Kōrero: Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori

Whārangi 4. Te paheketanga ōhanga, te pakanga me te noho taone, ngā tau 1930 ki ngā tau 1960

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te whakawhānui i te Tari Māori

I roto i ngā tau 1930 i te paheketanga ohanga, nā te Minita Take Māori, nā Āpirina Ngata i whakatika ake te Tari Māori kia pakari ake i roto i ngā mahi whakawhanake ohanga. I whakamahia e Ngata ngā pūtea kāwangatanga kia whakawhanake i ngā paraka whenua ā-iwi o ngā rohe tino pōhara. Ka tīmataria he hōtaka nui hei whakatū whare ki ngā paraka whenua kua oti te whakawhanake.

Mahi pai, ngā whakapae mō te mahi kaute

Ko Tā Āpiranga Ngata te Minita Māori mai i ngā tau 1928 ki te 1934. I te wā o te paheketanga ōhanga i waihangatia e ia ngā kaupapa whakatika whenua, whakatipu otaota ki ngā whenua ā-iwi maha. I ētahi wā, he takaware ia me ana kaimahi ki te āta tuhi rekoata mō ngā pūtea kāwana. I te tau 1934 i kitea e te kōmihana kaitirotiro ngā takaware, ka kitea hoki te mahi raweke moni a ētahi o ana kaimahi. Ka whakaae a Ngata ki ngā hapa, kātahi ka rīhaina ia mai i te urupū minita. Ā, e hia tau i pahure kātahi anō ka makere iho ngā hapa mo te mahi raweke moni me te ngoikore o tana tari.

Te kāwanatanga Reipa tuatahi

I te tau 1935 i eke panuku a Reipa hei kāwanatanga, nā ngā pōti tautoko o te hāhi Rātana. E hia tau i ngana ai te rōpū whakapono, te rōpū tōrangapū nei kia whai mana te Māori me te Tiriti o Waitangi. Engari, i whakapono a Reipa ko tōna hōtaka ōhanga kē te mea pai ake mo te Māori. Nā reira i whakawhānuitia ai ngā kaupapa whakawhanake whenua me ngā kaupapa whakatū whare a Ngata, engari i whakaae ki te whakaaro kia horomia (assimilate) te Māori.

Pakanga Tuarua

Ko Paraire Paikea o Ngāti Whātua te kaiwhakahaere o te Rōpū Māori Āwhina i te Pakanga. Ko tā tēnei rōpū he taritari hoia Māori, he rapu tautoko hoki i te wā kāinga, otirā, he mahi ngatahi me te Tari Māori. Tērā pea ko te Rōpū Māori Āwhina i te Pakanga nei te rōpū mana motuhake Māori tuatahi kia whiwhi pūtea kāwana. I te mutunga o te pakanga ka horomia ki roto i te Tari Māori, arā, te tari āwhina i ngā hoia Māori kua hoki mai i te pakanga.

Ko Jock McEwen

Ko Jock McEwen te hēkeretari o ngā take Māori mai i ngā tau 1963 ki te 1975. He Pākehā ia, ā, i a ia e taiohi ana e mahi ana mo te Tari Māori. I te tau 1935 ka tīmata ia ki te ako ki te kōrero i te reo Māori. Ka riro ko McEwen te kaiārahi o te tari i roto i ngā tau tuatahi o te whakaaratanga mai anō o te ahurea Māori. Ko ia tētahi o ngā mema tuatahi o te kapa o Ngāti Pōneke, ā, i ngana hoki ki te āwhina i te hapori Māori ki Pōneke. He kaiako whakairo ia ki te whare herehere o Wī Tako. I tua atu i tērā, he mema ia mō te komiti whakahou i te papakupu o Wiremu.

Te Tari Māori (Māori Affairs Department)

Mai i te tau 1946 ko Peter Fraser te pirimia, te minita Māori hoki. Ka whakatauria ā-turetia e ia te huringa o te ingoa ‘native’ kia ‘Māori’ kē, inā hoki ko te whakaaro Māori he mahi whakaparahako he mahi whakaiti te kupu tahito i utaina ki runga i a rātou. Mai i ngā tau 1948 ki te 1957 ko te kaiārahi o te tari ko Tipi Rōpiha. Ko ia te Māori tuatahi ki te whakakī i te tūnga. Ko ngā pūtea utu raupatu whenua i whakarahia ake, anā, ko ngā kaupapa whakawhanake whenua me ngā kaupapa whakatū whare i whakawhānuitia. Tērā pea ko te kaupapa nui i kitea ko te hūnuku a te Māori ki ngā tāone, kāore i tarea te takahuri. Ko te kaupapa ture o te tari ko te whakamāmā i te noho tāone mō te Māori kia tau ai te noho ki te tāone.

Pūrongo Hunn

E toru ngā momo Māori i tūtohutia e Hunn i tāna pūrongo mō te Tari Māori:

  • ko te tokoiti kāore he here ki te wā kāinga, kāore ō rātou Māoritanga
  • ko te tokomaha kei ngā wā kāinga, kei te ao hurihuri hoki
  • Ko tētahi tokoiti anō kei te noho ki te ao kōhatu’.1

Ko te whakatau o ēnei pūrongo kia hūnuku te Māori ki ngā tāone ki te whai mahi, whai whēako, whai oranga hoki. Ko tōna hua he whakakaha ake i te rerenga o ngāi Māori ki ngā tāone noho ai, mahi ai.

Te Kaunihera Māori

E whā ngā tūāpapa whakahaere ka hua ake i te whakamanatanga o te Ture Toko i te Ora Māori o te tau 1962. Arā, ko ngā komiti, ngā rūnanga, ngā kaunihera me te Kaunihera Māori.

Te whakamāmā i te puritanga whenua a te Māori

Ko te aronga o te Ture Maori Affairs 1953 he whakawhanake i te ōhanga a te Māori mā te tango i te mana whenua o ngā iwi me te huri i ngā tikanga ‘kia takitahi te āhua o ngā kaipupuri e mama ai te kōrerorero atu.’2 I raro i te Whakahounga o te Ture o Ngā Whakahaere Māori i te tau 1967 ka panonitia te ture mō ngā whenua Māori e whā (iti iho) ngā kaipupuri hei whenua Pākehā. Nā runga i te takahuringa o ēnei ture ka ngāwari ake te hoko i ngā whenua Māori e toe ana. Oreore kau ana ngā iwi Māori i ēnei panonitanga, ā, ka ohooho te whakatipuranga hou i pakeke mai i ngā tāone ki ngā take nei, arā te raupatutanga o tōna pūtaketanga mai.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Hunn Report, tohutoro Te Ao Hou 34 (Māehe 1961), http://teaohou.natlib.govt.nz/journals/teaohou/issue/Mao34TeA/c28-5.html (pātengi raraunga 15 Noema 2011). Back
  2. Tohutoro in G. V. Butterworth and H. R. Young, Maori Affairs. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Iwi Transition Agency; GP Books, 1990, p. 97. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mark Derby, 'Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori - Te paheketanga ōhanga, te pakanga me te noho taone, ngā tau 1930 ki ngā tau 1960', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-take-maori-nga-kaupapa-kawanatanga-mo-te-maori/page-4 (accessed 18 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Mark Derby, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012