Kōrero: Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori

Whārangi 2. He koroni hou; ngā tau 1840 ki ngā tau 1850

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

He kaiwhakamaru tāngata whenua

E rua marama kau i muri i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840, ka tohua e Kāwana William Hobson he kaitiaki i ngā tāngata whenua. Ko te kaitiaki tuatahi ko George Clarke, he pononga nō te hāhi Mihingare.  Nāna i whakatū te rōpū kāwana tuatahi hei hāpai, hei whakatutuki i ngā oati o te tiriti. Ko ōna mana he whakahaumaru i te iwi Māori kei tūkinotia e ngā Pākehā noho ture-kore, he whakamārama i ngā take Māori me te hoko whenua Māori. I taua wā ko te karauna anake i āhei ki te hoko whenua Māori. Kāore i paingia tēnei taura here, i mōhiotia ai ko te ‘Crown pre-emption’ e te tini o te tangata. Ka tupono a Clarke ki ngā uauatanga o te hoko whenua mā te kāwana, inā hoki, ka uaua tana tūnga i waenga i ngā taha katoa, ā, ka ara ake ngā nawe Māori mōna. I te mutunga, ka whakahekea ia i tana tūnga e te kāwana.

I whakapakari a Clarke i tana tari kia noho kaitiaki matua a ia mō ngā iwi taketake, me tāna arataki haere i ētahi kaitiaki ā-rohe tokorima. E ai ki tāna, e tika ana kia rangona ngā raru Māori e ngā kōti Māori. Ko ngā kēhi Māori kia rangona e ngā rangatira me tētahi tekau mā rua Māori i te taha. Ko ngā kēhi e pā ana ki te Pākeha kia rangona e te kaiwhakawā matua me te hunga whakawā, engari kāore i whakaaetia.

Ngā tika o te Māori

I muri i te whakatau kia noho a Kerei hei kāwana mo Aotearoa ka heke atu a George Clarke i te tūnga kaitiaki o ngā iwi taketake, i te tau 1846. Ko te tohutohu whakamutunga a Clarke ki te kāwana, kia maumahara ia ki te mana motuhake o Aotearoa i mua i te tau 1840,  me te whakaaro nui o te Māori ki te mana o te Tiriti. I kī ia ki a Kerei ‘kia aratakina te Māori, kia kaua e tāmia te Māori ki raro i te ture Pākeha…kia ōrite ki tā te Pākeha ngā āwhina mō te Māori.’1

Te whakakorenga o ngā kaiwhakamaru

I ngā tau 1844-45 ka tino riri ngā Māori o te tai tokerau, ā, ka tohua a Kerei e te Tari Peretānia hei kāwana hou. E ai ki a Kerei ko te mana rangatira Māori he whakapōrearea i ngā mahi whakapūmau i te koroni. I te tau 1846 ka whakakorea e ia te tūnga kaitiaki iwi taketake, kātahi ka tangohia e ia te mana whakatau kōrero ki ngā rangatira Māori. I ngā tau whakamutunga 1840 ki ngā tau 1850 ka aratakina e ia te hoko a te kāwanatanga i te nuinga o Te Waipounamu. Ka whakatūria te tūnga hēkeretari mō ngā iwi taketake hei āwhina i a Kerei i āwhina ki ēnei mahi āna. I ōna tau tuatahi he tūnga tari noa iho, kīhai i whai mana tōrangapū, mana ōhanga rānei.

Te Mana pōti o te Māori

Nā te Ture Kaupapa Ture 1852 ka āhei te tāne pakeke whai whenua kua eke ki tētahi wāriu. Kāore te nuinga o ngāi Māori i whai mana ki te tuku pōti, i te mea kāore i puritia ngā whenua Māori e te tangata kotahi. Heoi anō, ko te wāhanga 71 o te ture i whakatau kia whai tino rangatiratanga te Māori ki roto i ōna ake rohe. Kīhai i whakamahia tēnei wāhanga o te ture.

Ngā pāpāho Māori

He maha ngā niupepa a te kāwana kua puta hei whakamārama i ōna ture ki te Māori. Mai i te tau 1842 ka whakaputaina te niupepa o Te Karere o Nui Tireni mō te whā tau. Nā te kaihaumaru tāngata whenua nā George Clarke tēnei kawenga i hari. I te pakarutanga mai o te riri i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā i te takiwā o te tau 1861, ka whakaputaina e te tari Māori (Native Department) te niupepa o Te Waka Maori. Nō te tau 1876 ka mutu te whakaputa i tēnei niupepa. I waenganui i te tau 1952 me te tau 1976 ka whakaputa te Tari mō ngā take Māori i te māheni reo rua o Te Ao Hou. E whā ōna whakaputanga i te tau. E ai ki te tari ko tōna ngako ‘ he whakarato i ētahi pānuitanga whakamōhio mā ngā kāinga Māori … ānō nei te niupepa nei he marae, arā, he wāhi kōrerorero i ngā take whānui a te Māori.’2

Te Rūnanga

I te noho kore mana a te Māori ki te pūnaha pōti ā-motu, ka whakatūria e rātou he rūnanga kia pai ai te whakatau a ngā rangatira me ngā kaumātua i ngā take nui a te iwi. Ko tā Francis Fenton (hēkeretari mō ngā Māori, kaiwhakawā mō Waikato) kia tere tonu te whakaturenga o ngā rūnanga Māori e te kāwanatanga. E ai ki a Fenton mā konā ka miere katoa te Māori ki te hoko, me te whakahauraro ki te kāwanatanga. Heoi, i te tau 1858 ka whakaturehia ngā rohe rūnanga Māori – engari kāore tonu i whai niho ēnei ture.

Te kaikōmihana hoko whenua matua

He Kōtimana kōrero Māori a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), ā, i te tau 1844 koia te kaihaumaru Māori i raro i a George Clarke.  I te tau 1853 ka riro i a ia te tūnga kaikōmihana hoko whenua, ā, i te tau 1856 ka piki ia ki te tūranga kua mahue iho i a Fenton (hēkeretari Māori). E hia ngā manomano eka whenua Māori i whakaritea e Te Mākarini. He whatinga ēnei hoko i ngā tohutohu a Rore Normanby i te tau 1939 me te Tiriti o Waitangi hoki; arā, kia tiakina ngā whenua me ngā taonga a te Māori. Kāore te kāwnatanga i paku aha ki te whakamana i ēnei kupu taurangi me te tino rangatiratanga o ngā rangatira ki ō rātou rohe kāinga.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Tohutoro G. V. Butterworth and H. R. Young, Maori Affairs. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Iwi Transition Agency; GP Books, 1990, p. 23. Back
  2. Te Ao Hou 1 (Winter 1952), p. 1, http://teaohou.natlib.govt.nz/journals/teaohou/issue/Mao01TeA/c1.html (pātengi raraunga 11 October 2011). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mark Derby, 'Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori - He koroni hou; ngā tau 1840 ki ngā tau 1850', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-take-maori-nga-kaupapa-kawanatanga-mo-te-maori/page-2 (accessed 18 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Mark Derby, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012