Kōrero: Ngā tāone nui

Whārangi 3. Ngā tāone me te mātauranga

Ngā whakaahua

I te huringa o ngā tāone ririki hei tāone nunui i te rau tau atu i 1800, kua tutea kētia ngā Māori mai i ō rātou whenua papatipu. Hei ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900, he mea rerekē te haere, te noho rānei o te Māori ki ngā tāone nui. I te tau 1900, e 95 ōrau o te iwi Māori e noho ana ki ngā taiwhenua. Ko ngā Māori ka noho ki ngā tāone i taua wā he ‘hāwhe kāhe’ me kī.

Ki Te Ika-a-Māui, he noho ā-hapū te noho a ngā Māori i te taiwhenua. Ki Te Wai Pounamu, noho ai ngā Māori ki ngā kāika kei ngā paenga tata ki ngā tāone. Tae rawa ki te tekau tau 1930, e 90 ōrau o te iwi Māori e noho taiwhenua tonu ana ki waho o ngā tāone. Me kī, ko te whai i te mātauranga me te rapu kāwanatanga anake ngā take haere ai te Māori ki te tāone.

Te mātauranga

Ko ngā kura tāone i haerea e te Māori he kura hāhi, tamatāne mai, tamawāhine mai. He kaupapa nui hoki ngā akoranga hāhi mō ngā taitamatāne Māori. Atu i te paunga o te rau tau 1800, kua tīmata ētahi Māori ki ngā whare wānanga, hāunga te kore āwhina kia takatū rātou ki ngā akomanga.

Ngā kura tamatāne Māori

I tīmata mai a Hato Tīpene hei kura tuatahi ako i ngā kōtiro Māori. Heoi, ka panoni hei kura tamatāne i te tau 1860. I te tīmatanga ka haere ngā tamatāne ki Te Aute kura ai, heoi i te tekau tau 1920, kua tū te kura tuarua o Hato Tīpene. Orua mai, kua amuamu a te poari mātauranga o Ākarana, te Kaunihera Tāone o Ākarana me ngā Pākehā o Parnell kia tukuna te whenua mō tētahi kura tuatahi a te kāwanatanga. I te tau 1931 ka neke a Hato Tīpene ki Bombay. Ka kati te kura i te tau 2000.

I tīmatahia a Hato Pētera e ngā Mill Hill Fathers. Nō te tau 1928, ka tuwhera ōna kuaha, ā, ko tōna ingoa i taua wā, ko St Peter’s Catechist School. E 13 anake āna ākonga. I te tau 1946, ka riro te mana whakahaere i te kura i a Marist Brothers, ka rēhitatia te kura hei kura tuarua. Nō konā ka hurihia te ingoa, ko Hato Pētera.

Ngā kura tamawāhine Māori

Nā te Tiuka o Ioka (whāia, ko Kingi Hōri te Tuarima) te kura o Kūini Wikitōria i whakatuwhera i te tau 1901. Ko tētahi take i whakatūhia te kura ko te whakaako i ngā wāhine Māori atamai kia moe i ngā tāne Māori atamai kei ngā kura tama Māori.

I whakatūria te Kāreti o Te Wai Pounamu ki Tuahiwi ki te rohe o Waitaha, nō muri ka nekehia ki Ōtautahi. Koinei anake te kura Māori mō ngā kōtiro ki Te Wai Pounamu.

Ngā Māori i ngā whare wānanga

Haere ai ngā ngaio Māori tōmua ki ngā tāone ki te whai i te mātauranga. Ko Te Rangi Hīroa rāua ko Tūtere Wī Repa i ako hei rata ki te whare wānanga o Ōtākou; ko Āpirana Ngata te rōia Māori tuatahi, i whakapōtaehia ki te whare wānanga o Waitaha i te tau 1895. I whakangungu a Edward Ellison hei tākuta ki Ōtākou i ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900. Ko tōna tuakana ko Tom Ellison ka tū hei rōia.

Te whakapono me ngā hāhi

I whakangungua ngā Māori hei āpiha o ngā hāhi ki ngā tāone. Ko ētahi kura nui mō te whakapono ko St John’s College me Wesley College, kei Tāmaki. I tuwhera te kura o Wesley i te tau 1848 hei ako i ngā tikanga Karaitiana ki te Māori. I te wā o ngā pakanga whenua ka katia te kura; nō te tau 1876 ka tuwhera anō.

Ngā tapuhi Māori

Ka hau atu hoki ngā wāhine Māori ki ngā tāone ako ai hei nēhi. Ko Akenehi Hei o Te Whānau-a-Apanui me Te Whakatōhea te wahine tuatahi ka eke hei tapuhi. I kuraina a Mabel Mangakāhia ki Auckland Girls’ Grammar me te kura Kūini Wikitōria, ka whiwhi karahipi ki te ako hei tapuhi. I whakangungua ia ki te hohipera o Ākarana, nō te tau 1923 ka puta tōna ihu.

Te kāwantanga, ngā mema paremata

Nā te tōrangapū me te ture ētahi tāngata Māori i kukume ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Ko te tikanga me noho ngā Māori e mahi ana ki roto Paremata ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. I tua atu, haere ai ngā Māori ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki te tautoko i ngā petihana, ki ngā komiti whiriwhiri take Māori, ki te tautoko, te whakahē rānei i ngā pire Paremata. Tērā ētahi kaitōrangapū Māori i tīmata hei kaiwhakamārama reo ki te Paremata, mā te Tari Māori rānei. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1900, tērā ētahi kaiwhakairo i whai mahi i te Whare Taonga o Aotearoa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Aroha Harris, 'Ngā tāone nui - Ngā tāone me te mātauranga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-taone-nui/page-3 (accessed 23 September 2019)

Story by Aroha Harris, published 11 Mar 2010