Kōrero: Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori

Whārangi 5. Te whakamāuitanga, ngā tau 1970 ki ngā tau 2000

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te tau 1972 ka kōwhiria te kāwanatanga Reipa ko Matiu Rata o Ngāti Kurī hei minita Māori. Kātahi ka whakarerekētia ngā kawenga o te Tari Māori:

  • kia noho tonu te whenua Māori hei painga mō ōna kaipupuri
  • kia whakatairanga i te hauora, te mātauranga me te oranga ki waenganui i te Māori.

Ko ngā wāhanga o te Ture o Ngā Whakahaerenga Māori i te tau 1967 i kaha whakahētia, ka wetewetekia. Nā konā ka whakakitea ētahi moni ki ngā marae me ngā wāhi hui; ka whakatūria hoki ētahi marae i te tāone. Engari ko te hua nui i puta ko te tīmatanga mai o te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. I whakatūria te taraipiunara hei whakarongo ki ngā kerēme a te Māori e pā ana ki ngā takahitanga i te tiriti me te tūtohu i āna tohutohu ki te kāwanatanga.

Te Kōhanga Reo me Mātua Whāngai

I te tau 1977 ka tū ko Kara Puketapu hei hēkeretari Māori tuarua. I aroha tonu a Puketapu ki ērā e noho ana i ngā tāone, nā runga i ōna mahi ka puta ko ngā kōhanga reo me Mātua Whāngai (mō ngā rangatahi Māori kua taka ki te raruraru. Ka whai wāhanga te whānau katoa ki ngā mahi whakatikatika i a rātou.

Te whawhai kia whai mana

Tae iho ki te tekau tau 1980 ka whakaū te Māori i tōna hiahia kia nui kē atu ōna mana whakahaere ki ngā pūtahi kāwanatanga e whakahaere nei i tō rātou noho. I te tau 1986 ka kī ake te hēkeretari o taua wā a Tāmati Reedy: ‘I roto i te 150 tau e  whakawhitiwhiti ana te Māori me ngā kāwanatanga maha, kore rawa rātou te kāwanatanga i anga atu ki te whakamana i ngā iwi hei whakahaerenga tūturu, hei mana kawe i ngā mahi mō te iwi Māori’.1

Ngā tumu whakarae Māori

Taka mai ki te tau 1980 he maha ngā tūranga teitei o te kāwanatanga e puritia ana e te Māori. I taua tau he Māori te tiamana o te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi (ko Edward Taihākurei Durie); te kaiwhakawā matua o te Kōti Whenua Māori (ko Ben Couch); me te hēkeretari Māori (ko Kara Puketapu).

Te whakahōnore i te Tiriti

Ko te kāwanatanga Reipa te tuatahi o ngā kāwanatanga o Aotearoa kia whakaū ki te kaupapa o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1984. Nāna hoki i whakawhānui ngā mana me ngā rauemi o te taraipiunara, ā, ka whakahautia hoki ngā tari kāwanatanga katoa e rātou kia aronui ki ngā mātāpono o te tiriti. Ka whakawhitia hoki e rātou ētahi o ngā pūtea kāwanatanga mō te Māori ki ētahi whakahaerenga iwi Māori.

Te hanga hou i ngā tari kāwanatanga

Ko te Māori te iwi i tino rongo i te ngaukino i te hokonga atu o ngā rawa ā-motu i te tekau tau 1980. E hia mano tāngata ka pāngia i te katinga o ngā rerewe me ngā ngahere, tae atu ki te hanga houtanga o te Poutāpeta, ā, ko te Māori te papa. E whai hua ai te tino rangatiratanga ki ngā Māori, ka whakahokia ētahi rawa ki ngā iwi hei utu mō ngā whatinga o te tiriti.

‘Hawaiian loans affair’

I te pito o te tau 1986 ka rere ngā tao a Winston Peters ki te Hēkeretari Māori ki a Tākuta Tāmati Reedy, me te whakapae e anga ana tōna tari ki te tango pūtea taurewa mai i ētahi kaiwhakangao o tāwāhi hei whakawhanake i te ōhanga Māori. Kāore anō te pūtea taurewa kia whakamanaia e te minita pūtea. Ahakoa  kāore i tutuki tērā kirimana, nō te rerenga o ngā whakapae ka tō te rā ki te Tari Māori, ā, nō te tau 1992 ka whakakapia e Te Puni Kōkiri.

Te Puni Kōkiri

I te tau 1989 ka whakakapia te tari ki ngā pūtahi e rua – arā, te Iwi Transition Agency me te Tari mō Ngā Whakahaerenga Māori (Ministry of Māori Affairs). I te tau 1992 ka tū a Te Puni Kōkiri hei whakakī i ngā tūranga o ngā pūtahi e rua. Mai i tērā wā e  tohutohu tonu ana a Te Puni Kōkiri i te kāwanatanga me ētahi atu o ōna pūtahi.

Te Tino Rangatiratanga

E mea ana ētahi he mea pai mō te tino rangatiratanga a te Māori te hanga hou a te kāwanatanga i ōna tari. E kī ana te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, ‘kia whai mana ngā Māori ki te whakahaere i ā rātou take, ā rātou rawa, whakahaere hoki me te kore whakahōhā hoki a te kāwanatanga’.2 Heoi kei ētahi e mea ana kua takakinotia anō te Māori i te huri tuarā o te kāwanatanga ki ngā kaupapa Māori.

Te Tūtaki Āputa

I te tau 1999 ka toa a Reipa i ngā kōwhiringa pōti i runga i te rautaki ‘Closing the Gaps i waenganui i te Māori me Tauiwi. Nō te tau 2004 ka hahanitia tēnei rautaki e te Kaiārahi o Nāhinara e Don Brash, nā te mea he kaha rawa te aro ki te iwi kotahi. Nāwai ka aro te rautaki ki te rawakore, ā, kaua ki te Māori anake. Ko tā Te Puni Kōkiri he tautoko tonu i te whanaketanga o te Māori, ā, ko te ‘Māori Potential Approach’ tōna whāinga hei tautoko i te Māori hei whakatipu i ō rātou pūkenga.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Tohutoro G. V. Butterworth and H. R. Young, Maori Affairs. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Iwi Transition Agency; GP Books, 1990. Back
  2. Waitangi Tribunal, Taranaki report: kaupapa tuatahi (Wai 143). Te Whanganui-a-Tara: GP Publications, 1996, p. 4. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mark Derby, 'Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori - Te whakamāuitanga, ngā tau 1970 ki ngā tau 2000', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-take-maori-nga-kaupapa-kawanatanga-mo-te-maori/page-5 (accessed 18 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Mark Derby, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012