Kōrero: Ngā tāone nui

Whārangi 4. Te heke ki ngā taone

Ngā whakaahua

Te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao

I te tekau tau atu i 1930, e 10 ōrau anake o te taupori Māori e noho ana ki ngā tāone. I roto i ngā tau rua tekau, toru tekau, ka kake tērā ki te e 80 ōrau. I hua ake tēnei āhuatanga nā te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. Nā te Ture Manpower i aki i ngā tāne Māori kīhai i tae ki te pakanga kia haere ki ngā tāone nui mahi ai. Ko ngā wāhine Māori ka tonoa ki ngā wheketere kei ngā tāone mahi ai. Ka whakaritea e te Tari Māori ngā āpiha Māori tokoono hei āwhina i ngā wāhine kei waho atu i ō rātou wā kāinga.

Te heke whai muri i te pakanga

Kia tae ki te tau 1945, neke atu i te e 25 ōrau te taupori Māori e noho tāone ana. Heoi, he tokoiti tonu e noho ana ki ngā tāone nunui. Kotahi ōrau o te taupori o Pōneke he Māori. E rua ōrau o te taupori o Tāmaki he Māori.

Whai muri i te pakanga, ka kaha ake te heke a te Māori ki ngā tāone. Tokomaha ngā hōia Māori ka heke ki ngā tāone ki te whakamahi i ngā mōhiotanga i akona i te wā o te pakanga. Ko etahi ka whakangungu hei māhita, ka tūhono ki ērā kīhai i whakangungua hei kaiako i mua i te pakanga. Tae rawa ki te pokapū o te tekau tau 1950, kua kake te taupori noho tāone ki te e 35 ōrau. I te paunga o te tekau tau, neke atu i te haurua o te iwi Māori e noho tāone ana.

Te hūnuku

I te tau 1960, ka tautoko te Tari Māori i tēnei heke, i runga i tā rātou kaupapa whakanoho tāone. Ka ākina ngā whānau Māori kia whakarerea ō rātou kāinga ka haere ki te mahi i ngā tāone.

I roto i te rima tau, e 399 ngā whānau i nekehia e te tari. Waihoki, nā rātou i āwhina ngā whānau e 485 ki te neke. Tae rawa ki te tau 1966, kua kake te taupori Māori kei ngā tāone ki te e 62 ōrau, i te tau 1990, ki te e 80 ōrau.

Ngā whare Māori

He uaua te rapu whare a te Māori ki ngā tāone. Ka tū ngā momo whare noho ki ngā tāone mō te hunga rangatahi whai mahi. I te tīmatanga, ka noho ngā Māori ki te pokapū taone, he tata hoki ki ngā wāhi mahi – arā ngā wāpu, ngā wheketere, me ngā ahumahi nui.

Ka mahi tahi Te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora me te Tari Māori ki te kimi whare tika mō ngā whānau Māori. Ko te kaupapa a te kāwanatanga he whakanoho i te whānau Māori ki roto i te mātotoro o tauiwi.

Nā te horo o te heke ki ngā tāone, ka tīmata te whakatū I ngā whare maha. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1960, ka whakatūhia ngā tapa tāone o Otara, o Māngere, o Te Atatū ki Ākarana, ko Porirua, ko Te Awakairangi, ko Wainuiōmata ki te Whanganui-a-Tara.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Aroha Harris, 'Ngā tāone nui - Te heke ki ngā taone', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-taone-nui/page-4 (accessed 18 September 2019)

Story by Aroha Harris, published 11 Mar 2010