e pā ana ki ngā rawa ngahere
  • Te Poari o Tainui ki te Kaiwhakawā matua i te tau 1989 e pā ana ki te waro
  • Te Kaunihera Māori ki te Kaiwhakawā Matua i te tau 1991 e pā ana ki ngā iarere irirangi
  • Te Kaunihera Māori ki te Kaiwhakawā Matua i te tau 1992 e pā ana ki ngā rawa pāpāho.

I te tau 1994 ka kī ake tētahi kaiwhakawā o te Kōti Teitei, ‘kāore e kore he hua pai tō ngā mātāpono ki te Karauna, otirā kia ngana tonu ia ki te tiaki i te Māori i raro i te Tiriti’.7

Footnotes
    • New Zealand Maori Council v Attorney-General. New Zealand Law Reports 1 (1987): 643. Back
    • New Zealand Law Reports 1 (1987): 642. Back
    • New Zealand Law Reports 1 (1987): 664. Back
    • New Zealand Law Reports 1 (1987): 664–65. Back
    • New Zealand Law Reports 1 (1987): 665–66. Back
    • New Zealand Law Reports 1 (1987): 716. Back
    • Taiaroa v Minister of Justice unreported, 29 August 1994, McGechan J, HC Te Whanganui-a-Tara cp 99/94, p. 69. Back

Treaty principles developed through laws

Mai i te Ture Tiriti o Waitangi 1975 he maha atu ngā ture kua tūtohu, kua tuarua, ā, kua whakawhanake hoki i ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi. I te tau 2011 neke atu i te 30 ngā wāhanga ture e pā ana ki ngā mātāpono o te tiriti. Ko te nuinga o ēnei ture i pā ki ngā rawa whenua, heoi, arā anō ētahi atu pērā i te Ture Mātauranga o te tau 1989.

Ētahi tauira o te whakaurunga o ngā mātāpono ki ētahi ture:

  • ‘I roto i te whakahaerenga rawa taiao, kikokiko hoki me aro ki ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi (Ture Taiao 1986).
  • Kia kaua tētahi wāhanga o tēnei Ture e tuku i te Karauna kia takatakahi i ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi’ (Ture Rawa Kāwanatanga 1986).
  • Ka whakamāramatia, ka whakaritea hoki tēnei Ture kia whai mana ai ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi (Ture Papa Atawhai 1987)
  • Ko ngā tāngata katoa ka whakamahi i ngā mana whakamahi, whakawhanake, manaaki taiao, rauemi kikokiko hoki me whai whakaaro anō ki ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi (Ture Manaaki Taiao 1991).
  • ‘Ko ngā tāngata katoa ka whakamahi i ngā mana kei raro i tēnei ture me whai whakaaro ki ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi' (Ture Manawa Whenua Karauna 1991).

Ture Hao Ika

I roto i te Ture Hao Ika 1983 ko tētahi wāhanga ārahi e kī ana, kore rawa taua ture e whakawaimeha i ngā mana hao ika o te Māori. I te tau 1990 ka whakapae Te Rūnanga o Muriwhenua kei te takahi te pūnaha hao ika (o te tau 1986) i tēnei ture ārahi. Ka whakaae te Kōti Pīra ki tā te rūnanga, ā, ka kī rātou he taonga ora te tiriti ki Aotearoa nei. Nā te murunga whakaaro kore o ngā ika i ngā tauranga ika Māori tūturu, kua ara mai he āhuatanga kīhai i mōhiotia i te hainatanga o te tiriti


Treaty principles developed by the Waitangi Tribunal

Pūrongo Ngāi Tahu

I te tau 1991 ka rangahau te taraipiunara i ngā nawe tiriti o te iwi o Te Waipounamu o Ngāi Tahu.

E takoto ana i te toi tuakiri

Ko te ingoa kārangaranga o te kēreme i whakatakotoria e Ngāi Tahu ki te aroaro o te taraipiunara ko ‘ngā rākau teitei e  iwa’. He ingoa tēnei ka puea ake i ngā kerēme matua e iwa a Ngāi Tahu ki te Karauna. E ai ki te pūrongo a Te Rōpū Whakamana ka taea tonutia te whakauru ngā mātāpono tiriti ki ērā atu ture, nātemea ‘kua tūturu ngā mātāpono ki Aotearoa nei. Otirā kei roto tonu i ngā mātāpono te toi tuakiri o Aotearoa e takoto ana.’1

I tīkina e te pūrongo (toru puka) muru whenua a Ngāi Tahu i te tau 1987 ki ngā kōrero mātāpono tiriti o te kēhi whenua 1987 hei wāhanga o ōna whakamārama. I takea mai i tēnei pūrongo ko te whakapaparanga mātāpono tiriti i puea anō ki ngā kerēme maha i ngā tau ka hori.

I roto i te pūrongo a Ngāi Tahu ka kōrero te taraipiunara mō te mātāpono pū kei roto i te tiriti, arā te ‘mātāpono o te tauhokohoko’. Kei roto noa i te mātāpono o te tauhokohoko ko te utu – ‘ko te utu mō te mana kāwanatanga ko te mana a te Māori kia pupuri tonu te tino rangatiratanga a ngā iwi ki runga ki ō rātou whenua me ō rātou taonga katoa’.2

Ka tūtohu anō te taraipiunara i ētahi atu mātāpono tiriti:

  • I te tau 1991 ka kī ake te taraipiunara, ‘Ko te utu mō te tuku a te Māori i te mana rangatiratanga ki te Karauna ko te manaakitanga a te Karauna i te tino rangatiratanga Māori.’3
  • E hāngai pū ana ngā mātāpono o te mahitahi me te pono ki te mātāpono o te tauhokohoko. He hononga te tiriti i waenganui i te Māori me te Karauna, otirā kia tika ngā mahi, ina āta whakaarotia, ā, kia pono pū tētahi taha ki tētahi. 4
  • * E ai ki te tikanga o te manaaki tōhau nui o te Karauna i te Māori, kāore e taea e te Karauna te tiaki i te Māori mena ia ka karo i ngā takahitanga o te tiriti. Engari ia me tū tonu te Karauna ki te tiaki i ngā mana tiriti o te Māori hei whakahōnore i te tiriti. I kī anō te taraipiunara ko te ‘kupu taurangi’ (guarantee) he hōhonu ake i te tuku noa iho mā te Māori anō e whakaharakoa ki tōna reo me tōna ahurea. Me rapu huarahi tūturu hei manaakitanga i te Māori kia pai ai tōna mau ki ngā taonga reo, me tōna ahurea.’5
  • I hua ake te kawenga kaitiaki o te Karauna i te tekau tau 1990, arā, i te whakataunga o te Karauna i ētahi rawa pērā i ngā pāpāho irirangi me te pūngao. Ko te kawenga kaitiaki i konei ko te pono o te hoa o raro (te Māori) e mahi pono ana te hoa o runga (te Karauna) mō ā rāua painga anō. Kua kī te taraipiunara, ‘I te mea ko te kāwanatanga te mana nui o tēnei hononga, he kawenga kaitiaki tōna hei tiaki i ngā painga a te Māori.’6
  • Ko te tikanga o te mātāpono kōwhiri, kia āhei te Māori ki te whai i te huarahi nāna i whakatakoto. Ka whakamārama te taraipiunara ka tiaki te tiriti i ngā mana Māori, ā, ka tukuna hoki te mana tangata Peretānia.7 Ko te hua, ka taea e te Māori te hīkoi i ngā ao e rua, ā, māna rawa e tohu ki hea hīkoi ai. 
  • He roa te wā e hanga haeretia ana te mātāpono whakawhitiwhiti kōrero. I mua atu ka whakaarotia he ātawhaitanga noa te whakamōhio a te Karauna i te Māori, engari kua huri kē tēnei hei kawenga. I te tau 1999 ka kī te taraipiunara, ‘Ki tō mātou titiro mā te kōrero ka hua ake te hononga pono i waenganui i ngā hoa o te Tiriti … me kimi me rapu te huarahi pai mō te katoa e hāngai tonu ai ki ngā mātāpono tiriti.’8
  • Ko te mātāpono o te whakawhanake te mātāpono e pā rawa ai te tiriti ki ngā rawa me ngā hangarau kāore i kitea i te wā i hainatia e ngā hoa tiriti i te tau 1840. I te tau 1993 ka kī te taraipiunara kāore e taea te whakawhāiti i ngā hiahia a te Māori ki te horopaki o te wā o te tiriti, ā, ka whakaurua hoki te mana ki te whakawhanake rawa hei oranga ohaoha. Engari i te kerēme huarākau kiwi i te tau 1995 ka kī ake te taraipiunara, ‘ki tō mātou titiro, e kore e taea te kukume ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti kia whakawhānuitia te tika ki te whakawhanake i te taonga ki runga tonu i te ahuhoko huarākau kiwi i ēnei rā.’9
Footnotes
    • Tohutoro in W. H. Oliver, Claims to the Waitangi Tribunal. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Department of Justice, 1991, p. 81. Back
    • Waitangi Tribunal, Report of the Waitangi Tribunal on claims concerning the allocation of radio frequencies. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Brooker and Friend, 1990, p. 237. Back
    • Waitangi Tribunal, The Ngai Tahu report 1991. Vol. 1. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Brooker and Friend, 1991, p. 236. Back
    • The Ngai Tahu report 1991, Vol. 1, pp. 242–243. Back
    • Waitangi Tribunal, Report of the Waitangi Tribunal on the Orakei claim. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Brooker and Friend, 1987, p. 135. Back
    • Waitangi Tribunal, Te Maunga Railways Land report. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Brooker’s, 1994, pp. 67–68. Back
    • Waitangi Tribunal, Report of the Waitangi Tribunal on the Muriwhenua fishing claim. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Department of Justice, 1988, p. 195. Back
    • Waitangi Tribunal, Radio Spectrum Management and Development final report. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Brooker’s, 1999, pp. 38–39. Back
    • Waitangi Tribunal, Kiwifruit marketing report 1995. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Brooker’s, 1995, p. 14. Back

Treaty principles developed by the Crown

I te tau 1989 ko te kāwanatanga Reipa te kāwanatanga tuatahi ki te whakatakoto i ētahi mātāpono hei ārahi i ana mahi e pā ana ki te tiriti.

Ko ngā mātāpono ēnei:

  • kei te kāwanatanga te mana kāwanatanga, mana hanga ture
  • kei te iwi te mana ki te whakarite i a rātou anō me te whakarite i ā rātou rawa
  • he ōrite ngā tāngata katoa o Aotearoa
  • me kōrero tahi te kāwanatanga me ngā iwi mō ngā kaupapa nui e pā ana ki a rātou
  • kei te kāwanatanga te kawenga ki te whakarato i ngā huarahi hei whakaea i ngā nawe, otirā me tūmanako e ia ka taea te whakaea.

Tae noa ki te tau 2011, kāore tētahi kāwanatanga atu i whakamārama i ētahi mātāpono tiriti hou, engari i hoki atu ētahi (pērā i a Nāhinara i te tau 1991) ki ngā mātāpono i puta i te tau 1989.

He āwhina mō te Tiriti

Kua puta te whakahē a ētahi Māori ki ngā mātāpono hanga a te kāwanatanga, me te whakapae kei te hanga houtia e ia te Tiriti i raro i te tirohanga kotahi. Heoi ka kaupare tonu te Pirimia a David Lange i ngā tao kupu mō ngā mātāpono, ā, ka whakahokia ‘ko ōna kaupapa he āwhina i te kāwanatanga ki te whakatau take e pā ana ki te Tiriti.’1

Te tohe i ngā mātāpono

I te whakaurunga tuatahi o ngā mātāpono tiriti ki te ture i te tau 1975, ka whakatau tētahi māngai Paremata ‘mā aua mātāpono e whakapātaritari, e wehewehe te motu’.2 I te tau 2006 ka hora a Aotearoa Tuatahi i te Pire Whakakore i ngā Mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi’. Ko te matū o te pire ‘ko te whakakore i te hapa i pā ki ngā iwi katoa i te tau 1986, arā, i te whakaurunga o ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi ki roto ki te ture.’ Ka hinga taua pire, ā, ka noho tonu ngā kōrero mō ngā mātāpono tiriti ki roto ki te ture. Ko te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, ko ngā kōti rā hoki ka whakamārama haere tonu i ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Footnotes
    • Tohutoro Matthew Palmer, The Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand’s law and constitution. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Victoria University Press, 2008, p. 139. Back
    • New Zealand Parliamentary Debates (Hansard), 1975, No. 33, p. 4,345. Back

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Janine Hayward, 'Ngā mātāpono o te tiriti', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-matapono-o-te-tiriti/print (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by Janine Hayward, published 20 Jun 2012