Kōrero: Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori

Whārangi 1. Ngā whakahaerenga Māori i mua i te tau 1840

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te whakapūmau i te āta noho

Kua tatū kē te whakaaro o ētahi o ngā āpiha o Peretānia, he piringa tēnei whenua ki Peretānia, e hia tekau tau i mua i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, ahakoa kāore i mana ā-pukapuka nei. Heoi anō nei ngā whakahaere kāwanatanga o aua wā, he whakatika i ngā raru, he whakaū hoki i te āta noho, kia whanake ai te taha tauhokohoko, mahi ōhanga hoki mō Peretānia. I wawatatia e te Māori kia tū pakari rātou, kia ako i ngā pūkenga hou, ā, kia whai hua mai i ngā kaipatu wērā, ngā kaihoko me ngā mihinare. Kātahi ka tutū te puehu i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā, ā, ka raru ngā mahi tauhoko. Nō muri mai i ēnei āhuatanga ka pāpouri ngā taha e rua.

Te Haki Tuatahi

Ko te mahi tuatahi a Te Pūhipi (James Busby) ko te tuku haki ā-motu ki ngā rangatira Māori hei whakatutuki i tana wawata kia whai tino rangatiratanga te iwi Māori. I te tau 1834 ka kōwhiria e tētahi kāhui rangatira, nō te Taitokerau. Ko te tae o te haki he mā, kotahi te rīpeka whero, kei tētahi kokonga ko ngā whetū e whā. Ka mutu ko tēnei te haki i kawea e ngā rangatira Māori i mua i te tau 1840, ā, ka mōhiotia tēnei haki ko te haki o Te Whakaminenga o ngā Rangatira. Nā tēnei haki i whai mana ai te iwi Māori me ō rātou kaipuke i ngā whenua o tāwāhi, me te kore e mauheretia hei ‘pirate.’

Te Pūhipi, Rehireneti o Ingarangi

I te tau 1832 ko te mahi a te Tari o Peretānia he karapoti i ōna mahi tauhokohoko. Nā reira ka tohua e rātou a Te Pūhipi hei tumuwhakarae mo rātou ki Aotearoa nei. I ākina ia kia whakatau kāwanatanga mō te Māori, nō te iwi Māori, otirā, kia rite te āhua ki te kīngitanga i whakaarahia ki Tonga, nā Peretānia i tautoko. 

I te taunga o Pūhipi i te marama o Mei i te tau 1833, ka karangatia ia hei kaiwhakarite – hei takawaenga mo ngā iwi. Ko ētahi rangatira kua tae noa atu ki Ahitereiria, otiia ki wāhi kē. Ko te mānukanuka a ngā rangatira kei rite te Māori ki te āhua o ngā iwi taketake mai  i te Moananui ā Kiwa.  Ka whaia he tūtohi e tono ana kia whakatūria he kāwana me te ture e ōrite ai te mana mō te Māori me iwi kē. Heoi kāore ō Te Pūhipi mana ki te whakature i tēnei hiahia, ā, ka whakakāhore ngā manene noho ki Aotearoa i tēnei whakaaro.

Hobson’s instructions

I ngā tau whakamutunga o ngā tau 1830 ka whakatauria e ngā mana o Peretānia kia riro te mana whenua o Aotearoa i a rātou. I te tau 1839 ka ū te waka o Kāpene Te Hopihana (William Hobson) ki Aotearoa ki te kereme i te whenua mo te Kīngitanga o Peretānia. Ka takoto ngā tohutohu a Rore Normanby, te hēkeretari o Peretānia mo ngā koroni, kia taunaha a Te Hopihana i a Aotearoa hei whenua mō te Kīngi o Peretānia. Hei waitohu ēnei tohutohu i te waiaro o Peretānia ki te iwi Māori i tērā wā.

E ai ki a Normanby ko te tino take hei mahi mā Te Hopihana ko te whakatū ‘i tētahi kāwanatanga’ me te whai whakaaetanga o te Māori. Mā tēnei hei whakahaumaru te iwi Māori kei tūkinotia e ngā Pākehā noho ture-kore, me ērā atu pānga o te noho pokanoa mai a te Pākehā ki Aotearoa. I muri, e ai ki tēnei tikanga, ka hokona e te kāwatanga ngā ‘whenua koraha’ mai i te Māori, ka hokona atu anō ki ngā Pākeha. Ko te whenua noa iho kāore i pirangitia e te Māori ka hokona e te karauna, katahi ka ‘whai utu tika’ te Māori. Ka whakatūria he kura mō te Māori, ā, ka tiakina te nuinga o ngā tikanga Māori. Ka tohua he āpiha ‘hei whakahaumaru i ngā pānga o te Māori, hei kaitiaki hoki mā rātou’.1

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Nā Te Hopihana me ana kaitohutohu i waihanga te Tiriti o Waitangi hei huarahi e tukua ai e te Māori tōna rangatiratanga. I haina tuatahitia te tiriti i te 6 o Pēpuere 1840. E ai ki te tūtohi reo Māori ka whai mana te Māori ki āna rawa me āna tikanga. Engari anō te tūtohi reo Pākeha kāore i whakaaetia kia ōrite te mana o te tangata whenua ki te mana o te karauna. Nā ēnei tirohanga rerekē ka tutū te puehu, anā, he roa te wā e hokihoki mai ana te tangata ki te wetewete anō i ōna kī taurangi, ki te whakarite kāpeneheihana anō hoki.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Tohutoro Alexander Mackay, A compendium of official documents relative to native affairs in the South Island. Vol. 1, Te Whanganui-a-Tara: the Government of New Zealand, 1872–73, p. 15. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mark Derby, 'Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori - Ngā whakahaerenga Māori i mua i te tau 1840', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-take-maori-nga-kaupapa-kawanatanga-mo-te-maori/page-1 (accessed 22 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Mark Derby, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012