Kōrero: Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori

Whārangi 3. Ngā pakanga me ngā whakawhitiwhiti i ngā tau 1860 ki ngā tau 1920

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te Kīngitanga

I te tau 1858 ka whakatūria e ngā iwi o te motu te Kīngitanga Māori. Ko tōna kaupapa he whakakotahi i ngā iwi o te motu kia whai mana ai tō rātou kawe i ngā take nunui o te motu. Ko tētahi o ōna kaupapa he whakamutu i ngā hoko whenua. Heoi, ko tā Kāwana Thomas Gore Browne he akiaki i ngā hoko whenua ahakoa ngā whakahē a ngā rangatira. Nā ēnei ture hoko whenua ka pakaru mai te riri i te tau 1860 ki Taranaki, ā, i muri mai ki ētahi atu whaitua o te Ika-a-Māui.

Ngā whiu kōrero a Sewell

E ai ki te rōia, kaitōrangapū hoki o Waitaha a Henry Sewell, he ngoikore tonu te kawe a te kāwanatanga i ana haepapa mō te Māori. Kāti ka tautoko ia i te Hēkeretari Māori o mua, i a Fenton me te kaupapa o ngā rūnanga, tae atu ki te whakamanatanga o te Kīngitanga hei tauira mō te mana motuhake o te Māori, tōna tikanga kua oti te hoatu e te kāwanatanga ki a rātou.

Ngā rūnanga rohe

Hei tinei i ngā hūneinei me te Kīngitanga, ka whakahokia a Kerei ki te tūranga kāwana. I te tau 1861 ka takoto tana mahere ki te tuku i ētahi mana ki ngā iwi kei ngā rohe. Kātahi ka whakatūria ngā rohe Māori 20. Kei te ūpoko o ia rohe ko te kaikōmihana Pākehā. Kei raro i tōna awe ko ngā kaiwhakawā Pākehā me te rūnanga. Heoi kāore ngā rūnanga i angitu, ā, ka noho whakakeke tonu ngā iwi pēnei i a Taranaki, i a Waikato me Ngāti Maniapoto. Nā konei ka toro anō te riri i te tau 1863.

Ngā kura Māori

I te tau 1865 ka tīmata te minita Māori hou a Kānara Thomas Russell ki te turaki haere i ngā rūnanga. Ki a ia ‘ko te mahi a te kāwanatanga he whakakotahi mai i te Māori ki a mātou, arā, kia noho hei iwi kotahi’. Nā tana hēkeretari o raro nā William Rolleston ngā kura Māori i whakarite. He reo Pākehā katoa ēnei kura, i whanake tonu ki roto ki te rautau 1900. Ko tētahi painga o ēnei kura he tūhura i ngā āhuatanga o te ao hou ki ngā tamariki Māori.

Te whakaara ake i ngā rūnanga

Nō te tīmatanga o te Kōti Whenua Māori ka mutu te hoko whenua a te Tari Māori – ko āna mahi kē he whakariterite tonu i ngā hoko whenua Māori. Taka rawa ki te tau 1870 kua kore ngā whenua haumako a ētahi iwi, ā, ko ētahi atu kua momotu ki ngā wāhi tawhiti mai i te Pākehā. I te tekau tau o muri mai ka whakamātau te kāwanatanga a Julius Vogel ki te whakararata i te Māori ki ana kaupapa mahi.

Ko Te Mākarini te minita Māori mai i te tau 1869 tae noa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1876. Nāna i whakaara te pūnaha rūnanga o Kerei, arā te mahi tahi o ngā kaiwhakawā me ngā kaitātari Māori ki te taha o ngā iwi. E ai ki a ia, ‘mā tēnei huarahi ka whakapaipaitia tō rātou noho, ā, ka  memeha noa ngā āhuatanga noho iwi ki waenganui i a rātou’.2 Heoi anō, kāore i whakamanaia e te kāwanatanga ngā rūnanga nā ngā iwi Māori anō i whakatū, ahakoa ngā tono a ngā rangatira kia aro atu te kāwanatanga. Nā reira, kāore i taea e te Māori te whakahaere i ā rātou hoko whenua, te pupuri rānei i aua whenua.

Te takakinotanga

 I te tau 1890 ka whakatūria he kōmihana (e toru ngā māngai) hei whakatewhatewha me te tuku tohutohu ki te pānga o ngā ture ki runga i te Māori. Ko tētahi o ana mema i whakahē ki te tini o ngā tohutohu o ana hoa mema, arā, te māngai pāremata Māori, a Timi Kara. I whakahē ia ki ngā tūtohu a ōna hoa me te tuhi, ‘Kāore he whenua Māori i te Ika-a-Māui nei kāore anō kia pāngia e ngā ringa o te Tari Māori. Kei ēnei wāhi katoa ka rangona ngā amuamu mō ngā mahi tinihanga a te kāwanatanga, ā, ko te Māori anō te papa.’3

Te whakakore i te Tari Māori

I te tekau tau 1880 ka hoki te kāwanatanga ki tana ture ‘kotahi iwi’, ā, ka parea anō ngā whakaritenga tiaki i te Māori ki tahaki. Kotahi anake te mahi a te tari i whakawhānuitia, arā, te hoko whenua Māori. Nō te tau 1892 ka turakina rawatia te tari, ā, ka riro ōna kawenga mā te Tari Ture me te Kōti Whenua Māori e kawe. He hōtaka nunui mō te Māori i te tari hauora, me te tari mātauranga.

Ngā kaunihera Māori

Nā te Ture Kaunihera Māori 1900 ka waihangatia ngā kaunihera me ngā komiti marae i ngā rohe Māori. Ka mutu i ōrite ō rātou mana ki ērā o ngā kaunihera ā-rohe. I tētahi hui ki te pōwhiri i te Tiuka o Cornwall me tana hoa rangatira i te tau 1901, e 6,000 ngā Māori i noho ki tētahi pā ki te tūtanga whenua tonu o te kaunihera Māori. Puta noa i te rua wiki o tā rātou noho, kore rawa he tangata kotahi i pāngia e te mate, i poroheahea, i porohaurangi rānei. Heoi nā te kore whai huruhuru o ngā kaunihera Māori mai i te kāwanatanga ka ngoikore ōna whakahaere.

Ngā uaua o te taha Māori

Nā te mema pāremata o Waitaha nā William Rolleston i whakahē mārika ki te whakataunga o te tau 1892, arā, kia whakakorea te Tari Māori. Ko tāna meatanga tēnei i te Paremata, ‘E kīia ana kua oti katoa ngā raru mō te Māori, ā, kāore he take mō tētahi tari motuhake…Engari ka whakatau au i konei kātahi nei ka tīmata ngā raru a te Māori – he raru mā te atamai me ngā pukenga hōhonu anake hei kaupare. Ākuanei pea he pūkenga kāore i tino hiahiatia i mua.’4

Te whakaara anō i te Tari Māori

I te tau 1906 ka hahua ake te Tari Māori e te māngai mō Waiapu (nāwai ka karangatia ko Tūranga), e Timi Kara. I te tekau tau tae mai ki te tau 1922, kotahi miriona ngā eka whenua Māori i hokona, i riro atu rānei i ngā ringa o te iwi Māori nā ētahi huarahi kē atu. Heoi ko te rongoā a Ngata mā he whakakapi i ngā hoko ki ngā kaupapa whakakotahi hea, kaupapa rīhi, whakawhanake hoki.

Nā kōmihana whenua Māori

I te tau 1890 ka ārohitia e te kōmihana a te roia o Ākarana, a William Reeves, te pono o ngā hoko whenua. Ka kitea e rātou ko te Kōti Whenua Māori te pūtake o ngā uaua me ngā whakawhiu i pā ki ngā kaipupuri whenua Māori.5 Nā te tūnga o te kōmihana tirotiro i te tau 1920, i ngā hoko ki Te Waipounamu i 1848, ka hua ētahi kāpeneheihana. I whakatūria anō te kōmihana ki Taranaki me Waikato, ā, ka kitea he tūkino ngā raupatu whenua ki ērā takiwā, ā, ka tīmata ngā utu kāpeneheihana.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Tohutoro G. V. Butterworth and H. R. Young, Maori Affairs. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Iwi Transition Agency; GP Books, 1990, p. 38. Back
  2. Tohutoro in Maori Affairs, pp. 41–42. Back
  3. Tohutoro in Maori Affairs, p. 52. Back
  4. New Zealand Parliamentary Debates 78 (1892), p. 880. Back
  5. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1891, G-1, p. vii. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mark Derby, 'Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori - Ngā pakanga me ngā whakawhitiwhiti i ngā tau 1860 ki ngā tau 1920', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-take-maori-nga-kaupapa-kawanatanga-mo-te-maori/page-3 (accessed 13 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Mark Derby, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012