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Ngā take Māori – government policy and Māori

by Mark Derby

Nō mua noa atu i te tāmokotanga i te Tiriti o Waitangi, ka aropū ngā kanohi o te Karauna ki te whakahaere i ngā hoko i waenganui i a Māori me Tauiwi. Nāwai, ā, ka whakamanaia ētahi ture e te kāwanatanga hei whakapūmau i tōna mana koroni ki runga ki te Māori me ōna whenua. Taka rawa ki te pito o te rautau 1900, ka waihangatia mai te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei whakatewhatewha i ngā takahitanga o te tiriti. Kua whai kanohi te Māori ki ngā tūnga tiketike o kāwanatanga.


Māori affairs up to 1840

Te whakapūmau i te āta noho

Kua tatū kē te whakaaro o ētahi o ngā āpiha o Peretānia, he piringa tēnei whenua ki Peretānia, e hia tekau tau i mua i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, ahakoa kāore i mana ā-pukapuka nei. Heoi anō nei ngā whakahaere kāwanatanga o aua wā, he whakatika i ngā raru, he whakaū hoki i te āta noho, kia whanake ai te taha tauhokohoko, mahi ōhanga hoki mō Peretānia. I wawatatia e te Māori kia tū pakari rātou, kia ako i ngā pūkenga hou, ā, kia whai hua mai i ngā kaipatu wērā, ngā kaihoko me ngā mihinare. Kātahi ka tutū te puehu i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā, ā, ka raru ngā mahi tauhoko. Nō muri mai i ēnei āhuatanga ka pāpouri ngā taha e rua.

Te Haki Tuatahi

Ko te mahi tuatahi a Te Pūhipi (James Busby) ko te tuku haki ā-motu ki ngā rangatira Māori hei whakatutuki i tana wawata kia whai tino rangatiratanga te iwi Māori. I te tau 1834 ka kōwhiria e tētahi kāhui rangatira, nō te Taitokerau. Ko te tae o te haki he mā, kotahi te rīpeka whero, kei tētahi kokonga ko ngā whetū e whā. Ka mutu ko tēnei te haki i kawea e ngā rangatira Māori i mua i te tau 1840, ā, ka mōhiotia tēnei haki ko te haki o Te Whakaminenga o ngā Rangatira. Nā tēnei haki i whai mana ai te iwi Māori me ō rātou kaipuke i ngā whenua o tāwāhi, me te kore e mauheretia hei ‘pirate.’

Te Pūhipi, Rehireneti o Ingarangi

I te tau 1832 ko te mahi a te Tari o Peretānia he karapoti i ōna mahi tauhokohoko. Nā reira ka tohua e rātou a Te Pūhipi hei tumuwhakarae mo rātou ki Aotearoa nei. I ākina ia kia whakatau kāwanatanga mō te Māori, nō te iwi Māori, otirā, kia rite te āhua ki te kīngitanga i whakaarahia ki Tonga, nā Peretānia i tautoko. 

I te taunga o Pūhipi i te marama o Mei i te tau 1833, ka karangatia ia hei kaiwhakarite – hei takawaenga mo ngā iwi. Ko ētahi rangatira kua tae noa atu ki Ahitereiria, otiia ki wāhi kē. Ko te mānukanuka a ngā rangatira kei rite te Māori ki te āhua o ngā iwi taketake mai  i te Moananui ā Kiwa.  Ka whaia he tūtohi e tono ana kia whakatūria he kāwana me te ture e ōrite ai te mana mō te Māori me iwi kē. Heoi kāore ō Te Pūhipi mana ki te whakature i tēnei hiahia, ā, ka whakakāhore ngā manene noho ki Aotearoa i tēnei whakaaro.

Hobson’s instructions

I ngā tau whakamutunga o ngā tau 1830 ka whakatauria e ngā mana o Peretānia kia riro te mana whenua o Aotearoa i a rātou. I te tau 1839 ka ū te waka o Kāpene Te Hopihana (William Hobson) ki Aotearoa ki te kereme i te whenua mo te Kīngitanga o Peretānia. Ka takoto ngā tohutohu a Rore Normanby, te hēkeretari o Peretānia mo ngā koroni, kia taunaha a Te Hopihana i a Aotearoa hei whenua mō te Kīngi o Peretānia. Hei waitohu ēnei tohutohu i te waiaro o Peretānia ki te iwi Māori i tērā wā.

E ai ki a Normanby ko te tino take hei mahi mā Te Hopihana ko te whakatū ‘i tētahi kāwanatanga’ me te whai whakaaetanga o te Māori. Mā tēnei hei whakahaumaru te iwi Māori kei tūkinotia e ngā Pākehā noho ture-kore, me ērā atu pānga o te noho pokanoa mai a te Pākehā ki Aotearoa. I muri, e ai ki tēnei tikanga, ka hokona e te kāwatanga ngā ‘whenua koraha’ mai i te Māori, ka hokona atu anō ki ngā Pākeha. Ko te whenua noa iho kāore i pirangitia e te Māori ka hokona e te karauna, katahi ka ‘whai utu tika’ te Māori. Ka whakatūria he kura mō te Māori, ā, ka tiakina te nuinga o ngā tikanga Māori. Ka tohua he āpiha ‘hei whakahaumaru i ngā pānga o te Māori, hei kaitiaki hoki mā rātou’.1

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Nā Te Hopihana me ana kaitohutohu i waihanga te Tiriti o Waitangi hei huarahi e tukua ai e te Māori tōna rangatiratanga. I haina tuatahitia te tiriti i te 6 o Pēpuere 1840. E ai ki te tūtohi reo Māori ka whai mana te Māori ki āna rawa me āna tikanga. Engari anō te tūtohi reo Pākeha kāore i whakaaetia kia ōrite te mana o te tangata whenua ki te mana o te karauna. Nā ēnei tirohanga rerekē ka tutū te puehu, anā, he roa te wā e hokihoki mai ana te tangata ki te wetewete anō i ōna kī taurangi, ki te whakarite kāpeneheihana anō hoki.

Footnotes
    • Tohutoro Alexander Mackay, A compendium of official documents relative to native affairs in the South Island. Vol. 1, Te Whanganui-a-Tara: the Government of New Zealand, 1872–73, p. 15. Back

A new colony, 1840s to 1850s

He kaiwhakamaru tāngata whenua

E rua marama kau i muri i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840, ka tohua e Kāwana William Hobson he kaitiaki i ngā tāngata whenua. Ko te kaitiaki tuatahi ko George Clarke, he pononga nō te hāhi Mihingare.  Nāna i whakatū te rōpū kāwana tuatahi hei hāpai, hei whakatutuki i ngā oati o te tiriti. Ko ōna mana he whakahaumaru i te iwi Māori kei tūkinotia e ngā Pākehā noho ture-kore, he whakamārama i ngā take Māori me te hoko whenua Māori. I taua wā ko te karauna anake i āhei ki te hoko whenua Māori. Kāore i paingia tēnei taura here, i mōhiotia ai ko te ‘Crown pre-emption’ e te tini o te tangata. Ka tupono a Clarke ki ngā uauatanga o te hoko whenua mā te kāwana, inā hoki, ka uaua tana tūnga i waenga i ngā taha katoa, ā, ka ara ake ngā nawe Māori mōna. I te mutunga, ka whakahekea ia i tana tūnga e te kāwana.

I whakapakari a Clarke i tana tari kia noho kaitiaki matua a ia mō ngā iwi taketake, me tāna arataki haere i ētahi kaitiaki ā-rohe tokorima. E ai ki tāna, e tika ana kia rangona ngā raru Māori e ngā kōti Māori. Ko ngā kēhi Māori kia rangona e ngā rangatira me tētahi tekau mā rua Māori i te taha. Ko ngā kēhi e pā ana ki te Pākeha kia rangona e te kaiwhakawā matua me te hunga whakawā, engari kāore i whakaaetia.

Ngā tika o te Māori

I muri i te whakatau kia noho a Kerei hei kāwana mo Aotearoa ka heke atu a George Clarke i te tūnga kaitiaki o ngā iwi taketake, i te tau 1846. Ko te tohutohu whakamutunga a Clarke ki te kāwana, kia maumahara ia ki te mana motuhake o Aotearoa i mua i te tau 1840,  me te whakaaro nui o te Māori ki te mana o te Tiriti. I kī ia ki a Kerei ‘kia aratakina te Māori, kia kaua e tāmia te Māori ki raro i te ture Pākeha…kia ōrite ki tā te Pākeha ngā āwhina mō te Māori.’1

Te whakakorenga o ngā kaiwhakamaru

I ngā tau 1844-45 ka tino riri ngā Māori o te tai tokerau, ā, ka tohua a Kerei e te Tari Peretānia hei kāwana hou. E ai ki a Kerei ko te mana rangatira Māori he whakapōrearea i ngā mahi whakapūmau i te koroni. I te tau 1846 ka whakakorea e ia te tūnga kaitiaki iwi taketake, kātahi ka tangohia e ia te mana whakatau kōrero ki ngā rangatira Māori. I ngā tau whakamutunga 1840 ki ngā tau 1850 ka aratakina e ia te hoko a te kāwanatanga i te nuinga o Te Waipounamu. Ka whakatūria te tūnga hēkeretari mō ngā iwi taketake hei āwhina i a Kerei i āwhina ki ēnei mahi āna. I ōna tau tuatahi he tūnga tari noa iho, kīhai i whai mana tōrangapū, mana ōhanga rānei.

Te Mana pōti o te Māori

Nā te Ture Kaupapa Ture 1852 ka āhei te tāne pakeke whai whenua kua eke ki tētahi wāriu. Kāore te nuinga o ngāi Māori i whai mana ki te tuku pōti, i te mea kāore i puritia ngā whenua Māori e te tangata kotahi. Heoi anō, ko te wāhanga 71 o te ture i whakatau kia whai tino rangatiratanga te Māori ki roto i ōna ake rohe. Kīhai i whakamahia tēnei wāhanga o te ture.

Ngā pāpāho Māori

He maha ngā niupepa a te kāwana kua puta hei whakamārama i ōna ture ki te Māori. Mai i te tau 1842 ka whakaputaina te niupepa o Te Karere o Nui Tireni mō te whā tau. Nā te kaihaumaru tāngata whenua nā George Clarke tēnei kawenga i hari. I te pakarutanga mai o te riri i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā i te takiwā o te tau 1861, ka whakaputaina e te tari Māori (Native Department) te niupepa o Te Waka Maori. Nō te tau 1876 ka mutu te whakaputa i tēnei niupepa. I waenganui i te tau 1952 me te tau 1976 ka whakaputa te Tari mō ngā take Māori i te māheni reo rua o Te Ao Hou. E whā ōna whakaputanga i te tau. E ai ki te tari ko tōna ngako ‘ he whakarato i ētahi pānuitanga whakamōhio mā ngā kāinga Māori … ānō nei te niupepa nei he marae, arā, he wāhi kōrerorero i ngā take whānui a te Māori.’2

Te Rūnanga

I te noho kore mana a te Māori ki te pūnaha pōti ā-motu, ka whakatūria e rātou he rūnanga kia pai ai te whakatau a ngā rangatira me ngā kaumātua i ngā take nui a te iwi. Ko tā Francis Fenton (hēkeretari mō ngā Māori, kaiwhakawā mō Waikato) kia tere tonu te whakaturenga o ngā rūnanga Māori e te kāwanatanga. E ai ki a Fenton mā konā ka miere katoa te Māori ki te hoko, me te whakahauraro ki te kāwanatanga. Heoi, i te tau 1858 ka whakaturehia ngā rohe rūnanga Māori – engari kāore tonu i whai niho ēnei ture.

Te kaikōmihana hoko whenua matua

He Kōtimana kōrero Māori a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), ā, i te tau 1844 koia te kaihaumaru Māori i raro i a George Clarke.  I te tau 1853 ka riro i a ia te tūnga kaikōmihana hoko whenua, ā, i te tau 1856 ka piki ia ki te tūranga kua mahue iho i a Fenton (hēkeretari Māori). E hia ngā manomano eka whenua Māori i whakaritea e Te Mākarini. He whatinga ēnei hoko i ngā tohutohu a Rore Normanby i te tau 1939 me te Tiriti o Waitangi hoki; arā, kia tiakina ngā whenua me ngā taonga a te Māori. Kāore te kāwnatanga i paku aha ki te whakamana i ēnei kupu taurangi me te tino rangatiratanga o ngā rangatira ki ō rātou rohe kāinga.

Footnotes

Conflict and compromise, 1860s to 1920s

Te Kīngitanga

I te tau 1858 ka whakatūria e ngā iwi o te motu te Kīngitanga Māori. Ko tōna kaupapa he whakakotahi i ngā iwi o te motu kia whai mana ai tō rātou kawe i ngā take nunui o te motu. Ko tētahi o ōna kaupapa he whakamutu i ngā hoko whenua. Heoi, ko tā Kāwana Thomas Gore Browne he akiaki i ngā hoko whenua ahakoa ngā whakahē a ngā rangatira. Nā ēnei ture hoko whenua ka pakaru mai te riri i te tau 1860 ki Taranaki, ā, i muri mai ki ētahi atu whaitua o te Ika-a-Māui.

Ngā whiu kōrero a Sewell

E ai ki te rōia, kaitōrangapū hoki o Waitaha a Henry Sewell, he ngoikore tonu te kawe a te kāwanatanga i ana haepapa mō te Māori. Kāti ka tautoko ia i te Hēkeretari Māori o mua, i a Fenton me te kaupapa o ngā rūnanga, tae atu ki te whakamanatanga o te Kīngitanga hei tauira mō te mana motuhake o te Māori, tōna tikanga kua oti te hoatu e te kāwanatanga ki a rātou.

Ngā rūnanga rohe

Hei tinei i ngā hūneinei me te Kīngitanga, ka whakahokia a Kerei ki te tūranga kāwana. I te tau 1861 ka takoto tana mahere ki te tuku i ētahi mana ki ngā iwi kei ngā rohe. Kātahi ka whakatūria ngā rohe Māori 20. Kei te ūpoko o ia rohe ko te kaikōmihana Pākehā. Kei raro i tōna awe ko ngā kaiwhakawā Pākehā me te rūnanga. Heoi kāore ngā rūnanga i angitu, ā, ka noho whakakeke tonu ngā iwi pēnei i a Taranaki, i a Waikato me Ngāti Maniapoto. Nā konei ka toro anō te riri i te tau 1863.

Ngā kura Māori

I te tau 1865 ka tīmata te minita Māori hou a Kānara Thomas Russell ki te turaki haere i ngā rūnanga. Ki a ia ‘ko te mahi a te kāwanatanga he whakakotahi mai i te Māori ki a mātou, arā, kia noho hei iwi kotahi’. Nā tana hēkeretari o raro nā William Rolleston ngā kura Māori i whakarite. He reo Pākehā katoa ēnei kura, i whanake tonu ki roto ki te rautau 1900. Ko tētahi painga o ēnei kura he tūhura i ngā āhuatanga o te ao hou ki ngā tamariki Māori.

Te whakaara ake i ngā rūnanga

Nō te tīmatanga o te Kōti Whenua Māori ka mutu te hoko whenua a te Tari Māori – ko āna mahi kē he whakariterite tonu i ngā hoko whenua Māori. Taka rawa ki te tau 1870 kua kore ngā whenua haumako a ētahi iwi, ā, ko ētahi atu kua momotu ki ngā wāhi tawhiti mai i te Pākehā. I te tekau tau o muri mai ka whakamātau te kāwanatanga a Julius Vogel ki te whakararata i te Māori ki ana kaupapa mahi.

Ko Te Mākarini te minita Māori mai i te tau 1869 tae noa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1876. Nāna i whakaara te pūnaha rūnanga o Kerei, arā te mahi tahi o ngā kaiwhakawā me ngā kaitātari Māori ki te taha o ngā iwi. E ai ki a ia, ‘mā tēnei huarahi ka whakapaipaitia tō rātou noho, ā, ka  memeha noa ngā āhuatanga noho iwi ki waenganui i a rātou’.2 Heoi anō, kāore i whakamanaia e te kāwanatanga ngā rūnanga nā ngā iwi Māori anō i whakatū, ahakoa ngā tono a ngā rangatira kia aro atu te kāwanatanga. Nā reira, kāore i taea e te Māori te whakahaere i ā rātou hoko whenua, te pupuri rānei i aua whenua.

Te takakinotanga

 I te tau 1890 ka whakatūria he kōmihana (e toru ngā māngai) hei whakatewhatewha me te tuku tohutohu ki te pānga o ngā ture ki runga i te Māori. Ko tētahi o ana mema i whakahē ki te tini o ngā tohutohu o ana hoa mema, arā, te māngai pāremata Māori, a Timi Kara. I whakahē ia ki ngā tūtohu a ōna hoa me te tuhi, ‘Kāore he whenua Māori i te Ika-a-Māui nei kāore anō kia pāngia e ngā ringa o te Tari Māori. Kei ēnei wāhi katoa ka rangona ngā amuamu mō ngā mahi tinihanga a te kāwanatanga, ā, ko te Māori anō te papa.’3

Te whakakore i te Tari Māori

I te tekau tau 1880 ka hoki te kāwanatanga ki tana ture ‘kotahi iwi’, ā, ka parea anō ngā whakaritenga tiaki i te Māori ki tahaki. Kotahi anake te mahi a te tari i whakawhānuitia, arā, te hoko whenua Māori. Nō te tau 1892 ka turakina rawatia te tari, ā, ka riro ōna kawenga mā te Tari Ture me te Kōti Whenua Māori e kawe. He hōtaka nunui mō te Māori i te tari hauora, me te tari mātauranga.

Ngā kaunihera Māori

Nā te Ture Kaunihera Māori 1900 ka waihangatia ngā kaunihera me ngā komiti marae i ngā rohe Māori. Ka mutu i ōrite ō rātou mana ki ērā o ngā kaunihera ā-rohe. I tētahi hui ki te pōwhiri i te Tiuka o Cornwall me tana hoa rangatira i te tau 1901, e 6,000 ngā Māori i noho ki tētahi pā ki te tūtanga whenua tonu o te kaunihera Māori. Puta noa i te rua wiki o tā rātou noho, kore rawa he tangata kotahi i pāngia e te mate, i poroheahea, i porohaurangi rānei. Heoi nā te kore whai huruhuru o ngā kaunihera Māori mai i te kāwanatanga ka ngoikore ōna whakahaere.

Ngā uaua o te taha Māori

Nā te mema pāremata o Waitaha nā William Rolleston i whakahē mārika ki te whakataunga o te tau 1892, arā, kia whakakorea te Tari Māori. Ko tāna meatanga tēnei i te Paremata, ‘E kīia ana kua oti katoa ngā raru mō te Māori, ā, kāore he take mō tētahi tari motuhake…Engari ka whakatau au i konei kātahi nei ka tīmata ngā raru a te Māori – he raru mā te atamai me ngā pukenga hōhonu anake hei kaupare. Ākuanei pea he pūkenga kāore i tino hiahiatia i mua.’4

Te whakaara anō i te Tari Māori

I te tau 1906 ka hahua ake te Tari Māori e te māngai mō Waiapu (nāwai ka karangatia ko Tūranga), e Timi Kara. I te tekau tau tae mai ki te tau 1922, kotahi miriona ngā eka whenua Māori i hokona, i riro atu rānei i ngā ringa o te iwi Māori nā ētahi huarahi kē atu. Heoi ko te rongoā a Ngata mā he whakakapi i ngā hoko ki ngā kaupapa whakakotahi hea, kaupapa rīhi, whakawhanake hoki.

Nā kōmihana whenua Māori

I te tau 1890 ka ārohitia e te kōmihana a te roia o Ākarana, a William Reeves, te pono o ngā hoko whenua. Ka kitea e rātou ko te Kōti Whenua Māori te pūtake o ngā uaua me ngā whakawhiu i pā ki ngā kaipupuri whenua Māori.5 Nā te tūnga o te kōmihana tirotiro i te tau 1920, i ngā hoko ki Te Waipounamu i 1848, ka hua ētahi kāpeneheihana. I whakatūria anō te kōmihana ki Taranaki me Waikato, ā, ka kitea he tūkino ngā raupatu whenua ki ērā takiwā, ā, ka tīmata ngā utu kāpeneheihana.

Footnotes
    • Tohutoro G. V. Butterworth and H. R. Young, Maori Affairs. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Iwi Transition Agency; GP Books, 1990, p. 38. Back
    • Tohutoro in Maori Affairs, pp. 41–42. Back
    • Tohutoro in Maori Affairs, p. 52. Back
    • New Zealand Parliamentary Debates 78 (1892), p. 880. Back
    • Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1891, G-1, p. vii. Back

Depression, war and urbanisation, 1930s to 1960s

Te whakawhānui i te Tari Māori

I roto i ngā tau 1930 i te paheketanga ohanga, nā te Minita Take Māori, nā Āpirina Ngata i whakatika ake te Tari Māori kia pakari ake i roto i ngā mahi whakawhanake ohanga. I whakamahia e Ngata ngā pūtea kāwangatanga kia whakawhanake i ngā paraka whenua ā-iwi o ngā rohe tino pōhara. Ka tīmataria he hōtaka nui hei whakatū whare ki ngā paraka whenua kua oti te whakawhanake.

Mahi pai, ngā whakapae mō te mahi kaute

Ko Tā Āpiranga Ngata te Minita Māori mai i ngā tau 1928 ki te 1934. I te wā o te paheketanga ōhanga i waihangatia e ia ngā kaupapa whakatika whenua, whakatipu otaota ki ngā whenua ā-iwi maha. I ētahi wā, he takaware ia me ana kaimahi ki te āta tuhi rekoata mō ngā pūtea kāwana. I te tau 1934 i kitea e te kōmihana kaitirotiro ngā takaware, ka kitea hoki te mahi raweke moni a ētahi o ana kaimahi. Ka whakaae a Ngata ki ngā hapa, kātahi ka rīhaina ia mai i te urupū minita. Ā, e hia tau i pahure kātahi anō ka makere iho ngā hapa mo te mahi raweke moni me te ngoikore o tana tari.

Te kāwanatanga Reipa tuatahi

I te tau 1935 i eke panuku a Reipa hei kāwanatanga, nā ngā pōti tautoko o te hāhi Rātana. E hia tau i ngana ai te rōpū whakapono, te rōpū tōrangapū nei kia whai mana te Māori me te Tiriti o Waitangi. Engari, i whakapono a Reipa ko tōna hōtaka ōhanga kē te mea pai ake mo te Māori. Nā reira i whakawhānuitia ai ngā kaupapa whakawhanake whenua me ngā kaupapa whakatū whare a Ngata, engari i whakaae ki te whakaaro kia horomia (assimilate) te Māori.

Pakanga Tuarua

Ko Paraire Paikea o Ngāti Whātua te kaiwhakahaere o te Rōpū Māori Āwhina i te Pakanga. Ko tā tēnei rōpū he taritari hoia Māori, he rapu tautoko hoki i te wā kāinga, otirā, he mahi ngatahi me te Tari Māori. Tērā pea ko te Rōpū Māori Āwhina i te Pakanga nei te rōpū mana motuhake Māori tuatahi kia whiwhi pūtea kāwana. I te mutunga o te pakanga ka horomia ki roto i te Tari Māori, arā, te tari āwhina i ngā hoia Māori kua hoki mai i te pakanga.

Ko Jock McEwen

Ko Jock McEwen te hēkeretari o ngā take Māori mai i ngā tau 1963 ki te 1975. He Pākehā ia, ā, i a ia e taiohi ana e mahi ana mo te Tari Māori. I te tau 1935 ka tīmata ia ki te ako ki te kōrero i te reo Māori. Ka riro ko McEwen te kaiārahi o te tari i roto i ngā tau tuatahi o te whakaaratanga mai anō o te ahurea Māori. Ko ia tētahi o ngā mema tuatahi o te kapa o Ngāti Pōneke, ā, i ngana hoki ki te āwhina i te hapori Māori ki Pōneke. He kaiako whakairo ia ki te whare herehere o Wī Tako. I tua atu i tērā, he mema ia mō te komiti whakahou i te papakupu o Wiremu.

Te Tari Māori (Māori Affairs Department)

Mai i te tau 1946 ko Peter Fraser te pirimia, te minita Māori hoki. Ka whakatauria ā-turetia e ia te huringa o te ingoa ‘native’ kia ‘Māori’ kē, inā hoki ko te whakaaro Māori he mahi whakaparahako he mahi whakaiti te kupu tahito i utaina ki runga i a rātou. Mai i ngā tau 1948 ki te 1957 ko te kaiārahi o te tari ko Tipi Rōpiha. Ko ia te Māori tuatahi ki te whakakī i te tūnga. Ko ngā pūtea utu raupatu whenua i whakarahia ake, anā, ko ngā kaupapa whakawhanake whenua me ngā kaupapa whakatū whare i whakawhānuitia. Tērā pea ko te kaupapa nui i kitea ko te hūnuku a te Māori ki ngā tāone, kāore i tarea te takahuri. Ko te kaupapa ture o te tari ko te whakamāmā i te noho tāone mō te Māori kia tau ai te noho ki te tāone.

Pūrongo Hunn

E toru ngā momo Māori i tūtohutia e Hunn i tāna pūrongo mō te Tari Māori:

  • ko te tokoiti kāore he here ki te wā kāinga, kāore ō rātou Māoritanga
  • ko te tokomaha kei ngā wā kāinga, kei te ao hurihuri hoki
  • Ko tētahi tokoiti anō kei te noho ki te ao kōhatu’.1

Ko te whakatau o ēnei pūrongo kia hūnuku te Māori ki ngā tāone ki te whai mahi, whai whēako, whai oranga hoki. Ko tōna hua he whakakaha ake i te rerenga o ngāi Māori ki ngā tāone noho ai, mahi ai.

Te Kaunihera Māori

E whā ngā tūāpapa whakahaere ka hua ake i te whakamanatanga o te Ture Toko i te Ora Māori o te tau 1962. Arā, ko ngā komiti, ngā rūnanga, ngā kaunihera me te Kaunihera Māori.

Te whakamāmā i te puritanga whenua a te Māori

Ko te aronga o te Ture Maori Affairs 1953 he whakawhanake i te ōhanga a te Māori mā te tango i te mana whenua o ngā iwi me te huri i ngā tikanga ‘kia takitahi te āhua o ngā kaipupuri e mama ai te kōrerorero atu.’2 I raro i te Whakahounga o te Ture o Ngā Whakahaere Māori i te tau 1967 ka panonitia te ture mō ngā whenua Māori e whā (iti iho) ngā kaipupuri hei whenua Pākehā. Nā runga i te takahuringa o ēnei ture ka ngāwari ake te hoko i ngā whenua Māori e toe ana. Oreore kau ana ngā iwi Māori i ēnei panonitanga, ā, ka ohooho te whakatipuranga hou i pakeke mai i ngā tāone ki ngā take nei, arā te raupatutanga o tōna pūtaketanga mai.

Footnotes

Māori renaissance, 1970s to 2000s

Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te tau 1972 ka kōwhiria te kāwanatanga Reipa ko Matiu Rata o Ngāti Kurī hei minita Māori. Kātahi ka whakarerekētia ngā kawenga o te Tari Māori:

  • kia noho tonu te whenua Māori hei painga mō ōna kaipupuri
  • kia whakatairanga i te hauora, te mātauranga me te oranga ki waenganui i te Māori.

Ko ngā wāhanga o te Ture o Ngā Whakahaerenga Māori i te tau 1967 i kaha whakahētia, ka wetewetekia. Nā konā ka whakakitea ētahi moni ki ngā marae me ngā wāhi hui; ka whakatūria hoki ētahi marae i te tāone. Engari ko te hua nui i puta ko te tīmatanga mai o te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. I whakatūria te taraipiunara hei whakarongo ki ngā kerēme a te Māori e pā ana ki ngā takahitanga i te tiriti me te tūtohu i āna tohutohu ki te kāwanatanga.

Te Kōhanga Reo me Mātua Whāngai

I te tau 1977 ka tū ko Kara Puketapu hei hēkeretari Māori tuarua. I aroha tonu a Puketapu ki ērā e noho ana i ngā tāone, nā runga i ōna mahi ka puta ko ngā kōhanga reo me Mātua Whāngai (mō ngā rangatahi Māori kua taka ki te raruraru. Ka whai wāhanga te whānau katoa ki ngā mahi whakatikatika i a rātou.

Te whawhai kia whai mana

Tae iho ki te tekau tau 1980 ka whakaū te Māori i tōna hiahia kia nui kē atu ōna mana whakahaere ki ngā pūtahi kāwanatanga e whakahaere nei i tō rātou noho. I te tau 1986 ka kī ake te hēkeretari o taua wā a Tāmati Reedy: ‘I roto i te 150 tau e  whakawhitiwhiti ana te Māori me ngā kāwanatanga maha, kore rawa rātou te kāwanatanga i anga atu ki te whakamana i ngā iwi hei whakahaerenga tūturu, hei mana kawe i ngā mahi mō te iwi Māori’.1

Ngā tumu whakarae Māori

Taka mai ki te tau 1980 he maha ngā tūranga teitei o te kāwanatanga e puritia ana e te Māori. I taua tau he Māori te tiamana o te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi (ko Edward Taihākurei Durie); te kaiwhakawā matua o te Kōti Whenua Māori (ko Ben Couch); me te hēkeretari Māori (ko Kara Puketapu).

Te whakahōnore i te Tiriti

Ko te kāwanatanga Reipa te tuatahi o ngā kāwanatanga o Aotearoa kia whakaū ki te kaupapa o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1984. Nāna hoki i whakawhānui ngā mana me ngā rauemi o te taraipiunara, ā, ka whakahautia hoki ngā tari kāwanatanga katoa e rātou kia aronui ki ngā mātāpono o te tiriti. Ka whakawhitia hoki e rātou ētahi o ngā pūtea kāwanatanga mō te Māori ki ētahi whakahaerenga iwi Māori.

Te hanga hou i ngā tari kāwanatanga

Ko te Māori te iwi i tino rongo i te ngaukino i te hokonga atu o ngā rawa ā-motu i te tekau tau 1980. E hia mano tāngata ka pāngia i te katinga o ngā rerewe me ngā ngahere, tae atu ki te hanga houtanga o te Poutāpeta, ā, ko te Māori te papa. E whai hua ai te tino rangatiratanga ki ngā Māori, ka whakahokia ētahi rawa ki ngā iwi hei utu mō ngā whatinga o te tiriti.

‘Hawaiian loans affair’

I te pito o te tau 1986 ka rere ngā tao a Winston Peters ki te Hēkeretari Māori ki a Tākuta Tāmati Reedy, me te whakapae e anga ana tōna tari ki te tango pūtea taurewa mai i ētahi kaiwhakangao o tāwāhi hei whakawhanake i te ōhanga Māori. Kāore anō te pūtea taurewa kia whakamanaia e te minita pūtea. Ahakoa  kāore i tutuki tērā kirimana, nō te rerenga o ngā whakapae ka tō te rā ki te Tari Māori, ā, nō te tau 1992 ka whakakapia e Te Puni Kōkiri.

Te Puni Kōkiri

I te tau 1989 ka whakakapia te tari ki ngā pūtahi e rua – arā, te Iwi Transition Agency me te Tari mō Ngā Whakahaerenga Māori (Ministry of Māori Affairs). I te tau 1992 ka tū a Te Puni Kōkiri hei whakakī i ngā tūranga o ngā pūtahi e rua. Mai i tērā wā e  tohutohu tonu ana a Te Puni Kōkiri i te kāwanatanga me ētahi atu o ōna pūtahi.

Te Tino Rangatiratanga

E mea ana ētahi he mea pai mō te tino rangatiratanga a te Māori te hanga hou a te kāwanatanga i ōna tari. E kī ana te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, ‘kia whai mana ngā Māori ki te whakahaere i ā rātou take, ā rātou rawa, whakahaere hoki me te kore whakahōhā hoki a te kāwanatanga’.2 Heoi kei ētahi e mea ana kua takakinotia anō te Māori i te huri tuarā o te kāwanatanga ki ngā kaupapa Māori.

Te Tūtaki Āputa

I te tau 1999 ka toa a Reipa i ngā kōwhiringa pōti i runga i te rautaki ‘Closing the Gaps i waenganui i te Māori me Tauiwi. Nō te tau 2004 ka hahanitia tēnei rautaki e te Kaiārahi o Nāhinara e Don Brash, nā te mea he kaha rawa te aro ki te iwi kotahi. Nāwai ka aro te rautaki ki te rawakore, ā, kaua ki te Māori anake. Ko tā Te Puni Kōkiri he tautoko tonu i te whanaketanga o te Māori, ā, ko te ‘Māori Potential Approach’ tōna whāinga hei tautoko i te Māori hei whakatipu i ō rātou pūkenga.

Footnotes
    • Tohutoro G. V. Butterworth and H. R. Young, Maori Affairs. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Iwi Transition Agency; GP Books, 1990. Back
    • Waitangi Tribunal, Taranaki report: kaupapa tuatahi (Wai 143). Te Whanganui-a-Tara: GP Publications, 1996, p. 4. Back

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Mark Derby, 'Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-take-maori-nga-kaupapa-kawanatanga-mo-te-maori/print (accessed 17 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Mark Derby, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012