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Ngā rōpū tautohetohe – Māori protest movements

by Basil Keane

Kua roa te Māori e pakanga ana mō ngā take whenua, te reo Māori, me te mahi kaikiri. Ko Hōne Heke tērā i turaki i te pou haki i Kororāreka. Ko te noho i Parihaka anō tērā i tohe mārire ki ngā rūri whenua raupatu. I te tau 1975 ko te hīkoi whenua Māori ki te Whare Paremata.


Historic Māori protest

Ngā mautohe mai i te tekau tau 1960

Ka puea mai ngā rōpū mautohe i te takihōhā o te iwi whānui ki ngā take kaikiri ki konei, ki tāwāhi hoki. Ka mutu i te tekau tau 1960 ka ātetehia tēnei mea te pakanga, ka whakatangatangahia te tino rangatiratanga o te tangata whenua, ā, ka uru whakaara ngā take wāhine. Nō konei tonu ara anō ai ngā take Māori.

Ngā porotū i mua

Porotū mana motuhake

Kāore e ārikarika te tauira o te totohe a te Māori. I te tau 1844 me te tau 1845 ka poro a Hōne Heke i te pou haki o Peretānia i tū ki Kororāreka. E whā ngā wā ka turaki ia i te pou haki.

I te tīmatanga o te rautau 1800 ka whakahē te Māori ki ngā tāke kurī. Ko ētahi ka whiua ki te herehere mō te kore utu tāke. Ko te pakarutanga mai o te pakanga tāke kurī i mauheretia ai ngā Māori o Rāwene ki Hokianga.

Porotū whenua

He take whenua te nuinga o ngā mautohe. He aukati rūri te mahi, he huhuti pou rūri tā ētahi, he tahu i ngā puni a ngā kairūri me te pana hoki i a rātou. I Te Waipounamu ko te noho a te matakite a Te Maihāroa ki te teihana hipi ki Ōmarama. Whitirere ki Parihaka ko Te Whiti-o-Rongomai rāua ko Tohu Kākahi tērā i āki i te raupatu kia whakakorea ngā pou rūri me te parau anō i ngā whenua raupatu.

Ka whai petihana tonu te Māori ki te whare paremata e ū ai ōna nawe whenua ki ngā taringa o te Paremata. He huhua ngā tira i haere ki Ingarangi kia whakatakoto i ā rātou take ki te ūpoko ariki o Ingarangi.

Porotū roto moana

He maha ngā tohetohe ka pupū ake i te wai, inā rā ngā pātaka kai hoki a te iwi. I te tekau tau 1890 ka whakamātau te Pākehā kia karia te tāhuna i te pūaha o te roto o Ōnoke (kei Wairarapa) kia kore ai hoki te waipuke. Engari nātemea he pātaka kai, tuna hoki tērā wāhi ki ngā iwi o reira ka aukatia e rātou te awakari. Kātahi ka tahuri ki te whakakīkī anō i te kōrua. Nāwai ka tau ko te petihana a te rangatira o Ngāti Kahungunu, ara a Piripi Te Maari-o-te-rangi ki te Paremata.

Reanga mautohe hou

I ngā tekau tau o te 1950 me te 1960 he mārire tonu ngā porotēhi ki ngā mahi a te kāwanatanga. He tuhi reta, he whakarite petihana, he tuku tauākī, he tuku rangapū hoki ki te kāwanatanga ētahi o ngā mahi nui a te Rōpū Wāhine Māori Toko i te Ora me te Kaunihera Māori. Nō te pito o te tekau tau 1960 araara haere ake ngā tauā mautohe, ā, ko te mahi he whakapātaritari ki te tūmatanui. Kāore hoki he aha ki a rātou te mauherehere, kāti i ū tonu rātou ki ngā momo porotēhi katoa.


Waitangi Day protests

Te Rā o Waitangi

He whakatenetene tonu rā te mahi ki te Rā o Waitangi, otirā ki te Tiriti o Waitangi i tāmokotia i te 6 o ngā rā o Pēpuere i te tau 1840. Nō te takohatanga o te whare tiriti me tōna papa e Rore Bledisloe i te tau 1932, huataki ake ngā rā whakanui i te Tiriti o Waitangi. E rua tau i muri mai i tōna tukunga mai 10,000 ngā Māori ka puta ki te rā o Waitangi i te tau 1934. I te rautau o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1940, ka whakapuaki a Tā Āpirana Ngata i te māharahara o te iwi Māori ki te noho a ngā iwi tāngata o te motu.

Te Rā o Aotearoa

I runga i te Ture o te Rā o Waitangi ka whakataua te 6 o Pēpuere hai rā motuhake mō te motu. Nō te tau 1974 kātahi rawa ka tū te rā hai rangi whakangā, ā, ka huaina kētia ko te rā o Aotearoa. Ki tā ngā toa o ngā mautohe he whakaparahako tēnei i te mana o te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ngā porotū tuatahi

I te tau 1971 ka whakarite te rōpū o Ngā Tamatoa i ngā whakapātari tuatahi ki Waitangi. I te tau 1973 ka mau rātou i ngā tūtohu ringa pango, hai tohu i te rironga atu o ngā whenua Māori. Ko ētahi kīanga rongonui i tērā wā ko ‘Honour the treaty’ me ‘The treaty is a fraud’. Nō te tau 1979 ka tahuri te Komiti Mahi o Waitangi ki te māhoi atu ki ngā totohe ki Waitangi. Ko te whakawāhinga o Tā Kereama Rātima rāua ko Kahurangi Whina Cooper tērā i kōkiritia e ngā kaimautohe hai whakamau ki ngā āhuatanga ki te rā i Waitangi. He kitenga hoki tēnei ki te tōtara wāhi rua a ētahi o ngā rangatira me ngā kaiporotēhi.

Te hīkoi o te tau 1984

I te rā o Waitangi i te tau 1984 ka rautakina te hīkoi mai i Ngāruawāhia ki Waitangi. E kīa ana koinei te takiwā tino kaha te whakatūtū puehu ki Waitangi. Ko te tumuākī o te hīkoi ko Eva Rickard; ko tōna hēkeretari ko Titewhai Harawira. I te whaitua o te 4,000 te huhua o te tauā mautohe i whakatika atu ki Waitangi; e tūmanako ana kia tūtaki atu ki te Kāwana Tianara a David Beattie, eaoia pākatia atu i te piriti i Waitangi. Whai muri ka kuhu ko Te Kawariki (o te hiku) ki te porotēhi ki te rā o Waitangi.

Ngā auheke tōrangapū – mai i te tau 1990

I te rautau rima tekau o Waitangi i te tau 1990, ka pere tētahi tuawahine Māori i tōna tīhāte ki te Kuini a Irihāpeti Tuarua o Ingarangi. Waihoki ko te kauhau a te Pīhopa o Aotearoa, a Te Whakahuihui Vercoe; i puakina e ia ngā ngoikore o te Karauna kia hōnoretia te tiriti.

Mō te hunga tōrangapū hai reira tonu ngā uauatanga. I te tau 1998 ka heke ngā roimata o Helen Clark (i tērā wā koia te kaiārahi o te rōpū āpiti) i te wero a Titewhai Harawira i te kaumātua o Ngāpuhi mōna i whakaae kia tū te wahine Pākehā ki te kōrero i runga marae. I te tau 2004 i te wā i a ia te pirimia ka ueuetia a Clark, me te pirimia i te tau 2009, a Hone Kī.


Land protests

Ngā mautohe whenua o mua

Mai anō i ngā tau o te 1800 e whakamau tohe ana te Māori ki ōna whenua. Ko ngā petihana ērā, ko ngā noho whenua ērā, ko te tūkino pou rūri tērā. Kātahi ka waihanga ko ngā haumī ā-iwi i te Kīngitanga me te Kotahitanga. Arā anō te rōpū kotahitanga i hangā i Te Matau-a-Māui hai whakataringa mō ngā hoko whenua mūrere, kanene hoki.

Te hīkoi whenua o te tau 1975

I te tau 1975 ka rewa ake te hīkoi whenua mai noa i Te Hāpua ki te hiku o te ika tae rawa ki te whare paremata. Ko te whenua te ito. Nā te akamatua tuatahi o te Rōpū Wāhine Māori nā Whina Cooper i takitaki whenua te hīkoi, otiia i raro i te maru o te Rōpū o te Matakite. Anō te rite o tēnei hīkoi ki tērā o ngā Iniana o Amerika, arā te Trail of Broken Treaties i tū ki Amerika i te tau 1972. Eaoia ko te whakamīharotanga pea o te hīkoi ko te kotahitanga mai o ngā whakahaerenga a te Māori, pēnei i te Kīngitanga, te Kaunihera Māori, Ngā Tamatoa, te Rōpū Wāhine Māori, me ētahi anō i urupū.

Nō te 14 o Mahuru (te rangi o te reo Māori) ka mawehe te hīkoi i Te Hāpua. Nā Whina Cooper i huataki ake, me te haere kōtui i te taha o tana mokopuna a Irene. I te 13 o Oketopa 1975 ka tau iho te waitaua ki te tauparenga o te whare paremata. I whakaritea te kirihipi tikanga, ka hainatia e te 60,000 tāngata, ā, ka tukua ki te pirimia, ki a Bill Rowling. Ko te kaupapa o te kirihipi ko te whakakore i ngā ture tango whenua me te rāhui i te whenua Māori mō ake tonu atu. Ka kī a Rowling ka whakaratangia e ia ngā raruraru, engari kāore i rata ētahi o te rōpū mautohe. Ka whakatūria e te rōpū 60 tētahi kāinga māngai i te Whare Mīere, ā, ka noho i reira.

Takaparawhā

I ngā tau o te 1977-78 ka ārahi a Joe Hawke i te noho a te Māori Action Group ki Takaparawhā mō ngā rangi e 506. I tōna wā he mea tāpui ēnei whenua mō te kore hoko, engari nāwai ka wetewetekina te mana whenua o Ngāti Whātua. E 800 ngā pirihimana i mauhere i ngā kaimautohe e 200. Ka noho ka noho kātahi ka tāmokohia te kirimana tiriti, ā, ka whakahokia a Takaparawhā ki te ahi kā ki a Ngāti Whātua.

Te papa hahaupōro i Whāingaroa

I te tekau tau 1970 ko te papa hahaupōro o Whāingaroa te ito o ngā rīriri. Nō te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka tīnaohia taua whenua mō ngā mahi waka tauā rere. I te mutunga o te pakanga kāore ngā whenua i whakahokia – ā, ka hangaia te papa hahaupōro tūmatawhānui. Ko Eva Rickard te kaikōkiri i te urupare a te iwi, ā, i mauheretia ia me ōna tāngata i te rua tuaiwa o te papa. Nāwai ka whakahokia taua whenua.

Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti

Ko tētahi hua i ngā porotēhi ko te waihanganga o te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1975. I tōna tīmatanga kia kaua te taraipiunara e mātai ki ngā take o mua. Engari i te tau 1985 ka whakaturea tōna hanga kia tirohia anōtia ngā whatinga ture o te tiriti mai anō i te tau 1840. Nā tēnei panoni pea i tāmōmō ai te taikaha o ētahi porotēhi take whenua.

Pākaitore

Mai i te Pēpuere ki te Mei o te tau 1995 ka hikaia te ahi ki Pākaitore (ko Moutoa Gardens te ingoa Pākehā), arā te wāhi kei reira te whare kōti o Whanganui. Ko te koronga kia tutuki pai katoa tō rātou kokoraho. Nāwai ka tau te whakaaetanga i waenganui i ngā taha e toru, arā te iwi, te kāwanatanga me te kaunihera. Ko te whakatūnga tērā o te Pākaitore Trust ki te whakahaere i te whare kōti me te whenua.

Ngāwhā me Te Kurī a Pāoa

I te tau 2002 ko te noho ki Ngāwhā, i te Tai Tokerau mō te whakahē i te hanganga o tētahi whare herehere. E ai ki te iwi o reira he wāhi tapu, inā rā hai reira te rua o te taniwha ko Taukere te ingoa. Hāunga tonu te noho, ka whakatū tonutia te whare herehere.

Ko te hokotanga atu o Te Kurī a Pāoa ki rāwāhi tētahi take ongaonga ki te mana whenua ki a Ngāi Tāmanuhiri. Nāwai i runga i ngā whakatau me te kaihoko ka huaina tērā wāhi he whenua rāhui ā-motu.


Rugby and South Africa

Nō ngā tau o te 1960 rā anō tīmata ai ngā porotēhi ki te āhua o te noho kaikiri ki Awherika ki te Tonga. I mua atu i tēnei i tākaro te kapa whutupaoro Māori ki a Awherika ki te Tonga i te tau 1921 me te tau 1956. Otirā e ai ki te tuhi hiko a te kaituhi o Awherika ki te Tonga mō te kēmu ki Ahuriri i te tau 1921:

He kino kē te takaro ki te kapa e tapaina ko ngā tāngata whenua o Aotearoa. Te tiro noa ki te manomano Pākehā e whakahau ana i te rōpū kiri paraone kia whakahinga i ō rātou tāngata nō te iwi mā he weriweri ki te tima o Awherika ki te Tonga.1

Te haerenga o te tau 1960

I te tau 1960 ka mārama kāore a Awherika ki te Tonga mō te whakaae kia uru ko ngā kaitākaro Māori ki te kapa Ōpango. Ko te tīmatanga anō tērā o te Uepu Whutupaoro o Aotearoa ki te tuku i ngā tīma i tohua i runga i te kaikiri. Ahakoa kua whakarērea kētia ngā Māori ki te kāinga i mua atu, koinā te wā tuatahi i ara ake ai ētahi whakahē mārika ki tērā āhua. Ka puea ake ngā kīanga pēnei, ‘No Maoris, No Tour’. Ko te ārahi anō tērā a te Pīhopa Mihinare a Wiremu Pānapa te petihana kia ōrite te mana o te Māori me te Pākehā. Engari ka haere tonu te tira o ngā Ōpango.

I te tau 1967 ka whakakorea te haere ki Awherika ki te Tonga mō te kore whaiaro anō ki te Māori.

He tangata hōnore mā

I te haerenga ki Awherika ki te Tonga i te tau 1970, ka tau tētahi whakaaetanga mō ngā kaitākaro Māori (me ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa), arā kia huaina rātou he ‘tangata hōnore mā (honorary whites)’. Heoi ka wheke tonu ētahi. Ko te whakatūnga tērā o HART (Halt All Racist Tours) i te tau 1969; ko te Māori tonu te ai o tērā kaupapa. Heoi ka haere tonu te tira whutupaoro ko Sid Going (he Māori) rāua ko Bryan Williams (nō Hāmoa) ētahi kiri parauri i haere. I whakaae te Kauniuhera Māori ki te haerenga, engari i whakahē tonu te Rōpū Wāhine Māori.

I te tau 1973 ka whakatārewahia e te Pirimia e Norman Kirk ngā mautohe i tōna whakakore i te haerenga mai o te kapa Springbok ki Aotearoa. He mea tīpako hoki tērā tīma i runga i te kaikiri.

Te haerenga mai o ngā Springbok i te tau 1981

I te tau 1981 ka whakaaetia te haerenga mai o te kapa Springbok ki Aotearoa, ā, ka pahū ake te riri whakauaua tē kitea ki Aotearoa i mua. He kitenga tēnei nō te whanake haere mai o ngā rōpū mautohe take Māori me ngā rōpū whakahē i te weheruatanga ā-iwi. Ko te Patu Squad tērā i ngārahutia ngā tuatangata Māori i a Ripeka Evans rātou ko Donna Awatere, ko Hone Harawira. I te takiwā o te 100 ōna mema, ko te nuinga he Māori. Heoi i tukituki anō ngā whakaaro o ngā rōpū mautohe pēnei i a HART. Kāore hoki i pai ki ētahi o ngā rōpū Pākehā ngā take whenua, mana motuhake hoki a ngā Māori. Engari kia taikaha mārika ngā mautohe he nui tonu ngā mea i mauheretia.

Ngā hua porotū

Ko te haerenga o te tau 1981 te wā whakamutunga e tākaro ai Aotearoa me Awherika ki te Tonga i raro i te pūnaha kaikiri. Whai muri i ngā pakanga ki rō kōti ka whakakorea tētahi haerenga ki Awherika ki te Tonga, engari i haere tonu tētahi kapa i te tau i muri mai. Kia hinga rā anō te pūnaha kaikiri o Awherika ki te Tonga i tekau tau 1990, tahi ka māramatia i Awherika ki te Tonga ngā tino whakapau kaha a te hunga whakahē i konei. Ka mahara a Nelson Mandela mō tōna koa nōna i te whare herehere i Robben Island, i te rongo ake kua whakakorehia te kēmu i Kirikiriroa i te kaha rawa o ngā totohe.2 Ki a ia kātahi ka whitikina ia e te rā. Nō te putanga mai o Mandela ki Aotearoa i te tau 1995, ka whakatau ia me tūtaki rawa ki ngā kaiārahi o ngā mautohe, Pākehā mai, Māori mai hoki. I te tau 1994 ka kī ake te Pirimia a Jim Bolger he hapa te haerenga mai o ngā Springboks i te tau 1981.

I te tau 2010 ka tuku te Uepū Whutupaoro o Awherika ki te Tonga i te whakapahā mō te whakakore i te uru o ngā kaitākaro Māori i te wā o te kaikiritanga. Whai muri ko te whakapahā a te Uepū Whutupaoro o Aotearoa, ahakoa i meatia i mua paku ehara tērā i te wā tika kia tuku hōnea atu.

Footnotes

Cultural rights

Reo Māori

I te tau 1972 ka takoto te petihana mō te reo Māori ki te whare paremata. Ko te tono a Ngā Tamatoa me te Rōpū Reo Māori mā kia ākona te reo Māori ki ngā kura katoa. E 30,000 ngā tāngata i haina te petihana, i taupaea i te 14 o ngā rā o Mahuru (ko te rangi o te reo Māori). I poua anō te kokoraho reo Māori ki te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. I te tau 1986 ka puta te pūrongo a te taraipiunara.

I te tau 1995 nā Ken Mair o Whanganui i tohe ki te whakataunga a Whakaata Aotearoa ki te whakakore i a Te Karere. Ko te tomohia tērā o te taiwhanga pāhō o Hōngere 1 i te wā o te pāhōtanga matua i te ono karaka.

He Tauā

I te 1 o Haratua i te tau 1979 ka tūmatakina atu te rōpū tauira Māori o He Tauā ki ētahi tauira Pākehā o te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki-makaurau mō tā rātou whakaparahako i te haka. Ko ā rātou mahi tauhea he mau piupiu, he tāmoko i te kupu kanga me te ure ki o rātou tinana tae atu ki te whakatakē i te Māori. Kua roa hoki te whakapā a ngā tauira Māori ki ngā kaiwhakahaere o te wānanga, engari auare ake. Whai muri ka taka ētahi hāmene ki ngā toa o He Tauā, tae atu ki te mahi tūtū puehu. He mea tumeke tonu i te tautoko mai o te iwi Māori, ā, kore rawa i hakaina anō taua haka.

Porotū haki Māori

I te tau 1989 ka whakahaeretia tētahi whakataetae tīpako kara Māori, e te rōpū o Te Kawariki. Ko tētahi i tohua, ā, ka whakapuakina ko te tino rangatiratanga. I ngā tau tōmua o te tau Ruamano, ka whakamātau a Te Ata Tino Toa ki te whakarere i te haki ki runga o te Piriti Matua o Tāmaki i te rā o Waitangi. Whai muri i ētahi whakapātaritari me te kōwhiringa o te haki hai haki Māori, ka tīmata tōna whakarere ki runga i te piriti matua mai i te tau 2010.


Government proposals

Ko ētahi take tātarāmoa ka hua mai i ngā hanganga ture kāwanatanga.

Pūrongo Hunn

Kātahi ka kirikawa anō te Māori i te putanga o te pūrongo a Hunn i te tau 1961, i whakahaua ai kia taka te whenua Māori ki raro i te taitara whenua Pākehā. Tāpiri atu, me hoko rawa ngā whenua paku kāore i te whakamahia. Ahakoa ngā painga o ēnei panoni, ka kore anō e arohia ngā hiahia Māori kia mau tonu ngā here ki te wā kāinga. Nō ngā ātete ki tēnei pūrongo, ka hua ake te kōrero ‘Not one more acre’.

Kōpaki pūtea

I te tau 1995 ka whakahua te kāwanatanga i tōna kaupapa kōpaki pūtea. Nō tērā whakatau ka noho te nuinga moni mō ngā kerēme ki te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki te $1 piriona. Nō ngā hui whakararata i te tau 1995, ka mea te ūpoko o Te Puni Kōkiri a Wira Gardiner, kia kaua te Māori e keu i te hēteri. Kātahi ka tū te porotū nui ki waho i ngā tari o Te Puni Kōkiri. I te otinga ake, kāore i mana te kōpaki pūtea.

Takutai moana

Ka noho, ka noho tonu te whakapae ā-ture, tērā ia kei te noho pōhēhē te ture ki ngā mana o te Māori ki te takutai moana. He mea whakamātau tēnei e Ngāti Apa, i tā rātou kēhi ki te Kōti Pīra. I whakatau tērā kōti kei te Kōti Whenua Māori te whakatau mutunga. Engari i mua i tō rātou rā ki te kōti, ka whakataruna te kāwanatanga ki te huripoki i te whakataunga a te Kōti Pīra mā te hanga ture anō. Nō konei te Hīkoi Takutai moana o te tau 2004 hua ake ai.

Ko tōna i pūāwai mai ko te waihangatia e Pita Sharples rāua ko Tariana Tūria mā o te Rōpū Tōrangapū Māori, hei whakawete i te ture i hurihia. Nāwai ka whakakapia tērā ture ki te Ture Takutai Moana 2011.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Basil Keane, 'Ngā rōpū tautohetohe – Māori protest movements', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-ropu-tautohetohe/print (accessed 9 March 2021)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012