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Ngā rōpū – Māori organisations

by Ngapare Hopa

Ko ngā rōpū Māori ngā kanohi o te Māori i roto i ngā hīkoinga i tēnei ao. Ahakoa mau tonu ngā tātai ā-iwi, hei ētahi wā ka whakarōpū anō ngā tāngata mō te take tōrangapū, take rangatiratanga, ngahau noa iho rānei.


19th-century Māori organisations

Ngā rōpū whakahaerenga iwi

I te ao o neherā ko te kāwai whakahaere o te ao Māori, ko te whānau, ko te hapū, ko te iwi. Nō te taunga mai o te Pākehā, ka rerekē haere ngā whakahaerenga ā-iwi, ā-tōrangapū hoki a te Māori. Hāunga te putanga mai o ngā rōpū hou i te rautau 1800, ka noho pū tonu te Māori ki ōna whānau, ki ōna marae kāinga.

Ngā rōpū ā-iwi

Nō te whakauka ki ngā muru whenua me ngā riri whenua ki te kāwanatanga ko te whakatūnga tērā o ngā haumi ā-iwi. I tērā rautau anō ka hua hoki ngā momo rōpū tōrangapū, whakapono hoki.

Te Wakaminenga

Āke pea ko te tauira tōmua o te whakahaerenga ā-iwi ko Te Wakaminenga o Nu Tirene. E huaina ana tēnei rōpū ki roto i Te Wakaputanga o te Rangatira o Nu Tirene.

I te 28 o ngā rā o Whiringa-ā-nuku 1835, ka whakaritea e te kainoho Pākehā, e James Busby ngā rangatira Māori kia waitohu te whakataunga nei. Ko te tikanga i te tau ka hui te rōpū nei, heoi kāore tērā i tatū. I whakapuakina tēnei rōpū ki roto i te Tiriti o Waitangi koia tonu nei tētahi o ngā rōpū e haina ana i te tiriti. Ko tōna ingoa i roto i te tiriti ko Te Wakaminenga o ngā Hapū o Nu Tireni.

Kīngitanga

Ka hua mai te Kīngitanga i ngā tau o te 1850 hei kaupare i ngā tāpaetanga whenua Māori. Ka uia te motu ka whakatauhia ko Te Wherowhero o Waikato hei kīngi Māori tuatahi. Nō muri ka huaina tōna ingoa ko Pōtatau Te Wherowhero.

Kua raupatuhia te nuinga o ngā whenua o ngā iwi o Waikato, ā, i pāngia kinotia te Kīngitanga. Heoi anō, kei te haere tonu ngā whakahaere o te Kīngitanga i te timatanga o te 2000.

Ngā rūnanga kāwanatanga

I te tekau tau 1860 ka whakamātau a Hōri Kerei ki te whakatū i ngā rūnanga kāwanatanga, e waru ōna kaikōmihana kāwanatanga, e 22 ngā kaiwhakawā tangata whenua. I te tau 1862 ka whakatūhia te rūnanga tuatahi ki Waimate. Ka whai hua ake te rūnanga i whakatūhia ki Muriwhenua i ētahi atu rohe.

Ngā hāhi Māori

Nō te taenga mai o te Whakapono Hou ki Aotearoa i ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1800 ka rūmene katoa te iwi Māori ki ōna whare karakia. Taro iho ko te aranga mai o ngā poropiti Māori me ngā hāhi i whakaritea ki te Kawenata Tawhito me te Kawenata Hou.

Ko Te Ua Haumēne te poropiti o te hāhi Pai Mārire. He kaupapa tōrangapū anō tō te hāhi Māori nei. Nō muri mai ka horapa ōna mihingare Hauhau ki Te Ika-ā-Māui me te kawe i te whakahau haere i te Pai Mārire ki ngā iwi maha.

He whakaminenga ā-iwi tonu tō ngā poropiti a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu ki te kāinga o Parihaka.

Ngā rōpū whakahē

I whanake mai ngā rōpū whakahe ki roto o Ngāti Kahungunu ki te Matau-ā-Māui i te tau 1871 hei atete i ngā tapaetanga whenua. Ko tona upoko ko Hēnare Matua, a, ko Te Wananga tona niupepa. Tokorua hoki ngā kaitorangapu i tautoko i tēnei rōpū, ko Henry Russell rāua ko John Sheehan.

Kotahitanga

Mai i te tekau tau 1880 ka tipu mai ngā rōpū kotahitanga. Ko tā rātou kaupapa matua he whakakao i ngā rōpū ā-iwi ki te tautohe mō ētahi ture tika mō te whenua. E rua ngā rōpū kotahitanga i te Tai Tokerau, ko tērā o Ngāpuhi, me tō Ngāti Whātua.

Nāwai ka tāwharautia ngā rōpū nei ki raro i te Paremata o Te Kotahitanga i te tekau tau 1890. He whakahaerenga ā-motu tēnei, ko ōna kaitautoko nō ngā iwi maha.


New Māori organisations, early 20th century

Ngā kaunihera Māori

I te tau 1900 e rua ngā ture ka whakamanahia mō te whakatū kaunihera whenua Māori me ngā kaunihera Māori. Ko ngā kaikaunihera he Māori, he Pākehā, hāunga nō muri mai ka noho te nuinga he Pākehā.

Ka whakaae ngā kaunihera Māori nei kia whakatū kaunihera anō ētahi o te iwi hei tautiaki i ngā take hauora, oranga hoki o te kāinga.

E mea ana ētahi kaikōrero ko te kaupapa ake o ēnei kaunihera he whakahē i te Paremata o Te Kotahitanga me te Kīngitanga. Ahakoa i noho ēnei kaupapa ki roto i ngā iwi, ngā marae rānei, he mea whakahaere tonu e te kāwanatanga.

Ngā tarahiti whenua me ngā kaporeihana Māori

Nāwai nā runga i ngā hanganga ture whenua hou ka kitea ko ngā tarahiti whenua me ngā kaporeihana ngā rōpū nui rawa mō te whakahaere whenua Māori. Ka riro te mana whakahaere mai i ngā whānau me ngā hapū ki ēnei whakaritenga e whakahaeretia ana e te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Te Rōpū Rangatahi Māori

I hangaia mai te Rōpū Rangatahi Māori ki te Kareti o Te Aute. Ko tōna kaiārahi ko Āpirana Ngata, heoi i tautoko tonu mai te tumuākī ko John Thornton. He maha ōna mema rongonui, arā ngā tauira o Te Aute o mua ko Ngata rātou ko Te Rangi Hīroa ko Māui Pōmare. Ko te aronga ake o tēnei rōpū ko te whakapai ake i ngā ture papori, hauora hoki mā roto mai i te Whare Paremata.

Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao

I te huakitanga o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka hangaia te rōpū Māori War Effort Organisation hei whakakaha i te whakaurunga o te Māori ki roto i te riri. Ko ngā kaiārahi o tēnei rōpū ko ngā mema paremata ko Paraire Paikea rāua ko Eruera Tirikātene. Ko Āpirana Ngata anō te tangata ā i te whakapau kaha te Māori ki te pakanga me tōna tautoko ki te whakatūnga o te Ope Hōia Māori Rua Tekau Mā Waru. Ka whakarōpūhia te noho a te ope hōia kia noho pū ngā toa ki roto i ō rātou rōpū ā-iwi.

Noho taone

Whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka hikipapa te nuinga o te iwi Māori ki ngā taone noho ai. He mea kāore i whakaaro ake, ka mutu ka pā tēnei ki te whakatipuranga kotahi. I te tau 1950, e 80 orau te Māori i noho taiwhenua, e 20 orau i noho taone. Nō te tau 1980, kua takahuri tēnei tatauranga.

Te Rōpū Wāhine

Nō te tau 1951 ka tū te hui tuatahi o te Rōpū Wāhine Māori Toko i te Ora. Ka ahu mai ngā kaihui i ngā komiti toko i te ora i whakatūhia e ngā Apiha Toko i te Ora Māori ki raro i te Ture Toko i te Ora o 1945. He tūranga nui tō te rōpū nei ki te āwhina i ngā whānau Māori e pokea ana i te noho taone.

Te Kaunihera Māori

I whakatūhia te Kaunihera Māori i te tau 1961 ki raro i te Ture Toko i te Ora o taua tau anō. I whakaarotia ka noho tēnei rōpū hei rōpū ā-motu mō ngā kōmiti Māori ā-rohe.

Mai i te tekau tau 1980 ka rongonui ake te kaunihera ā-motu mō tōna toa ki ngā whakataunga mōtika Māori e pā ana ki te Tiriti o Waitangi.


Protest organisations

Ngā rōpū porotū

Ki tā ētahi kaikōrero mō te ao Māori e kore e pahure te aha mai kore ake ngā mahi a te hunga porotū. E takea mai ana tēnei tikanga whakaaro i roto i te whāinga tino rangatiratanga.

He nui ngā rōpū mautohe ka puta mai, ko Ngā Tamatoa tērā, ko te Māori Graduates Association tērā ko Māori Organisation on Human Rights tērā. Ko Ngā Tamatoa rātou ko Te Reo Māori Society ko Ngā Kaiwhakapūmai i te Reo mā, i whawhai mā te nohonoho, ngā petihana paremata me ngā kereme ki te Taraipiunara mō te ako i te reo ki roto kura me ngā whakapāoho reo Māori.

Tutū ana te pūehu ki Waitangi i te whakapae he mahinga nanakia noa iho te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tuku haeretanga o ngā kāwanatanga i te tiriti kia takahia.

Te Rōpū Matakite

I te takiwā ki te tīmatanga o te tau 1975, ka ārahina e te ruahine me te perehitini taketake o te Rōpū Wāhine Māori e Whina Cooper tōna tira kahurangi o Te Rōpū Matakite ki Te Whanganui-ā-Tara. E 800 kiromita te matāra atu o tā rātou hīkoi, mai i Te Hāpua ki ngā pariparinga o te Whare Paremata. E 40,000 tāngata i rūpeke me te whakahau kia whakamutu te mahi tāhae whenua Māori. Nō te paunga o te tau ka waihangatia ki rō paremata te Ture Tiriti o Waitangi i hua ai te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ōrākei Māori Action Group

I ngā tau o te 1977 me te 1978, i runga i ngā arataki a te Ōrākei Māori Action Group ka nōhia te whenua taurikura o Tāmaki-makaurau, a Takaparawhā mō ngā rangi e 506 e whakahau ana i te kāwanatanga kia whakamana i tōna oati ki te iwi e kore taua whenua e hokona, ka mutu kia whakahokia aua whenua ki te iwi kāinga. I te rangi 507 ka peia atu rātou e te ope tauā pirihimana.

He maha anō ngā rōpū (whanaunga) kua hangaia hei noho i te whenua tautohe kia whakahokia ai ki ngā tāngata whenua Māori.

Waitangi Action Committee

I te tau 1981 ka whakakotahi mai ngā kaimautohe Māori me ētahi rōpū Pākehā ki raro i te awe o te Waitangi Action Committee ki te tohe ki ngā mahi kaikiri, takahi tāne/wahine, mahi whaiwhai moni me ngā mahi tāmi a te kāwanatanga. Ka haukoti rātou i ngā mahi whakanui o Waitangi, ā, ka tohe kanohi ki te kanohi ki ngā tauira Pākehā o te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki mō tā rātou whakaheahea i te haka i te hīkoi ā-tau o te kura. Heoti he mea tautoko katoa ō rātou whakapae, me tō rātou whakawātanga e ngā rōpū Māori pērā ki te Kaunihera Māori me te Rōpū Wāhine Māori Toko i te Ora. He nui ngā taunaki i tiritahitia e ēnei rōpū ki ngā tāwēwētanga i ngā taone, ka mutu ka whakapeto ngoi rātou ki ngā wāhanga hauora, mātauranga, noho, oranga hoki o te Māori me te whakaheke i ngā mahi taihara ki waenganui hoki i te hunga rangatahi. Ko ētahi anō pakanga ki te whai mahi me te whai wāhi noho a te Māori – he āhuatanga ēnei i pōhēhētia e ēnei rōpū ka taea i runga i te rangimārie.

Hīkoi ki Waitangi

Nā te Kōmiti Mahi o Waitangi, te Kaunihera Māori, te Rōpū Wāhine Māori Toko i te Ora, me ngā rōpū tōrangapū rua rautau te pakeke ko Te Kotahitanga me Te Kīngitanga i whakahaere te hīkoi ki Waitangi i te tau 1984 hei aukati i te Rā o Waitangi. He maha hoki ngā tūmomo tāngata i whakakotahi mai kia whakahonoretia te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Nāwai ka hurihia e te kāwanatanga te Ture Tiriti o Waitangi, arā, kia tirohia ngā kerēme tae rawa ki te tau 1840.


Māori educational initiatives

Toitū Kaupapa Mātauranga Māori

I te tau 1961 ka puta i te tumuākī o te Tari Māori a Jack Hunn te whakaaro kia waihangatia te Tūāpapa Mātauranga Māori hei whakatairanga i te reo Māori ki ngā kura tuarua me te whare wānanga. He maha ngā iwi puta noa i te motu i tautoko i te Tūāpapa Mātauranga Māori, ā, he maha hoki ngā kōmiti mahi moni, whakatairanga hoki i te kaupapa nei ki ngā whānau me ngā hapū.

Hāunga ngā whakapau tōtā a ngā rōpū Māori ki te tūāpapa nei, he iti noa iho ngā tāngata Pākehā i tahuri ki te awhi i a rātou, ā, i tōna mutunga iho ka tīkoki te kaupapa.

Kia ita ki te reo

Ko tā Hunn he whakatairanga i tana whakaaro kia taka mai te reo Māori ki raro i te mātauranga Pākehā. Ki a ia me te nuinga o ngā Pākehā kāore i tino whai hua te reo Māori – engari anō hei ngā Māori. I te tau 1973 ka petihana Ngā Tamatoa me ētahi atu rōpū ki te Whare Paremata kia whakamanahia te reo Māori ki ngā kura katoa o te motu. Nō te tau 1975 kua tīmata te whakaae ki ngā ākonga reo Māori ki ngā kura whakangungu kaiako. Whai muri i te tau 1976, ka whakaurua ēnei kaiako ki rō kura tuarua ako ai.

Ngā kōhanga reo me ngā kura

Ko te kōhanga reo tonu tētahi kaupapa whakaora reo i rongonuitia ai ki te ao whānui. He whanaketanga hou tērā nō te pūnaha mātauranga, ki reira whāngaihia te tamaiti Māori ki tōna ārero matua.

I roto i te rima tau, e 700 te rahi o ngā kōhanga reo kua whakatūhia ki tēnā kāinga ki tēnā marae, ā, e whakahaerehia ana e te kaitiakitanga ā-motu. Mai i te kōhanga, kua whanake te tamaiti ki te kura kaupapa Māori, ki ngā kura reo rua rānei. Kei te whakahaerehia ngā kura e ngāi Māori, mō ngāi Māori (me ētahi Pākehā e hiahia ana) ēngari ko te pūtea tautoko nā te kāwanatanga. Kua whakatongia te kaupapa Māori ki te mātauranga o Aotearoa e ngā kōhanga me ngā kura.

Kua whāia te tauira o te kohanga i tāwāhi e ngā tāngata whenua o reira mō ō rātou ake reo, ēngari he rerekē ngā hua i puta mai ai.

Ngā whare wānanga

I whakatūhia te Wānanga o Raukawa i te tau 1975 me tōna arotahi ki ngā nekeneke ā-hapū, ā-iwi hoki i roto i ngā iwi e toru o te taha whakarunga o te Ika-ā-Māui: a Ngāti Raukawa, a Ngāti Toarangatira me Te Āti Awa. Heoi kia eke te kokoraho tiriti, me te whakatūnga o ngā wānanga e rua kē atu, kātahi ka whai mana tēnei wānanga hei kaiwhakarato mātauranga taumata whare wānanga. Ka piripono te Wānanga o Raukawa ki ngā tikanga Māori hei whakarite i ngā whanonga o ōna tauira, tae atu ki te tapu o tēnei mea te mātauranga. Ko Te Wānanga o Raukawa te tuatahi kia ako ki ngā kāinga hapū. Mai anō i ōna taketakenga hūmārie, e 2,000 ngā tauira o tēnei wānanga i te tau 2010, ā, he maha ōna hōtaka mātauranga atu i te tohu paetahi ki te tohu paerua.

Ko Te Wānanga o Aotearoa me Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi anō ērā kua whai hīranga ake. He hōtaka ako marae anō ā rātou, ā, he maha ngā puni ako puta noa i te motu. I te tau 2010 e11 ngā puni ako o Te Wānanga o Aotearoa, ā, neke atu i te 30,000 ōna tauira.

He tohu paerua katoa tō ēnei wānanga, ka mutu ko Awanuiārangi te wānanga e rapu nei kia tū whakaihuwaka rātou ki ngā mahi whare wānanga taketake i roto i ngā tohu paerua, kairangi hoki.


Art, health and social groups

Toi whakaari

Arā anō ngā whakapau kaha ki te tikanga whakaaro Māori i te tekau tau 1970. Nō tērā wā kua hohouhia ngā tikanga he whānui he mārama hoki. He mea whakatere ēnei āhuatanga e ngā rōpū Māori e whakatairanga ana i ngā tikanga ake a te Māori.

Ka kaha haere ngā kapa haka pērā i a Ngāti Pōneke me Ngāti Ākarana tae atu ki ngā whakapono Māori. I te tau 1972 ka waihangatia te whakataetae kapa haka ā-motu i hua ake ai ko Te Matatini.

Ētahi atu mahi toi

Arā atu anō ngā rōpū pērā i Ngā Puna Waihanga (he rōpū tohunga tā, kaituhi Māori hoki i whakatūhia i te tau 1973) kua opeope i ngā toi raranga, whakaahua, whakaari, tuhi auaha hoki. Kei ngā hōtaka o runga marae ka akona te tangata ki ngā pūkenga o te tukutuku me te whakairo wharenui. Whai atu i tērā kua rangona anōtia ngā reo o ngā pūoro Māori pērā i te pūtōrino me te kōauau.

Marae taone

Nō muri i te heke nui ki ngā tāone, ka hiahia ngā Māori noho tāone ki ētahi marae mō rātou. I roto i te 25 tau, ka matomato te tipu mai o ngā marae ki ngā taone puta noa i te motu. Ko ētahi ka tūhono ki ō rātou iwi anake, pērā i a Te Puea (Māngere Piriti) me Mataatua (Rotorua). Ko ētahi he marae hāhi pērā i a Te Ūnga Waka (Tāmaki), Hui te Rangiora (Kirikiriroa) me Te Tātai Hono (Tāmaki). Arā anō ngā marae ā-iwi pērā i a Hoani Waititi me Ngā Hau e Whā ki Ōtautahi.

I whai ngā marae taone ki ērā i whakatūhia e Āpirana Ngata i ngā tau o 1930 arā kia noho ko ngā marae hei wāhi whakakotahi mō te iwi.

Hauora

I herea anō ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi ki te wāhanga hauora.

Ko ētahi kaupapa tōmua nā te hunga tapuhi ko te waihangatanga o Te Rōpū Tapuhi Māori hei kōkiri take hauora. Nā ō rātou werawera ka hua ngā tūmahi whakarato a te kāwanatanga pērā i ngā whare hauora marae, iwi rānei hoki, i whakarite ā-kirimanatia e te Tari Hauora me ngā Poari ā-Rohe. I te tau 2010 neke atu i te 230 ngā ratonga hauora Māori puta noa i te motu hei tautoko Kaupapa hauora maha mō te Māori nā te Māori. Ko Ngā Ngaru Hauora o Aotearoa te rōpū mō te hauora Māori.

Rōpū hapori, hākinakina

Arā tonu ngā kapa hākinakina Māori e paiheretia ana ki tēnei mea te iwitanga. He wairua whakawhanaunga tō ēnei huihuinga.

Ki ngā taone, koinei ngā kaupapa matua hei whakakotahi i ngā whānau Māori. Nō ngā tau whakamutunga o tērā rautau ka whai hīranga ake te waka ama puta noa i te motu, i Te Moananui-ā-Kiwa hoki.


Government, tribal and economic organisations

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Nā runga i ngā whakaputanga a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi me ngā whakataunga tiriti ka whakatūhia ngā rōpū Māori, o roto, o waho hoki o te kāwanatanga. I whakatūhia te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1975 hei whakatewhatewha i ngā kerēme, hei tohutohu hoki i te kāwanatanga ki ngā nawe mō ngā takahitanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Mai i te tau 1985, ka whakamanahia te taraipiunara kia tirotiro ki ngā take hītori.

I whakatūhia Ngā Kaitiaki Reti Ngahere Karauna i runga i te whakaaetanga i waenganui i te Karauna me te iwi Māori, ā, he maha ngā kokoraho ā-iwi kua kawea e tēnei rōpū mō ngā iwi whai whenua ngāherehere. I te tau 2008 ka whakahokia e te rōpū nei ngā moni ki ngā iwi i roto i te whakataunga i kīia ai ko ‘treelords’. I hua ake hoki Te Ohu Kaimoana i te whakataunga tiriti i riro mai ai tētahi wāhanga o te kamupene Sealord i te tau 1992.

Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori

He pūtahi kāwanatanga Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori i whakatūhia i te tau 1987 whai muri i ngā kitenga a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi he taonga te reo Māori, nā reira me whakamaru ki raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi tonu.

Whakahaerenga pāpāhō

Ko rātou kei te takawaenga i roto i te kāwanatanga me ngā iwi Māori ki te whakaputa i ngā ratonga kāwanatanga mō ngā kaupapa hauora, mātauranga, reo irirangi, pouaka whakaata hoki.

Ko tētahi hua i puta i te pūrongo reo Māori a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi ko te whakapāhō i te reo Māori.

Ka mutu, mai i te tau 1989 ki te tau 1994, e 21 ngā reo irirangi ka whakatūhia puta noa i Aotearoa. Kei raro katoa ēnei reo irirangi i te maru o Te Whakaruruhau o Ngā Reo Irirangi Māori.

I te tau 2004 ka tīmata te pāhō o Whakaata Māori. Nō te tau 2008 ka hua tōna hōngere whai pānga ko Te Reo.

Ngā manatū taone

I waihangatia Te Whānau o Waipareira i te tau 1984, ā, koinei tētahi o ngā manatū mō ngā tāngata Māori noho tāone. Ko ētahi atu ko Whānau Ora MUMA ki te Tai Tonga o Tāmaki, ko Te Rūnanga o Kirikiriroa, ko Te Rūnanganui o Te Ūpoko o Te Ika, ko Te Rūnanga o Ngā Mātā Waka ki Ōtautahi.

Pakihi

Kei ngā kaitiakitanga ahuwhenua, kaporeihana Māori rānei te nuinga o ngā whenua Māori e pupurihia ana. He maha ngā kaporeihana kaitā he tekau miriona neke atu rānei te wāriu. I te tau 2008 tata tonu ki te haurua o te piriona tāra te uara o te Rōpū Kaipupuri Rawa o Tainui, ā, ko tō Ngāi Tahu, kei te takiwā o te 600 miriona tāra tōna uara. He maha ngā pakihi Māori ka taka mai ki raro ki te awe o Ngā Manatū Māori arā o FOMA.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Ngapare Hopa, 'Ngā rōpū', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-ropu/print (accessed 20 September 2019)

Story by Ngapare Hopa, published 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jun 2017